Jassim bin Mohammed Al Thani

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Jassim bin Mohammed Al Thani
جاسم بن محمد آل ثاني
Emir of Qatar
Reign mid-1800s–1913
Coronation mid 19th Century
Born c. 1825
Birthplace Doha, Qatar
Died 17 July 1913
Place of death Lusail, Umm Salal
Predecessor Mohammed bin Thani (father)
Successor Mohammed bin Jassim Al Thani (son)
Royal house Al Thani
Father Mohammed bin Thani
Religious beliefs Sunni Islam
Monarchical styles of
The Emir of Qatar
Emblem of Qatar.svg
Reference style His Highness
Spoken style Your Highness
Alternative style Sheikh

Jassim bin Mohammed Al Thani (born c. 1825 – 17 July 1913) (Arabic: جاسم بن محمد آل ثاني‎ "Jassim bin Mohammed Al Thani"), also known as Kasim-ebn-Thanee, Qassim bin Mohammed Al-Thani or "The Founder",[1] was the founder of modern Qatar.[2] Although his wife is still unknown, he had a total of 19 children who were all male.[3][4]

Biography[edit]

Early life and Governance[edit]

Although the exact date of his birth is unknown, Jassim bin Mohammed Al Thani was born around 1825.[2][4] Raised in Fuwairat, Qatar,[1] Jassim descended from the Tamim tribe, as he was the eldest son of Mohammed bin Thani. He acquired full capability in the management of the country's affairs during his youth and guided its policies and steered the country during a period that witnessed major events and changes. Jassim, as a result of engaging in politics while serving as deputy to his father, acquired political experience. He later moved to Al Bidda with his father when he was around twenty-one years old, where he emerged among his mates as a young leader, which he later illustrated as he fended off Qatar's invaders.[1][2]

At the local level, he sought to turn Qatar into a single unified and independent entity. Under his leadership, Qatar emerged as a coherent and stable country whose tribes he assembled to usher its future and thus consolidating its existence and borders. He adopted policies dealing with the two major powers competing to dominate the Persian Gulf and its territories, namely the British Empire, which had started to extend its influence through the Government of India, and the Ottoman Empire, which was seeking to retain its control of the region following the demise of the Portuguese influence in the 16th century.[1]

Imprisonment[edit]

Jassim bin Mohammed Al Thani was imprisoned by the ruler of Bahrain, Faisal bin Turki, in 1867 when Jassim travelled to Bahrain to discuss the capture of an alleged trespassing Qatari bedouin. His demand for the bedouin's return provoked Bahrain, which was backed by Abu Dhabi, to launch attacks on major Qatari cities, causing significant damage. In retaliation, Qatar attacked Bahrain in 1868, resulting in the deaths of a thousand men and the sinking of sixty ships. Jassim was later released in return for captured Bahrainis.[3]

Conflicts with the Ottoman Empire[edit]

  • The British influence was concentrated in areas adjacent to Qatar. Jassim concluded that a balance had to be struck corresponding to such influence.[citation needed]
  • Sheikh Jassim then asked the Ottoman administration in Ahsaa to consolidate its presence, which materialised in December 1871. The Ottomans used the Al Bidda Fortress as headquarters of their military garrison.
  • 18 December 1878 was the turning point when Sheikh Jassim took power. It was also the inception of the modern State of Qatar, achieved as a result of Sheikh Jassim's assiduous efforts that led to gaining full recognition by both powers of Qatar's independence.[1][2]
    • Sheikh Jassim adamantly opposed the Ottoman Empire's attempts to increase its influence in Qatar through appointing administrative personnel in Zubarah, Doha, Al Wakrah and Khawr al Udayd, establishing a customs office and reinforcing the Ottoman garrison. In addition, the Ottoman Empire took several important Qatari politicians and people, one of whom is Sheikh Jassim's younger brother, Sheikh Ahmad bin Mohammed Al Thani. As a result, a military confrontation followed and a crucial battle broke out between the Qataris, led by Sheikh Jassim and the Ottoman soldiers. He and his troops, composed of Qatari tribes, fought bravely, inflicted defeat on the Ottoman troops and achieved victory. The victory was decisive, leaving the Turks no choice but to free Ahmad bin Muhammad in exchange of Sheikh Jassim permitting the captured Turkish cavalry free passage by land to Hofuf, Saudi Arabia.[1][2][3]
  • A more notable battle between Jassim and the Ottoman Empire was the famous Al Wajbah Battle. The site of the confrontation on 25 March 1893 was 15 kilometres west of Doha. The battle was a turning point in Qatar's history, making it one of the most important and major battles of Qatar's strive for independence and freedom against oppression and tyranny. The fort that Sheikh Jassim used to fend off the Ottoman soldiers in the battle of Al Wajbah was the Al Wajbah Fort, found in the municipality of Al Rayyan, thus the name.[2][3]
    • The British attempted to intervene in the dispute between the Turkish soldiers and the Qatari tribes but found themselves unable to take up Jassim's offer to place Qatar under British protection. The Turks made their peace with Sheikh Jassim though he moved to live peacefully at Lusail, leaving the running of the country to his brother, Sheikh Ahmed bin Muhammed Al Thani. Regrettably, at the end of 1905, Sheikh Ahmad was murdered by one of his fellow soldiers from the Bani Hajir tribe, the murderer being killed in the latter part in Dammam. Sheikh Jassim again took over the running of Qatar. He then appointed his son, Sheikh Mohammed bin Jassim Al Thani, as his Heir Apparent, ruling Qatar for only one year.[3]

Death[edit]

He died on the afternoon of 17 July 1913 and was buried in Lusail, a village located 24 km north of Doha, which is found in the municipality of Umm Salal.[1][2]

Children[edit]

He had a total of 19 children.[4] For more information about his sons, see the table below.

No. Name Position Year of Birth Year of Death
1 Fahad bin Jassim Al Thani I None Unknown Died when he was young
2 Khalifa bin Jassim Al Thani None 1851 1931
3 Thani bin Jassim Al Thani Sheikh of Al Gharafa 1856 1943
4 Abdulrahman bin Jassim Al Thani Sheikh of Al Wakra 1871 1930
5 Abdullah bin Jassim Al Thani Former Sheikh of Al Rayyan, Ruler of Qatar (1914–1940, 1948–1949) 1880 1957
6 Ali bin Jassim Al Thani I None Unknown Died when he was young
7 Mohammed bin Jassim Al Thani Sheikh of Umm Salal Mohammed, Ruler of Qatar (1913–1914) 1881 1971
8 Ghanim bin Jassim Al Thani Unknown Unknown Unknown
9 Ali bin Jassim Al Thani II Sheikh of Umm Salal Ali 1893 1972
10 Fahad bin Jassim Al Thani II None Unknown Died when he was young
11 Fahad bin Jassim Al Thani III Sheikh of Al Khiesa, Lusail, Rumeilah and Adba 1895 c. 1980
12 Abdulaziz bin Jassim Al Thani Sheikh of Al Markhiya 1896 1985
13 Salman bin Jassim Al Thani None Unknown Died while he was born
14 Idris bin Jassim Al Thani None Unknown Died while he was born
15 Mubarak bin Jassim Al Thani None Unknown Died while he was born
16 Salman bin Jassim Al Thani II Sheikh of Dukhan 1899 1984
17 Nasser bin Jassim Al Thani Sheikh of Nasiriya Unknown 1978
18 Sultan bin Jassim Al Thani Sheikh of Umm Al Amad Unknown 1976
19 Ahmed bin Jassim Al Thani Sheikh of Al Khor Unknown 1995

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h "Qatar National Day: Our History". ndqatar.com. Retrieved 5 August 2012. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g "Shaikh Jassim Bin Mohammed Al Thani :: Amiri Diwan". Diwan.gov.qa. Retrieved 17 November 2012. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f "Background to Qatar in the Gulf". catnaps.org. Retrieved 5 August 2012. 
  4. ^ a b c Buyers, Christopher. "The Al Thani Dynasty". Royalark.net. Retrieved 30 October 2012. 
Jassim bin Mohammed Al Thani
Born: 1825 Died: 17 July 1913
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Mohammed bin Thani
Emir of Qatar
1878–1913
Succeeded by
Abdullah bin Jassim Al Thani

Further reading[edit]