Jassim bin Mohammed Al Thani
|Jassim bin Mohammed Al Thani
جاسم بن محمد آل ثاني
|Emir of Qatar|
|Coronation||mid 19th Century|
|Predecessor||Mohammed bin Thani (father)|
|Successor||Mohammed bin Jassim Al Thani (son)|
|Father||Mohammed bin Thani|
|Died||17 July 1913
Lusail, Umm Salal
|Monarchical styles of
The Emir of Qatar
|Reference style||His Highness|
|Spoken style||Your Highness|
Jassim bin Mohammed Al Thani (born c. 1825 – 17 July 1913) (Arabic: جاسم بن محمد آل ثاني "Jassim bin Mohammed Al Thani"), also known as Kasim-ebn-Thanee, Qassim bin Mohammed Al-Thani or "The Founder", was the founder of modern Qatar. Although his wife is still unknown, he had a total of 19 children who were all male.
Early life and Governance
Although the exact date of his birth is unknown, Jassim bin Mohammed Al Thani was born around 1825. Raised in Fuwairat, Qatar, Jassim descended from the Tamim tribe, as he was the eldest son of Mohammed bin Thani. He acquired full capability in the management of the country's affairs during his youth and guided its policies and steered the country during a period that witnessed major events and changes. Jassim, as a result of engaging in politics while serving as deputy to his father, acquired political experience. He later moved to Al Bidda with his father when he was around twenty-one years old, where he emerged among his mates as a young leader, which he later illustrated as he fended off Qatar's invaders.
At the local level, he sought to turn Qatar into a single unified and independent entity. Under his leadership, Qatar emerged as a coherent and stable country whose tribes he assembled to usher its future and thus consolidating its existence and borders. He adopted policies dealing with the two major powers competing to dominate the Persian Gulf and its territories, namely the British Empire, which had started to extend its influence through the Government of India, and the Ottoman Empire, which was seeking to retain its control of the region following the demise of the Portuguese influence in the 16th century.
Jassim bin Mohammed Al Thani was imprisoned by the ruler of Bahrain, Faisal bin Turki, in 1867 when Jassim travelled to Bahrain to discuss the capture of an alleged trespassing Qatari bedouin. His demand for the bedouin's return provoked Bahrain, which was backed by Abu Dhabi, to launch attacks on major Qatari cities, causing significant damage. In retaliation, Qatar attacked Bahrain in 1868, resulting in the deaths of a thousand men and the sinking of sixty ships. Jassim was later released in return for captured Bahrainis.
Conflicts with the Ottoman Empire
- In April 1871, the expedition sent by Midhat Pasha, the Ottoman governor of Baghdad, to Eastern Arabia arrived.
- The British influence was concentrated in areas adjacent to Qatar. Jassim concluded that a balance had to be struck corresponding to such influence.
- Sheikh Jassim then asked the Ottoman administration in Ahsaa to consolidate its presence, which materialised in December 1871. The Ottomans used the Al Bidda Fortress as headquarters of their military garrison.
- 18 December 1878 was the turning point when Sheikh Jassim took power. It was also the inception of the modern State of Qatar, achieved as a result of Sheikh Jassim's assiduous efforts that led to gaining full recognition by both powers of Qatar's independence.
- Sheikh Jassim adamantly opposed the Ottoman Empire's attempts to increase its influence in Qatar through appointing administrative personnel in Zubarah, Doha, Al Wakrah and Khawr al Udayd, establishing a customs office and reinforcing the Ottoman garrison. In addition, the Ottoman Empire took several important Qatari politicians and people, one of whom is Sheikh Jassim's younger brother, Sheikh Ahmad bin Mohammed Al Thani. As a result, a military confrontation followed and a crucial battle broke out between the Qataris, led by Sheikh Jassim and the Ottoman soldiers. He and his troops, composed of Qatari tribes, fought bravely, inflicted defeat on the Ottoman troops and achieved victory. The victory was decisive, leaving the Turks no choice but to free Ahmad bin Muhammad in exchange of Sheikh Jassim permitting the captured Turkish cavalry free passage by land to Hofuf, Saudi Arabia.
- A more notable battle between Jassim and the Ottoman Empire was the famous Al Wajbah Battle. The site of the confrontation on 25 March 1893 was 15 kilometres west of Doha. The battle was a turning point in Qatar's history, making it one of the most important and major battles of Qatar's strive for independence and freedom against oppression and tyranny. The fort that Sheikh Jassim used to fend off the Ottoman soldiers in the battle of Al Wajbah was the Al Wajbah Fort, found in the municipality of Al Rayyan, thus the name.
- The British attempted to intervene in the dispute between the Turkish soldiers and the Qatari tribes but found themselves unable to take up Jassim's offer to place Qatar under British protection. The Turks made their peace with Sheikh Jassim though he moved to live peacefully at Lusail, leaving the running of the country to his brother, Sheikh Ahmed bin Muhammed Al Thani. Regrettably, at the end of 1905, Sheikh Ahmad was murdered by one of his fellow soldiers from the Bani Hajir tribe, the murderer being killed in the latter part in Dammam. Sheikh Jassim again took over the running of Qatar. He then appointed his son, Sheikh Mohammed bin Jassim Al Thani, as his Heir Apparent, ruling Qatar for only one year.
He had a total of 19 children. For more information about his sons, see the table below.
|No.||Name||Position||Year of Birth||Year of Death|
|1||Fahad bin Jassim Al Thani I||None||Unknown||Died when he was young|
|2||Khalifa bin Jassim Al Thani||None||1851||1931|
|3||Thani bin Jassim Al Thani||Sheikh of Al Gharafa||1856||1943|
|4||Abdulrahman bin Jassim Al Thani||Sheikh of Al Wakra||1871||1930|
|5||Abdullah bin Jassim Al Thani||Former Sheikh of Al Rayyan, Ruler of Qatar (1914–1940, 1948–1949)||1880||1957|
|6||Ali bin Jassim Al Thani I||None||Unknown||Died when he was young|
|7||Mohammed bin Jassim Al Thani||Sheikh of Umm Salal Mohammed, Ruler of Qatar (1913–1914)||1881||1971|
|8||Ghanim bin Jassim Al Thani||Unknown||Unknown||Unknown|
|9||Ali bin Jassim Al Thani II||Sheikh of Umm Salal Ali||1893||1972|
|10||Fahad bin Jassim Al Thani II||None||Unknown||Died when he was young|
|11||Fahad bin Jassim Al Thani III||Sheikh of Al Khiesa, Lusail, Rumeilah and Adba||1895||c. 1980|
|12||Abdulaziz bin Jassim Al Thani||Sheikh of Al Markhiya||1896||1985|
|13||Salman bin Jassim Al Thani||None||Unknown||Died while he was born|
|14||Idris bin Jassim Al Thani||None||Unknown||Died while he was born|
|15||Mubarak bin Jassim Al Thani||None||Unknown||Died while he was born|
|16||Salman bin Jassim Al Thani II||Sheikh of Dukhan||1899||1984|
|17||Nasser bin Jassim Al Thani||Sheikh of Nasiriya||Unknown||1978|
|18||Sultan bin Jassim Al Thani||Sheikh of Umm Al Amad||Unknown||1976|
|19||Ahmed bin Jassim Al Thani||Sheikh of Al Khor||Unknown||1995|
- "Qatar National Day: Our History". ndqatar.com. Retrieved 5 August 2012.
- "Shaikh Jassim Bin Mohammed Al Thani :: Amiri Diwan". Diwan.gov.qa. Retrieved 17 November 2012.
- "Background to Qatar in the Gulf". catnaps.org. Retrieved 5 August 2012.
- Buyers, Christopher. "The Al Thani Dynasty". Royalark.net. Retrieved 30 October 2012.
- Al Thani Tree
- Official Biography
- Qatar National Day: Our History
- Royal Ark: The Al Thani Dynasty
- Catnaps – Background of Qatar in the Gulf
Jassim bin Mohammed Al ThaniBorn: 1825 Died: 17 July 1913
Mohammed bin Thani
|Emir of Qatar
Abdullah bin Jassim Al Thani