|Gmina||Jasło (urban gmina)|
|• Mayor||Andrzej Czernecki|
|• Total||36.65 km2 (14.15 sq mi)|
|Highest elevation||380 m (1,250 ft)|
|Lowest elevation||225 m (738 ft)|
|• Density||1,000/km2 (2,700/sq mi)|
|Time zone||CET (UTC+1)|
|• Summer (DST)||CEST (UTC+2)|
|Postal code||38-200 to 38-211|
|Area code(s)||+48 13|
Jasło [ˈjaswɔ] ( ) is a county town in south-eastern Poland with 37,343 inhabitants, as of 2 June 2009. It is situated in the Subcarpathian Voivodeship (since 1999); previously it was in Krosno Voivodeship (1975–1998). It is located in Lesser Poland, in the heartland of the Doły (Pits), and its average altitude is 320 metres above sea level, although there are some hills located within the confines of the city. The Patron Saint of Jasło is Saint Anthony of Padua.
In the early days of Polish statehood, Jasło was part of the Castellany of Biecz, out of which Biecz County emerged in the 14th century. The area of the future town belonged to a Cisterian Abbey from Koprzywnica, and by the mid 13th century, Jasło, known then as Jasiel or Jasiol, had a fair of local importance. Together with a number of other locations in Lesser Poland, the village was granted Magdeburg rights by King Kazimierz Wielki, on April 23, 1366. In 1368 the king made a transaction with the Cisterian monks - in exchange for the town of Frysztak, and the villages of Glinik and Kobyle, Jasło became a royal town. It had already had a parish church, founded before 1325 by King Władysław Łokietek. The parish had a school, and in the mid-14th century, Carmelite brothers came to the town.
Polish Golden Age was the period of prosperity for both Lesser Poland and Jasło, which belonged to Kraków Voivodeship. The town grew, but it never became an important urban location of this part of the country. It had a number of artisans, several fairs and markets. Local merchants traded with both Polish and foreign merchants, mostly from the Kingdom of Hungary, taking advantage of the vicinity of the border. Good times ended in the 1650s. In 1655, the town was captured and destroyed by the Swedes (see the Deluge), in 1657 - by the Transilvanians of George II Rakoczi, and in the first years of the 18th century - again by Swedish troops of King Charles XII of Sweden (see Great Northern War). The town was destroyed once again by the Russians during the Bar Confederation.
In 1772, after the first partition of Poland (see Partitions of Poland), Jasło was annexed by the Austrian Empire, as part of Galicia. In 1790, the town became the seat of a district, which had been moved here from Dukla. Several Austrian-German civil servants came here, and office buildings, with a new town hall, courthouse, prison and schools were built. In 1826 several houses in the market square burned, which resulted in construction boom, and in early 1846, farmers from villages around Jasło took part in the Galician peasant revolt. In 1858, Ignacy Łukasiewicz, a world-renowned inventor, moved to Jasło. Due to his pioneering work, an oil well was constructed in Niegłowice near Jasło (1889-1890). At approximately same time, a rail line from Stróże to Zagórz was constructed (1872-1884), with additional connection from Jasło to Rzeszów opened in 1890. In the early 20th century, the population of Jasło was 10,000. The town was well-kept and clean, a power plant was built in 1897, then a municipal park was opened, and in September 1900, Jasło was visited by Emperor Franz Josef. Several World War I battles took place in the area of Jasło, but the town itself was not destroyed. In May 1915, in the Gorlice–Tarnów Offensive, Russian forces were pushed back by the Germans, who entered Jasło on May 6, 1915, at 22:30.
In the Second Polish Republic, Jasło was the seat of a county in Kraków Voivodeship. For most part of the interbellum period, unemployment and poverty were prevalent, and the situation began slowly to improve in the late 1930s, after creation of the Central Industrial Region. In 1937, Gamrat chemical plant was opened, but all efforts were destroyed in the Invasion of Poland, September 1939. Jasło belonged to the General Government, and was an important center of the Polish resistance movement. In the night of August 5/6, 1943, the Kedyw carried out a successful attack on the local prison. In September and October 1944, after the Soviet - German frontline was established, and remained unchanged for several months, the Germans began expulsion of all inhabitants of Jasło, as the town was located on the front line. In the late autumn of 1944, Wehrmacht units burned whole town, and as a result, 97% of Jasło was destroyed. In January 1945, only 365 people dwelled among the ruins of the town.
The name derives from Old Polish common word for the "manger" or "trough [trof]" which sounded "jasło" < *jesło (before the Lechitic umlaut). Plausibly, it comes from the Slavonic verb "to eat" - "jeść" < *jesti. The Modern Polish equivalent is "żłób" or more seldom "koryto" and the word "jasło" is forgotten in this meaning. The Germanized version was Jassel or Jessel which appeared in 1325.
Jasło is an important railroad junction of southeastern Poland, with trains going into three directions - eastwards (to Zagorz), westwards (to Stróże) and northeast, to Rzeszów. Another line, along the Wisłoka to Dębica, was planned in the interebellum period. Construction on it began in 1938, but it was never completed because of World War II.
Jasło is home to a sports club Czarni Jasło, founded in 1910.
Churches of Jasło
Jasło has a population that includes Roman Catholics, Greek Catholics, non-Catholics [presumably Protestants], and a small Jewish population. However, it is mainly Roman Catholic, and contains 9 Catholic Churches.
- Św. Antoniego Padewskiego
- Chrystusa Króla
- Dobrego Pasterza
- Matki Bożej Królowej Świata
- Miłosierdzia Bożego
- Najświętszego Serca Pana Jezusa
- Świętego Stanisława
- Wniebowzięcia Najświętszej Marii Panny
- Matki Bożej Częstochowskiej
Born in the area:
- Henryk Dobrzański
- Ignacy Kruszewski
- Hugo Steinhaus
- Cezary Geroń
- Karol Irzykowski
- Paweł Zagumny
- Piotr Feliks
- Cecilia Krieger
- Jerzy Żuławski
- Elżbieta Łukacijewska
- Janusz Kołodziej
- Damian Seczak
- Michał Szpak
- Sławomir Peszko
- Ignacy Łukasiewicz
- Zyndram of Maszkowice
- Adam Tarło
- Jan Tarło (1684–1750)
- Piotr Jaroszewicz
- Tadeusz Klimecki (November 23, 1895 - July 4, 1943, Gibraltar), Chief of Polish General Staff, attended the local gymnasium.
Twin towns — Sister cities
- "Central Statistical Office(GUS) - TERYT(National Register of Territorial Land Apportionment Journal)". (in Polish). 01.09.2008. Retrieved 2008-10-23.
- "Jasło Official Website". (in Polish) © 2008 Urząd Miasta w Jaśle. Retrieved 2008-10-23.
- "Population. Size and structure by territorial division". © 1995-2009 Central Statistical Office 00-925 Warsaw, Al. Niepodległości 208. 2009-06-02. Retrieved 2009-06-22.
- prof. Maria Malec. Słownik nazw geograficznych Polski. 2003. WN PWN. 2007. ISBN 83-01-13857-2
- "Jasło Official Website - "Współpraca Międzynarodowa Jasła" (Jasło's Twin Towns)". (in Polish) © 2008 Urząd Miasta w Jaśle. Retrieved 2009-10-22.
- "Prague Partner Cities" (in Czech). © 2009 Magistrát hl. m. Prahy. Retrieved 2009-07-02.
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