Jatropha curcas

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Jatropha curcas
Jatropha curcas1 henning.jpg
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Rosids
Order: Malpighiales
Family: Euphorbiaceae[1]
Genus: Jatropha
Species: J. curcas
Binomial name
Jatropha curcas
L.[2]

Jatropha curcas is a species of flowering plant in the spurge family, Euphorbiaceae, that is native to the American tropics, most likely Mexico and Central America.[3] It is cultivated in tropical and subtropical regions around the world, becoming naturalized in some areas. The specific epithet, "curcas", was first used by Portuguese doctor Garcia de Orta more than 400 years ago and is of uncertain origin.[4] Common names include Barbados nut, purging nut, physic nut, or JCL (abbreviation of Jatropha curcas Linnaeus).

J. curcas is a poisonous, semi-evergreen shrub or small tree, reaching a height of 6 m (20 ft).[3] It is resistant to a high degree of aridity, allowing it to be grown in deserts.[5][6]

The seeds contain 27-40% oil[7] (average: 34.4%[8]) that can be processed to produce a high-quality biodiesel fuel, usable in a standard diesel engine. The seeds are also a source of the highly poisonous toxalbumin curcin or jatrophin.[9]

Botanical features[edit]

  • Leaves: The leaves have significant variability in their morphology. In general, the leaves are green to pale green, alternate to subopposite, and three- to five-lobed with a spiral phyllotaxis.[1]
  • Flowers: male and female flowers are produced on the same inflorescence, averaging 20 male flowers to each female flower,[10] or 10 male flowers to each female flower.[11] The petiole length ranges from 0.24 to 0.90 inches (6.1–23.1 mm). The inflorescence can be formed in the leaf axil. Plants are monoecious and also presents hermaphroditic flowers occasionally.[1]
  • Fruits : fruits are produced in winter, or there may be several crops during the year if soil moisture is good and temperatures are sufficiently high. Most fruit production is concentrated from midsummer to late fall with variations in production peaks where some plants have two or three harvests and some produce continuously through the season.[1]
  • Seeds: the seeds are mature when the capsule changes from green to yellow. The seeds contain around 20% saturated fatty acids and 80% unsaturated fatty acids, and they yield 25%–40% oil by weight. In addition, the seeds contain other chemical compounds, such as saccharose, raffinose, stachyose, glucose, fructose, galactose, and protein. The oil is largely made up of oleic and linoleic acids. Furthermore, the plant also contains curcasin, arachidic, linoleic, myristic, oleic, palmitic, and stearic acids and curcin.[1]
  • Genome: the whole genome was sequenced by Kazusa DNA Research Institute, Chiba Japan in October 2010.[12]

Cultivation[edit]

Jatropha curcas seeds

Cultivation is uncomplicated. Jatropha curcas grows in tropical and subtropical regions.[13] The plant can grow in wastelands and grows on almost any terrain, even on gravelly, sandy and saline soils. It can thrive in poor and stony soils, although new research suggests that the plant's ability to adapt to these poor soils is not as extensive as had been previously stated. Complete germination is achieved within 9 days. Adding manure during the germination has negative effects during that phase, but is favorable if applied after germination is achieved. It can be propagated by cuttings, which yields faster results than multiplication by seeds.

The flowers only develop terminally (at the end of a stem), so a good ramification (plants presenting many branches) produces the greatest amount of fruits. The plants are self-compatible.[10] Another productivity factor is the ratio between female and male flowers within an inflorescence, more female flowers mean more fruits.[11] Jatropha curcas thrives on a mere 250 mm (10 in) of rain a year, and only during its first two years does it need to be watered in the closing days of the dry season. Ploughing and planting are not needed regularly, as this shrub has a life expectancy of approximately forty years. The use of pesticides is not necessary, due to the pesticidal and fungicidal properties of the plant. It is used in rural Bengal for dhobi itch (a common fungal infection of the skin).

While Jatropha curcas starts yielding from 9–12 months time, the best yields are obtained only after 2 – 3 years time.

If planted in hedges, the reported productivity of Jatropha is from 0.8 kg. to 1.0 kg. of seed per meter of live fence. The seed production is around 3.5 tons / hectare (Seed production ranges from about 0.4 tons per hectare in first year to over 5 tons per hectare after 3 years).

Propagation[edit]

Jatropha curcas has limited natural vegetative propagation and is usually propagated by seed. Propagation through seed (sexual propagation) leads to a lot of genetic variability in terms of growth, biomass, seed yield and oil content. Low seed viability and the recalcitrant nature of oil seeds also limit seed propagation. However, clonal techniques can help in overcoming these problems that hinder mass propagation of this tree-borne oilseed species. Vegetative propagation has been achieved by stem cuttings, grafting, budding as well as by air layering techniques.[14] The investigation leads to the recommendation that cuttings should be taken preferably from juvenile plants and treated with 200 micro gram per litre of IBA (rooting hormone) to ensure the highest level of rooting in stem cuttings. These vegetative methods have potential for commercial propagation of these plants.

Gallery[edit]

Processing[edit]

Seed extraction is made simple with the use of the Universal Nut Sheller, an appropriate technology designed by the Full Belly Project.

Oil content varies from 28% to 30% and 80% extraction, one hectare of plantation will give 400 to 600 litres of oil if the soil is average.[15]

The oily seeds are processed into oil, which may be used directly ("Straight Vegetable Oil") to fuel combustion engines or may be subjected to transesterification to produce biodiesel. Jatropha oil is not suitable for human consumption, as it induces strong vomiting and diarrhea.

A colourant can also be derived from the seed[citation needed].

Uses[edit]

Biofuel[edit]

Jatropha plantation in the dry center/west of the Paraguay Chaco

When jatropha seeds are crushed, the resulting jatropha oil can be processed to produce a high-quality biofuel or biodiesel that can be used in a standard diesel car or further processed into jet fuel, while the residue (press cake) can also be used as biomass feedstock to power electricity plants, used as fertilizer (it contains nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium), or as animal fodder. The cake can also be used as feed in digesters and gasifiers to produce biogas.[16]

"From planting to harvest. Treat the jatropha plant as well as possible to make the harvest as large as possible!" (A reference to the compulsory planting of jatropha in Indonesia for the production of oil as machinery lubricant and fuel for the Japanese WWII war effort.)

There are several forms of biofuel, often manufactured using sedimentation, centrifugation, and filtration. The fats and oils are turned into esters while separating the glycerin. At the end of the process, the glycerin settles and the biofuel floats. The process through which the glycerin is separated from the biodiesel is known as transesterification. Glycerin is another by-product from Jatropha oil processing that can add value to the crop. Transesterification is a simple chemical reaction that neutralizes the free fatty acids present in any fatty substances in Jatropha. A chemical exchange takes place between the alkoxy groups of an ester compound by an alcohol. Usually, methanol and ethanol are used for the purpose. The reaction occurs by the presence of a catalyst, usually sodium hydroxide (NaOH) or caustic soda and potassium hydroxide (KOH), which forms fatty esters (e.g., methyl or ethyl esters), commonly known as biodiesel. It takes approximately 10% of methyl alcohol by weight of the fatty substance to start the transesterification process.[1]

Estimates of Jatropha seed yield vary widely, due to a lack of research data, the genetic diversity of the crop, the range of environments in which it is grown, and Jatropha's perennial life cycle. Seed yields under cultivation can range from 1,500 to 2,000 kilograms per hectare, corresponding to extractable oil yields of 540 to 680 litres per hectare (58 to 73 US gallons per acre).[17] In 2009 Time magazine cited the potential for as much as 1,600 gallons of diesel fuel per acre per year.[18] The plant may yield more than four times as much fuel per hectare as soybean, and more than ten times that of maize (corn), but at the same time it requires five times as much water per unit of energy produced as does corn (see below). A hectare of jatropha has been claimed to produce 1,892 litres of fuel.[19] However, as it has not yet been domesticated or improved by plant breeders, yields are variable[20]

Jatropha can also be intercropped with other cash crops such as coffee, sugar, fruits and vegetables.[21]

In 2007 Goldman Sachs cited Jatropha curcas as one of the best candidates for future biodiesel production.[22] However, despite its abundance and use as an oil and reclamation plant, none of the Jatropha species has been properly domesticated and, as a result, its productivity is variable, and the long-term impact of its large-scale use on soil quality and the environment is unknown.[20]

In 2008 researchers at Daimler Chrysler Research explored the use of jatropha oil for automotive use, concluding that although jatropha oil as fuel "has not yet reached optimal quality, ... it already fulfills the EU norm for biodiesel quality". Archer Daniels Midland Company, Bayer CropScience and Daimler AG have a joint project to develop jatropha as a biofuel.[23] Three Mercedes cars powered by Jatropha diesel have already put some 30,000 kilometres behind them. The project is supported by DaimlerChrysler and by the German Association for Investment and Development (Deutschen Investitions- und Entwicklungsgesellschaft, DEG).

Jet fuel[edit]

Aviation fuels may be more widely replaced by biofuels such as jatropha oil than fuels for other forms of transportation. There are fewer planes than cars or trucks and far fewer jet fueling stations to convert than gas stations.[24]

On December 30, 2008, Air New Zealand flew the first successful test flight from Auckland with a Boeing 747 running one of its four Rolls-Royce engines on a 50:50 blend of jatropha oil and jet A-1 fuel.[24][25] In the same press release, Air New Zealand announced plans to use the new fuel for 10% of its needs by 2013. At the time of this test, jatropha oil was much cheaper than crude oil, costing an estimated $43 a barrel or about one-third of the June 4, 2008 closing price of $122.30 for a barrel of crude oil.[26]

On January 7, 2009 Continental Airlines successfully completed a test flight from Houston, Texas using a 50/50 mixture of algae/jatropha-oil-derived biofuel and Jet A in one of the two CFM56 engines of a Boeing 737-800 Next Generation jet. The two-hour test flight could mark another promising step for the airline industry to find cheaper and more environmentally friendly alternatives to fossil fuel.

On April 1, 2011 Interjet completed the first Mexican aviation biofuels test flight on an Airbus A320. The fuel was a 70:30 traditional jet fuel biojet blend produced from Jatropha oil provided by three Mexican producers, Global Energías Renovables (a wholly owned subsidiary of U.S.-based Global Clean Energy Holdings), Bencafser S.A. and Energy JH S.A. Honeywell's UOP processed the oil into Bio-SPK (Synthetic Paraffinic Kerosene).[27] Global Energías Renovables operates the largest Jatropha farm in the Americas.[27]

On October 28, 2011 Air China completed the first successful demonstration flight by a Chinese airline that used jatropha-based biofuel. The mixture was a 50:50 mix of conventional jet fuel blended with jatropha oil from China National Petroleum Corp. The 747-400 powered one of its four engines on the fuel mixture during the 1-hour flight around Beijing airport.[28]

Carbon dioxide sequestration[edit]

According to a 2013 study published by the European Geosciences Union,[29] the jatropha tree may have applications in the absorption of carbon dioxide, whose sequestration is regarded by some as important in combating climate change.[30] This small tree is very resistant to aridity so it can be planted in hot and dry land in soil unsuitable for food production. The plant does need water to grow though, so coastal areas where desalinated seawater can be made available are ideal.[citation needed]

Use in developing world[edit]

Currently the oil from Jatropha curcas seeds is used for making biodiesel fuel in Philippines, Pakistan and in Brazil, where it grows naturally and in plantations in the southeast, north, and northeast of Brazil. Likewise, jatropha oil is being promoted as an easily grown biofuel crop in hundreds of projects throughout India and other developing countries.[31] Large plantings and nurseries have been undertaken in India by many research institutions, and by women's self-help groups who use a system of microcredit to ease poverty among semiliterate Indian women. The railway line between Mumbai and Delhi is planted with jatropha and the train itself runs on 15-20% biodiesel.[20] In Africa, cultivation of jatropha is being promoted and it is grown successfully in countries such as Mali.[32] In the Gran Chaco of Paraguay, where a native variety (Jatropha matacensis) also grows, studies have shown the suitability of Jatropha cultivation[33][34] and agro producers are starting to consider planting in the region.[35]

Burma[edit]

Burma is also actively pursuing the use of jatropha oil. On 15 December 2005, then-head of state, Senior General Than Shwe, said “the States and Divisions concerned are to put 50,000 acres (200 km²) under the physic nut plants [Jatropha] each within three years totalling 700,000 acres (2,800 km²) during the period”. On the occasion of Burma’s Peasant Day 2006, Than Shwe described in his a message that “For energy sector which is an essential role in transforming industrial agriculture system, the Government is encouraging for cultivation of physic nut plants nationwide and the technical know how that can refine physic nuts to biodiesel has also identified.” He would like to urge peasants to cultivate physic nut plants on a commercial scale with major aims for emergence of industrial agriculture system, for fulfilling rural electricity supply and energy needs, for supporting rural areas development and import substitute economy. (2005 from MRTV)

In 2006, the chief research officer at state-run Myanma Oil and Gas Enterprise said Burma hoped to completely replace the country's oil imports of 40,000 barrels a day with home-brewed, jatropha-derived biofuel. Other government officials declared Burma would soon start exporting jatropha oil. Despite the military's efforts, the jatropha campaign apparently has largely flopped in its goal of making Burma self-sufficient in fuel. (2006 from MyawaddyTV)

Z.G.S. Bioenergy has started Jatropha Plantation Projects in Northern Shan State, the company has begun planting Jatropha plants during late June 2007 and will start producing seeds by 2010. (20 July 2007 from New Light of Myanmar)

Controversies[edit]

As of 2011 skepticism about the "miracle" properties of Jatropha has been voiced. For example: "The idea that jatropha can be grown on marginal land is a red herring", according to Harry Stourton, business development director of UK-based Sun Biofuels, which cultivates Jatropha in Mozambique and Tanzania. "It does grow on marginal land, but if you use marginal land you'll get marginal yields," he said.[36][37]

An August 2010 article warned about the actual utility and potential dangers of reliance on Jatropha in Kenya. Major concerns included its invasiveness, which could disrupt local biodiversity, as well as damage to water catchment areas.[38]

Jatropha curcas is lauded as being sustainable, and that its production would not compete with food production, but the jatropha plant needs water like every other crop to grow. This could create competition for water between the jatropha and other edible food crops. In fact, jatropha requires five times more water per unit of energy than sugarcane and corn.[39][40]

Other uses[edit]

  • Leaves
The young leaves may be safely[citation needed] eaten, steamed or stewed. Cooked with goat meat, they are said to advantageously[citation needed] counteract its smell.
Pounded leaves are applied near horses' eyes to repel flies in India.[citation needed] Hydrogen cyanide (HCN) is present in the leaves. The extracts of the plants are dangerous to use but water can easily release it over if not too much extract is applied.[citation needed]
  • Flowers
The species is listed as a honey plant.[citation needed] Hydrogen cyanide is present.[41]
  • Nuts
Can be construed for home cooking fuel in briquette form replacing charcoalized timber as in Haiti.[42]
Sometimes roasted and eaten,[citation needed] although they are purgative.[citation needed]
They can be burned like candlenuts when strung on grass.[citation needed] HCN is present.[citation needed][43]
Used as a contraceptive in South Sudan.[44]
  • Seeds
Interest exists in producing animal feed[citation needed] from the bio-waste once the oil is expressed, as in the case with Haiti, where Jatropha curcas grows prolifically and animal feed is in very sort supply.[42]
Similarly, Metsiyen in the Haitian culture dates back as a medicinal crop - thus the name "metsiyen"/"medsiyen". Some suggest it "calms the stomach".[42]
Some mention of Metsiyen being used to ward off evil spirits in past Haitian culture where voodoo has been losing adherents for Christian faith.[42]
Also used as a contraceptive in South Sudan.[44]
The oil has been used for illumination, soap, candles, the adulteration of olive oil, and making Turkey red oil. Turkey red oil, also called sulphonated (or sulfated) castor oil, is the only oil that completely disperses in water. It is made by adding sulfuric acid to pure Jatropha oil.[45] It was the first synthetic detergent after ordinary soap, as this allows easy use for making bath oil products. It is used in formulating lubricants, softeners, and dyeing assistants.[46]
The seeds in the zone around Misantla, Veracruz are very appreciated by the population as food once they have been boiled and roasted. It is unclear if this is due to the existence of a non-toxic variety of Jatropha in Mexico and Central America, or if the seeds become edible once processed by cooking.[47]
It is also similarly reported that Jatropha seeds are edible once the embryo has been removed.[48] Again it may be so because of these seeds coming from a local non-toxic variety. HCN is present.
  • Roots
Their ashes are used as a salt substitute. HCN and rotenone are present.[49]
  • Bark
Used as a fish poison. HCN is present.[50]
  • Latex
Strongly inhibits the watermelon mosaic virus.[51]
  • Sap
It stains linen. Sometimes used for marking.[52]
  • Shrub
Mexicans grow the shrub as a host for the lac insect, which is used in medicine as hepatoprotective and antiobesity drug.
Used for erosion control,[53][54]

Other names[edit]

Names in Indian languages[edit]

Magadhi: Redi (Bihar)

  • Bengali: দন্তী danti, দন্তিগাছ dantigaacha, kochagach
  • Hindi: दन्ती danti
  • Kannada: ದಮ್ತಿ damti, ಕಾಡು ಹರಳು kaadu haralu, ನಾಗದಮ್ತಿ naagadamti
  • Konkani: baktumbo • Malayalam: ചെറിയദന്തി ceriyadanthi, നാഗദന്തി naagadanthi
  • Marathi: दंती danti, कातरी katari
  • Nepalese: अजय पाल ajaya pal, दुधे झार dudhe jhaar
  • Oriya: ଏକ ପ୍ରକାରର ଔଷଧ
  • Persian: bedanjire khatai
  • Sanskrit: अनुकूला anukula, दन्ती danti, दन्तिका dantika, दीर्घ dirgha, एरण्डपत्रिका erandhapatrika, एरण्डफला erandhaphala, मकूलकः makulakah, नागदन्ती nagadanti, नागविन्ना nagavinna, निकुम्भः nikumbha, प्रत्यक्श्रेणी pratyaksreni, रेचनी rechani, रूक्षा ruksha, शीघ्रा shigra, विशल्य vishalya, उडुम्बरपर्णी udumbaraparni
  • Tamil: காட்டாமணக்கு kaattaamanakku, பேயாமணக்கு pey-amanakku,
  • Telugu: అడవి ఆముదము adavi amudamu, కొండ ఆముదము kond amudamu, నేల జీడి nela jidi, నేపాళము nepalamu
  • Gujarati : RatanJyot
  • Malayalam : കടലാവണക്ക് (Kadalavanakku)
  • manipuri : Awa ke-ge
  • Garhwali (Uttarakhand) : Lanka bel

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f Nahar, K. and Ozores-Hampton, M. (2011). Jatropha: An Alternative Substitute to Fossil Fuel.(IFAS Publication Number HS1193). Gainesville: University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences. Retrieved (12-17-2011).
  2. ^ "Jatropha curcas L.". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. 2008-08-29. Retrieved 2010-10-14. 
  3. ^ a b Janick, Jules; Robert E. Paull (2008). The Encyclopedia of Fruit & Nuts. CABI. pp. 371–372. ISBN 978-0-85199-638-7. 
  4. ^ "Jatropha curcas L. Euphorbiaceae" (PDF). Agroforestree Database 4.0. World Agroforestry Centre. 2009. Retrieved 2010-10-14. 
  5. ^ JATROPHA IN AFRICA. FIGHTING THE DESERT & CREATING WEALTH
  6. ^ Jatropha: creating desert solutions
  7. ^ Achten WMJ, Mathijs E, Verchot L, Singh VP, Aerts R, Muys B 2007. Jatropha biodiesel fueling sustainability?. Biofuels, Bioproducts and Biorefining 1(4), 283-291.[1] doi:10.1002/bbb.39The Jatropha Archives
  8. ^ Achten WMJ, Verchot L, Franken YJ, Mathijs E, Singh VP, Aerts R, Muys B 2008. Jatropha bio-diesel production and use. (a literature review) Biomass and Bioenergy 32(12), 1063–1084.[2] doi:10.1016/j.biombioe.2008.03.003The Jatropha Archives
  9. ^ http://www.drugsandpoisons.com/2008/01/lectins-peas-and-beans-gone-bad.html
  10. ^ a b A.C.P. Juhász, S. Pimenta, B.O. Soares, Batista Morais de Lourdes, D., Rabello, H. de Oliveira 2009. Floral biology and artificial polinization in physic nut in the north of Minas Gerais state, Brazil [Biologia floral e polinização artificial de pinhão-manso no norte de Minas Gerais] Pesquisa Agropecuaria Brasileira, 44(9): 1073–1077 (in Portuguese).
  11. ^ a b "Generative propagation of Jatropha curcas L. on Kalahari Sand." in The Jatropha Journal.[dead link]
  12. ^ "Sequence Analysis of the Genome of an Oil-Bearing Tree, Jatropha curcas L". Oxford Journals, DNA Research, Kazusa DNA Research Institute. 2010-12-08. Retrieved 2010-12-23. 
  13. ^ http://www.agricultureinformation.com/forums/sale/19166-jatropha-curcas-seeds-seedlings-sale.html Warm climate reference
  14. ^ Gadekar Kumarsukhadeo Prakash. (2006) Department of Forestry, Indira Gandhi Agricultural University Raipur (C.G.)M.Sc. Forestry Thesis "Vegetative propagation of Jatropha, Karanj and Mahua by Stem cuttings, Grafting, Budding and Air layering"
  15. ^ The Cultivation of Jatropha Curcas
  16. ^ Poison plant could help to cure the planet Times Online, 28 July 2007.
  17. ^ Dar, William D. (6 December 2007). "Research needed to cut risks to biofuel farmers". Science and Development Network. Retrieved 2007-12-26. 
  18. ^ Padgett, Tim (February 6, 2009). "The Next Big Biofuel?". Time Magazine. 
  19. ^ Michael Fitzgerald (December 27, 2006). "India's Big Plans for Biodiesel". Technology Review (Massachusetts Institute of Technology). Retrieved 2007-05-03. 
  20. ^ a b c Fairless D. (2007). "Biofuel: The little shrub that could - maybe". Nature 449 (7163): 652–655. doi:10.1038/449652a. PMID 17968401. 
  21. ^ Jatropha for biodiesel
  22. ^ Jatropha Plant Gains Steam In Global Race for Biofuels
  23. ^ Bayer CropScience Press Release, June 18, 2008. Jatropha - This particular oil well holds a lot of future promise
  24. ^ a b Kanter, James (December 30, 2008). "Air New Zealand Flies on Engine With Jatropha Biofuel Blend". The New York Times. 
  25. ^ Enviro.aero December 30, 2008. Air New Zealand jatropha flight, update 4 Accessed October 13, 2012.
  26. ^ Ray, Lilley. "NZ Airline Flies Jetliner Partly Run on Veggie Oil". www.latimes.com. Retrieved 2011-01-22. 
  27. ^ a b Erin Voegele for Biodiesels Magazine. April 8, 2011. Mexico hosts successful biofuels test flight
  28. ^ http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/china/2011-10/28/content_13998217.htm
  29. ^ Carbon farming in hot, dry coastal areas: an option for climate change mitigation Becker, K. et al Earth Syst. Dynam., 4, 237-251, 2013
  30. ^ Could planting trees in the desert mitigate climate change? Press release, European Geosciences Union July 31 2013
  31. ^ World Agroforestry Centre (2007) When oil grows on trees World Agroforestry Centre press release. 26 April 2009.
  32. ^ Polgreen, Lydia (September 9, 2007). "Mali's Farmers Discover a Weed's Potential Power". New York Times. Retrieved 2007-08-21. But now that a plant called jatropha is being hailed by scientists and policy makers as a potentially ideal source of biofuel, a plant that can grow in marginal soil or beside food crops, that does not require a lot of fertilizer and yields many times as much biofuel per acre planted as corn and many other potential biofuels. By planting a row of jatropha for every seven rows of regular crops, Mr. Banani could double his income on the field in the first year and lose none of his usual yield from his field. 
  33. ^ "Jatropha en el Chaco" (in Spanish). Diario ABC Digital. Retrieved 2008-09-09. 
  34. ^ "Jatropha Chaco" (in Spanish). Incorporación del cultivo Jatropha Curcas L en zonas marginales de la provincia de chaco. Retrieved 2008-09-09. 
  35. ^ "Carlos Casado SA en el Chaco" (in Spanish). El Economista. 2 May 2008. 
  36. ^ Reuters: Biofuel jatropha falls from wonder-crop pedestal, 21-1-2011
  37. ^ Friends of the Earth Europe: Biofuel 'wonder-crop' jatropha failing to deliver, 21-01-2011
  38. ^ "Biodiesel wonder plant could spell doom for Kenya". naturekenya.org. Retrieved 2011-03-22. 
  39. ^ Friends of the Earth kicks against Jatropha production in Africa, Ghana Business News, Friday, May 29, 2009,
  40. ^ Phil McKenna (June 9, 2009). "All Washed Up for Jatropha? The draught-resistant "dream" biofuel is also a water hog". Technology Review. Retrieved 2011-10-11. 
  41. ^ Little, Woodbury, and Wadsworth, 1974. In The Jatropha Website[dead link]
  42. ^ a b c d Glenn Brooks Jachob e3
  43. ^ Watt and Breyer-Brandwijk, 1962. In The Jatropha Website[dead link]
  44. ^ a b List and Horhammer, 1969–1979. In The Jatropha Website[dead link]
  45. ^ Turkey Red Oil - A defoaming & wetting agent, manure, lubricant
  46. ^ CastorOil.in – Home of Castor Oil Online
  47. ^ Birgit Schmook (cited by Henning), in "Assessment of the potential of Jatropha curcas, (biodiesel tree) for energy production and other uses in developing countries." Mike Benge (bengemike at aol dot com), Senior Agroforestry Officer, USAID (Ret.) July 2006 and updated August 2006 [3]
  48. ^ Levingston and Zamora (cited by IPGRI), in "Assessment of the potential of Jatropha curcas, (biodiesel tree) for energy production and other uses in developing countries." Mike Benge (bengemike at aol dot com), Senior Agroforestry Officer, USAID (Ret.), July 2006 and updated August 2006. [4]
  49. ^ Morton, 1981.
  50. ^ Watt and Breyer-Brandwijk, 1962. In The Jatropha Website[dead link]
  51. ^ Tewari and Shukla, 1982. In The Jatropha Website[dead link]
  52. ^ Mitchell and Rook, 1979. In The Jatropha Website[dead link]
  53. ^ (biofuel) Jatropha book - New IPGRI Series Promotes Underutilized Crops.
  54. ^ "Jatropha curcas L. in Africa - Assessment of the impact of the dissemination of "the Jatropha System" on the ecology of the rural area and the social and economic situation of the rural population (target group) in selected countries in Africa" [5]. Annexe 7 of this paper presents an "Economic analysis of JCL utilization in Tanzania - Economy of Jatropha Utilization in Tanzania. Data from Kakute, 2003", covering small-scale economic data on the collection of seeds, oil making and soap making.

Further reading[edit]

  • Brittaine, R. and Lutaladio, N. 2010. Jatropha: A Smallholder Bioenergy Crop - The Potential for Pro-Poor Development. Integrated Crop Management. Vol. 8. FAO, Rome, ISBN 978-92-5-106438-2.

External links[edit]