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جون پور ضلع
|District of Uttar Pradesh|
|Headquarters||Jaunpur, Uttar Pradesh|
|Tehsils||Badlapur, Shahganj, Machhali Shahar, Jaunpur, Mariahu and Kerakat|
|• Lok Sabha constituencies||Jaunpur, Machhlishahr|
|• Total||4,038 km2 (1,559 sq mi)|
|• Density||1,100/km2 (2,900/sq mi)|
|• Sex ratio||1018|
|Average annual precipitation||987 mm|
- 1 Geography
- 2 Economy
- 3 Demographics
- 4 Governance
- 5 History
- 6 Historic places and sights
- 7 References
- 8 External links
The geographical area of the district is 4,038 square kilometres (1,559 sq mi). Its altitude varies from 261 feet (80 m) to 290 feet (88 m) above sea level.
Jaunpur district has a climate consistent with that of the Northern Plain and Central Highlands including the Aravalli range, hot semi-arid eco-region 4.3 and hot dry ecoregion 9.2. The temperature varies between about 4 °C (39 °F) and 44 °C (111 °F). The annual normal rainfall is 1,098 millimetres (43.2 in). The monsoon season occurs from the third week of June to the first week of October. Normally, there are 46 rain days per year of which 31 occur in the monsoon season. The district regularly suffers drought and pestilence.
The topography of the district is a flat plain undulating with shallow river valleys. The main permanently flowing rivers are the Gomti and the Sai. The rivers of Jaunpur flow from northwest to southeast and the land slopes in the same direction. Thus, there is a more elevated area in the northwest and a less elevated area of land in the south east.
Beneath the surface of the district of Jaunpur, is a thick mantle consisting of the quaternary sediments (silt, sand and clay) of the Ganga river system. Below is vindhya range bedrock. Mineral deposits are rare but there is limestone as a conglomerate kanker in nodular and block forms. The lime can be used in building. Earthquakes have been recorded, the largest in 1927 and 1954.
The district's economy relies on (primary industry). In 2006, the Ministry of Panchayati Raj named Jaunpur one of India's 250 most backward districts. Jaunpur receives funds from the "Backward Regions Grant Fund Programme" (BRGF).
The main field crops of Jaunpur district are: rice, maize, pigeon pea, pearl millet, blackgram wheat and chickpea. Other crops are onion and potato and crops for fodder. The crops are grown with both rainfall and irrigation. There are cattle (both local low yielding and crossbred), and local low-yielding buffalo as well as goats, sheep, backyard chickens and pigs and occasional dairy farms. There are 43 government reservoirs and many more private water sources. The Shri Ganesh Rai Post Graduate College established in 2009, offers a one or two year agricultural science course and is affiliated to the University of Purvancha.
There is little heavy industry in Jaunpur. The Varanasi Jaunpur highway allows for some industrial economic development. A cotton mill is operational near Karanja Kala and there are some textile manufacturers. Other manufactured products include perfume, furniture, carpets, chemical fertiliser and cement. Tertiary and service industries include repair workshops, print shops and internet cafes.
In 2011, an official census was made in Jaunpur district. It recorded a population of 4,476,072. 2,217,635 were male. 2,258,437 were female. The population density is 1113 people per square km. Between 2001 and 2011, the population of Jaunpur district grew 14.89 percent. Literacy increased from 59.84 to 73.66 percent. In 2011, 86.06 percent of men were literate and 61.7 percent of women. There were 1018 women for every 1000 men, in comparison to 940 across India. Children under six years formed 14.37 percent of the population.
Within the district, there are 3 national lower house constituencies, Lok Sabha, of which Jaunpur constituency is entirely in the district, and ten state lower house constituencies, Vidhan Sabha. Jaunpur district has six administrative subdivisions (Tahsils).
- Machhali Shahar
Jaunpur district is further divided into twenty-one "development blocks".
- Sondhi (Shahganj)
- Karanja Kala
There are also twenty-seven police districts (Thanas).
- Line Bazar
- Sarai Khwaja
Archeological evidence of Jaunpur district dates to the late Vedic period (1500 - 500 BC).
Hindu and Muslim rulers
Coin hoards of the Gupta empire (320 - 550 CE) have been found in Jaunpur district. Independent Indian kingdoms of the district were invaded by Muslim forces in the 14th century. Malik-ul-Sharq (d. 1398) ruled the district, establishing the Sharqi (Sarki) empire. In 1394, Khwaja-i-jahan, an eunuch was appointed by Mahmud II, Sultan of Delhi. From Ibrahim (1400 - 1440) onwards, through his successors, coinage remains as evidence of minting in Jaunpur. From 1484 to 1525, Jaunpur was ruled by the Lodi dynasty. Akbar visited the area in 1567. A number of Muslim rulers occupied Jaunpur in the 16th and 17th centuries. These included Babur, the first of the "Great Mughals" whose empire in India continued for 200 years.
In 1775, Jaunpur was annexed by the British East India Company and company administration imposed. Later, in 1779 British Imperial rule was consolidated. In 1818, an official tax area (Zamindar system) was established. Through this time, British artists and writers in the Jaunpur area described the district in terms of "picturesque ruin". As well as an artistic statement, there was an underlying political suggestion that civilisation in the area had withered prior to the arrival of the British. The remnants of Jaunpur past could be viewed with "admiration and regret". During the revolt of 1857, Sikh troops for Jaunpur joined the Indian rebel side.
Historic places and sights
Situated in the city centre on the left bank of the Gomti, Shahi Qila was built by Freoze Shah in 1362. The inner gate of this fort is 26.5 ft high and 16 ft wide. The central gate is 36 ft high. A top this there is a huge dome. At present only its eastern gate and, within, some arches etc. remain which narrate the tale of its ancient splendor. Muneer Khan had got its majestic front gate built with a view to security and it was decorated with blue and yellow stones. Inside, there is a bath in the Turkish style and a Mosque too. From this fort, an enchanting view of the Gomti river and the city can be seen. The mosque, built by Ibrahim Banbank, carries the imprints of Hindu and Buddhist architectural styles.
In 1408, Ibrahim Shah Sharki built the Atala Masjid which came to be considered as the ideal for the construction of the other mosques of Jaunpur. In this mosque, beautiful galleries were built by surrounding it with artistic walls. Its height is more than 100 ft. There are three huge gateways for entrance. The total perimeter of the mosque is 248 ft. Its construction was begun by Feorze Shah in 1393.
This mosque is in the Sipah locality of Jaunpur on the northern bank of the Gomti. This was built by Ibrahim Sharki at the time of the construction of Atala and Khalis mosques as this locality was settled-in by Ibrahim Sharki himself. The army used to keep its elephants, camels, horses and mules here. It was the place of saints and pandits. Within this mosque there are extremely beautiful "jhanjhariyas" of archdes. Sikandar Lodhi had got this mosque demolished but, looking at the still remaining central arch and compared to the Atala Masjid and the Jama Masjid with their great length and breadth, this mosque appears to be extremely beautiful. It has been dealt great damage by floods. This arch is 35 ft high and 32 ft wide. Despite being relatively small, this mosque is extremely beautiful. After the demolition by Sikandar Lodhi, quite a lot of stones from here have been used in the Shahi bridge. This mosque is a very beautiful example of early architecture.
Masjid Lal Darwaza
This mosque was built by Bibi Raje, wife of Sultan Mahamud Shah Sharki in 1455 at Begumganj, a mile north of the city. Its outer area is 212 x 188 sq. ft. It has three gateways and a courtyard. On two of its pillars some inscriptions in Sanskrit and Pali are there which do not shed much light except for the samvat year and the names of some kings of Kannauj. This Mosque was built in 1447 (as per inscription of this mosque), during the reign of Sultan Mahmud Sharqi, by Queen Bibi Rajyi, dedicated to Maulana Sayyid Ali Dawood Kutubbudin, a celebrated saint (Maulana) of Jaunpur, whose descendent still live in the mohalla bazaar bhua Pandariba Jaunpur and mohalla Namaz Gah laldarwaza.
With a height of more than 200 ft, this mosque near Purani Bazar on the Shahganj road is an important monument of the Sharki period. Its foundation has been laid at the time of Ibrahim Shah's rule and its construction was completed in various phases. It was finished during the reign of Hussain Shah. This mosque is quite extensive, artistic and attractive and there are 27 steps to the top. Its southern gateway is 20 ft above ground level. Its inner premises extend to 219 x 217 feet and has a gateway at each of the 4 cardinal points. The eastern gateway was destroyed by Sikander Lodhi. The outer boundary of the mosque is 320 ft on the East-West and 307 ft on the North-south side. The decorations, its engravings in the Egyptian style, the curves of its arches, the uniqueness of the Lotus, sunflower and rose motifs, its screens etc. are worth seeing.
This bridge of Jaunpur was built by Munyeen Khankhana in 1564 on the orders of Akbar during his reign. This is a one of its kind bridge in India and its carriageway is at ground level. The width of the bridge is 26 feet with 2-foot-3-inch-wide kerfs on both sides. At each junction of adjacent spouse, pillboxes have been constructed. Earlier shops used to be set up in these pillboxes (gumtees). On a square platform in the middle of the bridge, there is a large sculpture of a lion with an elephant underneath its forepaws. It had formerly been installed in some Buddhist monastery from where it was brought and installed at the bridge. There is a mosque in front of this and there are 10 spans of the bridge to its north and 5 spans to the south which rest on octagonal pylons. It is spot worth seeing.
Jama Mashid, Macchalishahar
This ancient mosque was constructed during the reign of Hussain Shah Sharki. There is a surfeit of simplicity in it. There are no arches in this mosque. Earlier there was a rock inscription here which has been destroyed now.
Besides the above mentioned monuments, there is a Munyeem Khan-built Sher-ki-masjid at Shahi Pul & Idgah on the Allahabad road; Sadar Imambara built during Muhammad Shah's time; Jalalpur bridge; Jama Masjid at Madiyahun; Shiv Temple built by the king Sri Krishnadutta at Dharmapur; Hindi Bhavan in the city; Kali Temple in Kerakat; Shivlinga of Harshvardhan era; Gomteshwar Mahadev (Kerakat); Van Vihar; Paramhansa's Samidhi (Village Aunka, Dhaniyamau), Gasuri Shankar temple (Sujanganj); Gurudwara (Rasmadal); Hanuman Temple (Rasmadal); Sharda Temple (Parmanatpur); Vijethua Mahavir; Kabir Math (Basetha Village, Machhalishahar); sadar imambara (Ranno); etc. which are of note.
Two miles west of Kheta Sarai is the well-known Gujartal in which pisciculture is being done these days. The ambience of the lake is scenic and close-to-nature. The Van Vihar situated on the T.D. College Kuddupur Road also attracts the tourists.
Temple of Ma Sheeta Chaukiya Devi
The temple of Ma Sheetla Chaukiya Devi is quite old. The worship of Shiv and Shakti has been going on since times immemorial. History states that, during the era of Hindu kings, the governance of Jaunpur was in the hands of Ahir rulers. Heerchand Yadav is considered the first Aheer ruler of Jaunpur. The descendants of this clan used to surname 'Ahir'. These people built forts at Chandvak and Gopalpur. It is believed that the temple of Chaukiya Devi was built in the glory of their clan-deity either by the Yadavs or the Bhars- but in view of the predilections of the Bhars, it seems more logical to conclude that this temple was built by the Bhars. The Bhars were non-Aryans. The worship of Shiv and Shakti was prevalent in the non-Armyans. The Bhars held power in Jaunpur. At first, the Devi must have been installed on a praised platform or 'chaukiya' and probably because of this she was referred to as Chaukia Devi. Devu Sheetla is the representative blissful aspect of the Divine Mother: hence she was called Sheetla. On Mondays and Fridays, worshippers come here in quite large numbers. Huge crowds gather here during the Navratris.
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|Wikisource has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article Jaunpur.|
||Mirzapur district||Sultanpur district||Azamgarh district|
|Pratapgarh district||Ghazipur district|
|Allahabad district||Sant Ravidas Nagar district||Varanasi district|