Jarosław

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For other uses, see Jarosław (disambiguation).
Jarosław
Town Hall and market square
Town Hall and market square
Coat of arms of Jarosław
Coat of arms
Jarosław is located in Poland
Jarosław
Jarosław
Coordinates: 50°1′7″N 22°40′47″E / 50.01861°N 22.67972°E / 50.01861; 22.67972
Country  Poland
Voivodeship POL województwo podkarpackie flag.svg Subcarpathian
County Jarosław County
Gmina Jarosław (urban gmina)
Government
 • Mayor Andrzej Wyczawski
Area
 • Total 34.46 km2 (13.31 sq mi)
Population (2006)
 • Total 40,549
 • Density 1,200/km2 (3,000/sq mi)
Time zone CET (UTC+1)
 • Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)
Postal code 37-500
Car plates RJA
Website http://www.jaroslaw.pl
Dominican church

Jarosław [jaˈrɔswaf] (Ukrainian: Ярослав pronounced [jarosˈlaw], Yiddish: יאַרעסלאָוו Yareslov, German: Jaroslau) is a town in south-eastern Poland, with 40,167 inhabitants, as of 2 June 2009.[1] Situated in the Subcarpathian Voivodeship (since 1999), previously in Przemyśl Voivodeship (1975–1998). It is the capital of Jarosław County.

History[edit]

Greek Catholic church
St. Nicholas church and Benedictine abbey

The city was established by the Ruthenian prince Yaroslav the Wise in the 11th century (1031). It was granted Magdeburg rights by Polish prince Władysław Opolczyk in 1375.

The city quickly developed as important trade centre and a port on the San river, reaching the period of its greatest prosperity in 16th and 17th century, with trade routes linking Silesia with Ruthenia and Gdańsk with Hungary coming through it and merchants from such distant countries as Spain, England, Finland, Armenia and Persia arriving at the annual three week long fair on the feast of the Assumption. In 1574 a Jesuit college was established in Jarosław.

In the 1590s Tatars from the Ottoman Empire pillaged the surrounding countryside. (See Moldavian Magnate Wars, The Magnate Wars (1593–1617), Causes.) They were unable to overcome the city's fortifications, but their raids started to diminish the city's economic strength and importance. Outbreaks of bubonic plague in the 1620s and the Swedish The Deluge in 1655-60 further undermined its prominence. In the Great Northern War of 1700-21 the region was repeatedly pillaged by Russian, Saxon and Swedish armies, causing the city to decline further.

In the mid-eighteenth century, Roman Catholics constituted 53,7% of the population, members of the Greek Catholic Church 23,9%, and Jews 22,3%.[2]

Jarosław was under Austrian rule from the First Partition of Poland in 1772 until Poland regained independence in 1918. After the Second World War the city remained part of Poland. Poland's communist government expelled most of Jarosław's Ukrainian population, at first to Soviet territories and later to territories transferred from Germany to Poland in 1944-45.

Jewish Jarosław[edit]

The first Jews reportedly arrived in Jarosław in 1464.

The first rabbi of Jarosław was Rabbi Nathan Neta Ashkenazi, in 1590. A year later, the new Council of Four Lands (Vaad Arba Aratzot) began convening in Jarosław, rotating the meeting with the city of Lvov.

Until 1608 with a small Jewish community, religious facilities were not allowed. Still, Rabbi Solomon Efraim of Lontschitz (the author of "Kli Yakar"), a prominent and well known rabbi, lived here. By 1670 there was a large "government" synagogue created, although protested by the Christian community of the city. During attacks on the city by Tatars and Swedes, Jewish merchandise and sometimes homes were set on fire. In 1765, there were 1,884 Jews in the city and towns around it. A Jewish school was established sometime later. The famous rabbi Levi Isaac of Berditchev studied in Jarosław circa 1760 and was called "the genius of Yeruslav". A fire in 1805 burnt down the old synagogue and a new one was established more according to tradition to replace it. The new synagogue was completed in 1811. A census taken in 1901 notes that Jews were 25% of the population: 5701 Jewish families.

In a story about Jacob Kranc told by Rabbi Jacob Orenstein around 1850, about the appointment of the Jarosław rabbi[3]

In 1921 the last rabbi was appointed, Rabbi Shmaiya HaLevi Steinberg. He wrote a book about the Jews of his town, and in the 1930s sent two copies to the National Hebrew Library in Jerusalem. These copies are the only surviving copies of the book after the Holocaust.

In September 1939, Jarosław was captured by Germany with no battle. Most of the Jews crossed the Sahn river to the Soviet side and hid in the Ural mountains, including the elder rabbi and his family. Those that stayed were shot and killed by the German soldiers.

The first transport to Auschwitz coincided with 19 (non Jewish) Poles from Jarosław.

Sights[edit]

House of Orsetties family
Town hall
  • Old town
    • Market square
  • Remaining city fortifications
  • Corpus Cristi collegiate church
  • Greek Catholic Transfiguration church
  • Benedictines abbey
    • Sts. Nicolaus and Stanislaus the Bishop church, sacral art and fortifications
  • Dominican monastery
    • Basilica of Our Lady of Sorrows
  • Underground tunnel system

People[edit]

Twin towns - sister cities[edit]

Jarosław is twinned with:[4]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Population. Size and structure by territorial division". © 1995-2009 Central Statistical Office 00-925 Warsaw, Al. Niepodległości 208. 2009-06-02. Retrieved 2009-06-22. 
  2. ^ J. Motylkiewicz. "Ethnic Communities in the Towns of the Polish-Ukrainian Borderland in the Sixteenth, Seventeenth, and Eighteenth Centuries". C. M. Hann, P. R. Magocsi ed. Galicia: A Multicultured Land. University of Toronto Press. 2005. p. 37.
  3. ^ Rabbi Orenstein had refused the appointment of Rabbi of Jarosław because it would be against his old uncle's appointment. The city council had already written his appointment and wished to express their sorrow for its cancellation. The Dubner Magid had just entered the city on a snowy winter day, and was taken directly to Orenstein's house, together with the city council, who happened to pass by him. But the walk up the steps was sufficient enough to create a moving speech, remembered years later, and accounted for in the book.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i "Jarosław Official website - Partner Cities". Flag of Poland.svg(in Polish) © 2008 Urząd Miasta Jarosław. Ul. Rynek 1, 37-500 Jarosław. Retrieved 2008-10-23. 

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 50°01′N 22°40′E / 50.017°N 22.667°E / 50.017; 22.667