Jat states in Rajasthan
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Jat republics in Jangladesh
Jangladesh was the name of a region of northern Rajasthan state in India. It included the present-day districts of Bikaner, Churu, Ganganagar, and Hanumangarh.According to Suraj Mal Memorial Education Society Jats failed to find a desirable place in south Rajasthan and north Gujarat because the regions were already inhabited by tribes like, Gujjars, Bhils, Yadavs, Guhils and Mers. According to independent estimates, Jats are 10.8 percent of the electorate in Rajasthan. During this period Abhiras pushed them in Rajasthan. These districts are predominant districts of the Jat people. It corresponds to the former princely state of Bikaner, which was founded in the 15th century and persisted until shortly after India's Independence in 1947. The principal towns of Jangladesh at present are Bikaner, Churu, Rajgarh, Ratangarh and Reni. There is mention of this province in Bhisma Parva of Mahabharata. At every stage of invasion to India the foreign invaders had to encounter with the Jats of this region. At what period the Jat people established themselves in the Indian desert is not known. By the 4th century they had spread up to Punjab in India.
The north-eastern and north-western Rajasthan, known by the name Jangladesh in ancient times, was inhabited by Jat clans ruled by their own chiefs and largely governed by their own customary law. Whole of the region was possessed by six or seven cantons namely Punia, Godara, Saran, Sihag, Beniwal, Johiya and Kaswan. Besides these cantons there were several clan of Jat people, simultaneously wrested from Rajput proprietors for instance Bagor, Kharipatta, Mohila or Mehila, Bhukar, Bhadu, Chahar. According to History of Bikaner State and by the scholars, the region was occupied by Jat people with their seven territories. It is said about Jat territories that Saat Patti Sattavan Majh (means seven long and fifty-seven small territories). Following are the main clans and their heads with capital and number of villages in each territory.,
Table of Jat republics in Jangladesh:
|S.No.||Name of janapada||Name of King||No. of villages||Capital||Names of districts|
|1.||Sihag||Chokha Singh||150||Suin||Rawatsar, Baramsar, Purabsar Dandusar, Gandaisi|
|2.||Beniwal||Raisal Singh||150||Rasalana||Bhukarka, Sanduri, Manoharpur, Kooi, Bae|
|3.||Johiya||Sher Singh||600||Bhurupal||Jaitpur, Kumanu, Mahajan, Peepasar, Udasar|
|4.||Punia||Kanha Singh||300||Luddi||Bhadra, Ajitpura, Sidhmukh, Rajgarh, Dadrewa, Sankhoo|
|5.||Saharan||Pula Singh||300||Bhadang||Khejra, Phoglo, Buchawas, Sui, Badnu, Sirsila|
|6.||Godara||Pandu Singh||700||Shekhsar||Shekhsar, Pundrasar, Gusainsar (Bada), Gharsisar, Garibdesar, Rungaysar, Kalu|
According to James Tod, during the period of Rathor domination ("intermediate between Timur's and Babur's invasion of India", i.e. sometime between 1398 and 1526) out of total 2670 villages in the Jangladesh, 2200 villages were under the rule of Jat people. Each canton bore the name of the community, and was subdivided into districts. After Chauhans, Jat people completely established their supremacy and hold over administration in their own traditional fashion, which continued till the conquest of the region by Rathores. The Jats claimed their right over the land which was under their possession, before the Rathores occupied it and this claim was inherited by their descendants, who used to divide the land among themselves for cultivation. It appears probable that in the early period of their conquest the Rathores could not exercise any definite claim on the land as landlords. However, it was possible only in the 17th century, due to internal rivalries among Jat people, Godaras surrendered.Later on most of Jat clans in Rajasthan had to accept Rathor's suzerainty in mughal times due to the rathores having made alliance with the mughals.,
Other republics in Jangladesh
- Bhadu - Bhadus were rulers in Jangladesh where they established an important city Bhadra. Samantraj was a popular ruler of Bhadus. Bhadus had a war with 'Bhagore' people and after capturing it they moved to Marwar area. Bhadus also occupied many villages in Ajmer-Merwara.
- Bhati - Jat Bhatis ruled Bhatner, presently Hanumangarh, and Bhatinda. Bhatner was historically important because it was situated on route of invaders from Central Asia to India.
- Bhukar - Bhukars were initially settled at Sambhar in Rajasthan. They were the rulers in this area and their ruling method was that of 'Bhomia-chor'. Gothra Bhukaran was their capital.
- Jakhar - The king of the Jakhar clan, Jakhbhadra, settled in Jangladesh and made his capital at Reni (modern-day Taranagar). At a later date, the Jakhars established a kingdom, the ruins of which are found at Madhauli, which was in the princely state of Jaipur.
- Sangwan - The Sangwan jats ruled at Sarsu in Jangladesh region of Rajasthan in 8th to 10th century.
- Sahu - They have been the rulers of a small republic in Jangladesh. Their capital was at village Dhansia, situated at a distance of 65 km in northwest of Churu town. There were 84 villages in their territory.,
Jat republics in Marwar
Jat republics in Matsya region
- Vijayrania - Mentioned as Varetatae people of Greek language by Megasthenes were rulers in Khandelawati. Vijayranias founded a village called 'Vijarna' in 1078 and constructed a fort at 'Ladhana' in 1178. One chieftain Jagsingh of this clan founded his rule in Palsana of Shekhawati region in year 1255.
Jat republics in southern Rajasthan
- Jatrana - This is an ancient gotra. According to Kautilya they fought against Alexander the Great. According to Alberuni this hilly place called Chittor ( Jattaur) was the capital of the Jatrana clan. They call themselves descendants of Tur.
- Gora - In ancient times ruled in Ajmer-Merwara, Mewar, and Bundi-Sirohi areas in Rajasthan. They are descendants of Pingala Nagavanshi.
- Nagil-This is a ruling clan of nagavanshi jat.Ranthambore was founded by chaudhary Ranpal singh nagil around 830AD.Nagill jat ruled this area for more than 150years and their capital was Ranthambore Jatvas.Nagill constructed a first small fort on a hill as narrated by his clan members.Their kingdom was spread over 150 villages adjoining Ranthambore Jatvas.Raja sajraj veer singh nagil was the most famous and skilful ruler of this clan without any illadvised ambition.
- Ranthambore - It was founded by Ran Mal Jat, by putting a stambh (pillar) at the location of present Ranthambore. He challenged the neighbouring rulers for battle. The area around Ranthambore was ruled by Gora and Nagil jats till two centuries prior to the rule of Prithvi Raj Chauhan.
- Chandlai - A small republic founded by Jat chieftain 'Chandla'. He got constructed a pucca pond near the village in the name of her daughter ‘Bhala’ and put an inscription on it on baisakh sudi 15 samvat 1027 (970 AD). Chandla was ruler of Tonk at that time.,
||Constructs such as ibid., loc. cit. and idem are discouraged by Wikipedia's style guide for footnotes, as they are easily broken. Please improve this article by replacing them with named references (quick guide), or an abbreviated title. (February 2013)|
- Jibraeil: "Position of Jats in Churu Region", The Jats - Vol. II, Ed Dr Vir Singh, Delhi, 2006, p. 223
- The Jats: their role & contribution to the socio-economic life and polity of north & north-west India, Volume 3-page-16
- Bhisma Parva On line
- Thakur Deshraj, Jat Itihas, 1934, p. 616-624
- Jibraeil: "Position of Jats in Churu Region", The Jats - Vol. II, Ed Dr Vir Singh, Delhi, 2006, p. 221-223
- Dashrath Sharma, Rajasthan through the ages, Jodhpur, 1966, Vol.I, p. 287-288
- James Todd, Annals and Antiquities, Vol.II, p. 1126=27
- Ibid., Seventh clan of Jats
- Thakur Deshraj, Jat Itihas, Delhi, 2002, p. 269-285
- G.S.L.Devra, op. cit., Cf. Dayaldas ri Khyat, Part II, p. 7-10
- Jibraeil: "Position of Jats in Churu Region", The Jats - Vol. II, Ed Dr Vir Singh, Delhi, 2006, p. 222
- Dr Brahma Ram Chaudhary: The Jats - Vol. II, Ed Dr Vir Singh, Delhi, 2006, p. 250
- Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan. (1829-1832) James Tod and William Crooke, Reprint: Low Price Publications, Delhi (1990), Vol.II, Appendix. pp. 1126-1127.
- Ibid., p.103
- Ibid, p.203
- G.S.L. Devra, op. cit., 7-8, Cf. Dayaldas ri Khyat, part 2, p. 4-5
- Thakur Deshraj: Jat Itihas (Hindi), Delhi, 1934, p. 597
- Thakur Deshraj: Jat Itihas (Hindi), Delhi, 1934, p. 601
- Thakur Deshraj, Jat Itihas (Hindi), Maharaja Suraj Mal Smarak Shiksha Sansthan, Delhi, 1934, 2nd edition 1992 page 594-95.
- Dr Mahendra Singh Arya, Dharmpal Singh Dudee, Kishan Singh Faujdar & Vijendra Singh Narwar: Ādhunik Jat Itihasa (The modern history of Jats), Agra 1998, p.282
- GSL Devra, op. cit., Cf. Dayaldas ri Khyat, Part II, pp. 7-10
- Dr Mahendra Singh Arya, Dharmpal Singh Dudi, Kishan Singh Faujdar & Vijendra Singh Narwar: Ādhunik Jat Itihasa (The modern history of Jats), Agra 1998, Page 237
- Thakur Deshraj : Jat - Itihas, 1934, p. 593
- Thakur Deshraj: Jat Itihas (Hindi), Maharaja Suraj Mal Smarak Shiksha Sansthan, Delhi, 1934, p.603-604
- Rajasthan Sandesh, Year 1, Vol 2