جون پور ضلع
|District of Uttar Pradesh|
Location of Jaunpur district in Uttar Pradesh
|Headquarters||Jaunpur, Uttar Pradesh|
|Tehsils||Badlapur, Shahganj, Machhali Shahar, Jaunpur, Mariahu and Kerakat|
|• Lok Sabha constituencies||Jaunpur, Machhlishahr|
|• Total||4,038 km2 (1,559 sq mi)|
|• Density||1,100/km2 (2,900/sq mi)|
|• Sex ratio||1018|
|Average annual precipitation||987 mm|
- 1 Geography
- 2 Economy
- 3 Demographics
- 4 Governance
- 5 History
- 6 Historic places and sights
- 7 References
- 8 External links
The geographical area of the district is 4,038 square kilometres (1,559 sq mi). Its altitude varies from 261 feet (80 m) to 290 feet (88 m) above sea level.
Jaunpur district has a climate consistent with that of the Northern Plain and Central Highlands including the Aravalli range, hot semi-arid eco-region 4.3 and hot dry ecoregion 9.2. The temperature varies between about 4 °C (39 °F) and 44 °C (111 °F). The annual normal rainfall is 1,098 millimetres (43.2 in). The monsoon season occurs from the third week of June to the first week of October. Normally, there are 46 rain days per year of which 31 occur in the monsoon season. The district regularly suffers drought and pestilence.
The topography of the district is a flat plain undulating with shallow river valleys. The main permanently flowing rivers are the Gomti and the Sai. The rivers of Jaunpur flow from northwest to southeast and the land slopes in the same direction. Thus, there is a more elevated area in the northwest and a less elevated area of land in the south east.
Beneath the surface of the district of Jaunpur, is a thick mantle consisting of the quaternary sediments (silt, sand and clay) of the Ganga river system. Below is vindhya range bedrock. Mineral deposits are rare but there is limestone as a conglomerate kanker in nodular and block forms. The lime can be used in building. Earthquakes have been recorded, the largest in 1927 and 1954.
The district's economy relies on primary industry (agriculture). In 2006, the Ministry of Panchayati Raj named Jaunpur one of India's 250 most backward districts. Jaunpur receives funds from the "Backward Regions Grant Fund Programme" (BRGF).
The main field crops of Jaunpur district are: rice, maize, pigeon pea, pearl millet, blackgram wheat and chickpea. Other crops are onion and potato and crops for fodder. The crops are grown with both rainfall and irrigation. There are cattle (both local low yielding and crossbred), and local low-yielding buffalo as well as goats, sheep, backyard chickens and pigs and occasional dairy farms. There are 43 government reservoirs and many more private water sources. The Shri Ganesh Rai Post Graduate College established in 2009, offers a one or two year agricultural science course and is affiliated to the University of Purvancha. At Gujartal lake, 2 miles (3.2 km) west of Kheta Sarai, pisciculture is conducted.
There is little heavy industry in Jaunpur. The Varanasi Jaunpur highway allows for some industrial economic development. A cotton mill is operational near Karanja Kala and there are some textile manufacturers. Other manufactured products include perfume (jasmine oil and attar) and incense, furniture, carpets, chemical fertiliser and cement. Tertiary and service industries include repair workshops, print shops and internet cafes.,
In 2011, an official census was made in Jaunpur district. It recorded a population of 4,476,072 of which 2,258,437 were female and 2,217,635 male. The population density is 1113 people per square km. Between 2001 and 2011, the population of Jaunpur district grew 14.89 percent. Literacy increased from 59.84 to 73.66 percent. In 2011, 86.06 percent of men were literate and 61.7 percent of women. There were 1018 women for every 1000 men, in comparison to 940 across India. Children under six years formed 14.37 percent of the population.
Within the district, there are 3 national lower house constituencies, Lok Sabha, of which Jaunpur constituency is entirely in the district, and ten state lower house constituencies, Vidhan Sabha. Jaunpur district has six administrative subdivisions (Tahsils).
- Machhali Shahar
Jaunpur district is further divided into twenty-one "development blocks".
- Sondhi (Shahganj)
- Karanja Kala
There are also twenty-seven police districts (Thanas).
- Line Bazar
- Sarai Khwaja
Etymology and origins
The Etymology of Jaunpur is uncertain. It may be derived from the word Jamadagni a famous Hindu scribe (rishi) or it may be derived from the Muslim name Jauna. Archeological evidence of Jaunpur district dates to the late Vedic period (1500 - 500 BC). In the 6th century BC, Jainism and Buddhism were introduced to the region. Buddha, the sage from the Himilayan foothills, was present in the Uttar Predesh area in this early time.
Coin hoards of the Gupta empire (320 - 550 AD) have been found in Jaunpur district. During the reign of the Gupta empire, Hinduism became a more prominent religion. Gupta inscriptions use Sanskrit whereas in previous times, Prakrit was used. In the late 6th century, the region fell into chaos due to war between the Guptas, Huns and Maukaris. The Gupta kings included:
- Chandra Gupta I 320
- Samudra Gupta (Chandra's son)
The history of the region from the fall of the Gupta empire to the 9th century is uncertain due to a paucity of surviving historical sources. Hashavardana of Thanesar who invaded in about 640 AD may have been the ruler of a first Rajput kingdom. Iswar Varma of Magadha was a king of Jaunpur in the 700s.
- Ghiyas-ud-din Balban 1205 - 1287
- Khiljis 1287 - 1295, uncle of Ala-ud-din.
- Ala-ud-din Muhammad 1295 - 1316
- Son of Ala-ud-din 1316 - 1321
- Ghiyas-ud-din Tughalak, first of the Turki line.
- Muhammad bin Tughlak
- Firoz Shah III (Firuz Shah Tughlaq) 1351 - 1388. Jaunpur township was built during Firoz's reign.
After the Ghurid empire failed, the Sharqi rulers were able to establish rule and make Jaunpur independent from the Kingdom of Delhi. The Sharqi "Kings of the East" included:
- Malik (d. 1398)
- Kwaja-i-Jahan (Malik-ul-Shaq, "Lord of the East") 1394 - d. 1399 (an eunuch appointed by Mahmud II, Sultan of Delhi).
- Mubarik (Adopted son of Jahan) 1400 - d. 1401
- Ibrahim 1401 - 1441 (Younger son of Mubarik. Ibrahim saw Jaunpur township as a cultural and religious centre of Islam in India. There are archeological coin finds from this period onwards.)
- Mahmud 1441 - 1451
- Muhammad (Bikhun Khan) 1451 - 1478
- Hussain 1452 - 1474
- Barbak bin Buhlol Lodi 1474 - (Brother of Ibrahim)
- Sikander Lodi (father of Mahmud) 1479 - Destroyed most Sharqi structures, leaving the mosques.
- Barbur (b. 1483 - d. 1530) Although, from 1484 until 1525, Jaunpur itself was held by the Lodi dynasty.
- Humayun 1530 - 1540, d. 1556
- Sher Khan Suri 1540 - d. 1545, an Afghan general of Barbur who defeated Humuyan
- Akbar son of Humuyan, 1556 - d. 1605 (appointed Khan-i Khanan Muhammad Min'im Khan, a loyal noble, governor of Jaunpur in 1567 - d. 1575)
- Jahangir son of Akbah 1605 - d. 1627
- Shah Jahan (Kurrham) son of Akbah 1627 - 1657 (d. 1666)
- Aurangzeb 1658 - d 1707
- Bahadur Shah I 1707 - d. 1712
The Mughal empire in India began to fail due incompetence in governance as well as the pressures of Persian and Afghan invaders and local Hindu forces including the Jats, Sikhs and Marathass. 
In 1775, Jaunpur was annexed by the British East India Company and company administration was imposed. In 1779, British Imperial rule was consolidated. In 1818, an official tax area under the Zamindar system was established. Through this time, British artists and writers in the Jaunpur area described the district in terms of "picturesque ruin". As well as an artistic statement, there was an underlying political notion that civilisation in the area had withered prior to the arrival of the British. The remnants of Jaunpur's past could be viewed with both "admiration and regret". During the revolt of 1857, Sikh troops from Jaunpur joined the Indian rebel side.
Historic places and sights
In 1362, Firoz Shah III built the Shahi Qila (the imperial fort). The Kerar Kot fort once stood on the same site in Jaunpur township on the left (north) bank of the Gomti river. It contained a mosque and a spacious and stylish set of baths (hammam) installed by Ibrahim, Firoz's brother. The layout of the fort is an irregular quadrangle enclosed in stone walls. The walls surround raised earthworks. Most of the remains of the original structures are buried or in ruin.
The main gates face east. The largest inner gate is 14 metres (46 ft) in height. Its external surface is set with ashlar stone. A further, outer, gate was installed during the reign of the Mughal king, Akbar, under the patronage of the governor of Jaunpur, Min'im Khan in the 16th century. It is designed in the shape of a flanking bastion. The spandrels or spaces between the arches of the outer gate were decorated with blue and yellow tiles. Ornamental niches are built into the walls of the outer gate.
The two story residential and administrative building or "palace" was built in a square layout. An interior pillared verandah or aiwan overlooked the ground floor from the first.
The mosque or masjid is likely the oldest building in Jaunpur township. It was a simple arcade of about 39.40 metres (129.3 ft) x 6.65 metres (21.8 ft). It was supported by pillars in the Bengali style. There are three low central domes and no minars. (There are two nearby stone pillars instead).
The hammam or Bhoolbhulaiya is a part underground, domed structure made of stone. Despite its provincial location, the patrons of the baths at Jaunpur township had a supply of hot and cold running water.
Firoz Shah III began the construction of the Atala mosque in 1393 on the site of the Atala Devi temple which he had demolished in 1376. It was completed in 1408, by Ibrahim. The original Hindu pillars, lintels, brackets and ceilings were reused. The Atala became a model for other mosques in the Jaunpur district. Architecturally, it retained and advanced the element of monumentalism. The height of the Atala mosque is over 100 feet (30 m). The perimeter is 248 feet (76 m). The entrance has three massive stone pylons. The central one consists of a high arch between two sloping towers. These are decorated with arched niches and stone screened windows.
The Jhanjhari mosque, on the north bank of the Gomti river, was built by Ibrahim in the Sipah locatility of Jaunpur township. It was a residence of Ibrahim himself, as well as a place for saints, scholars (pandits) and the army (who kept animals such as elephants, camels, horses and mules). After human destruction and flood damage, only the facade remains. This consists of an arch, 35 feet (11 m) high and 32 feet (9.8 m) wide. Some of the stones from this mosque were used in the construction of the Shahi bridge.
Lal Darwaza mosque
This mosque was built at Begumganj, 1 mile (1.6 km) north of Jaunpur township for Bibi Raje, the wife of Mahamud of the Sharqi dynasty between 1447 and 1455. It may have been a private chapel attached to a palace. Lal Darwaza was dedicated to Dawood Qutubbudin, a local saint. The mosque occupies 212 square feet (19.7 m2) x 188 square feet (17.5 m2) and has three entrances and a courtyard. It is also known as the "Red Portal Mosque".
The Jama mosque is another of the Sharqi dynasty period, started by Ibrahim and after a number of construction phases, completed by Hussain. It is located on the Shahganj road near the Purani bazaar at Madiyahun. The size of the mosque interior is 219 feet (67 m) x 217 feet (66 m). 27 steps climb to the top. There are four gates, one at each cardinal point. The eastern gateway was destroyed by Sikander Lodhi. The mosque is decorated with Egyptian style engravings and lotus, sunflower and rose motifs.
The Shahi Pul is a bridge over the Gomti river at Jaunpur township. It was built by Khankhana in 1564 for Akbar. The bridge is 26 feet (7.9 m) wide. At each end were pillboxes to house stalls. On a square platform in the middle of the bridge, there is a large sculpture of a lion with an elephant underneath its forepaws. The statue originated in a Buddhist monastery. There is an associated mosque at Idgah on the Allahabad road.
Other historic buildings of the district
- Khokri Masjid (An historical mosque at the banks of river Gortin - place where Syed Mohammed Jaunpuri Mahdi e Maud ahs met Khwaja Kirkby ahs)
- Rauza-e-Husain (A.S.)
- Shiv temple (built by king Sri Krishnadutta at Dharmapur)
- Hindi Bhavan
- Kali temple (Kerakat)
- Shivlinga (Harshvardhan era)
- Gomteshwar Mahadev (Kerakat)
- Van Vihar (T.D. College Kuddupur Road)
- Paramhansa's Samidhi (Aunka village, Dhaniyamau)
- Gasuri Shankar temple (Sujanganj)
- Gurudwara (Rasmadal)
- Hanuman temple (Rasmadal)
- Sharda temple (Parmanatpur)
- Kabir Math (Basetha village, Machhalishahar)
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|Wikisource has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article Jaunpur.|
||Mirzapur district||Sultanpur district||Azamgarh district|
|Pratapgarh district||Ghazipur district|
|Allahabad district||Sant Ravidas Nagar district||Varanasi district|