Javanese people

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For other uses, see Javanese (disambiguation).
Javanese people
ꦮꦺꦴꦁꦗꦮ / ꦠꦶꦪꦁꦗꦮꦶ
Wòng Jåwå[1] / tiyang Jawi
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Total population
more than 100 million
Regions with significant populations

Indonesia: 95,217,022[2]
Central Java: 30.6 million
East Java: 27.5 million
Lampung: 4.2 million
West Java: 3.9 million
North Sumatra: 3.7 million
Yogyakarta: 3 million
Jakarta: 2.9 million
South Sumatra: 1.9 million
Riau: 1.2 million
Banten: 1.0 million
East Kalimantan: 0.7 million

Malaysia: 4.3 million

Suriname: 275,000

Singapore: 209,000[3]

New Caledonia: 5,000

Netherlands: 150,000-300,000
Predominantly Islam and Kejawen. Minorities of Christianity, Hinduism, and Buddhism
Related ethnic groups
other Indonesian ethnic groups, such as: Sundanese, Madurese, Balinese, Tionghoa, Ambonese, Indo people.

The Javanese (Ngoko Javanese: ꦮꦺꦴꦁꦗꦮ,[4] Krama Javanese: ꦠꦶꦪꦁꦗꦮꦶ,[5] Ngoko Gêdrìk: wòng Jåwå, Krama Gêdrìk: tiyang Jawi, Indonesian: suku Jawa)[6] are an ethnic group native to the Indonesian island of Java. At approximately 100 million people (as of 2011), they form the largest ethnic group in Indonesia. They are predominantly located in the central to eastern parts of the island. There are also significant numbers of people of Javanese descent in most Provinces of Indonesia, Malaysia, Suriname, South Africa and the Netherlands.

Ethnic Javanese has many sub-ethnic such as Mataram, Cirebonese, Osing, Tenggerese, Boyanese, Samin, Naganese, Banyumasan, etc.[7]

Today the majority of the Javanese people identify themselves as Muslims, with a minority identifying as Christians and Hindus, but because Javanese civilization has been influenced by more than a millennium of interactions between the native animism Kejawen and the Indian HinduBuddhist culture, the influence is still visible in Javanese history, culture, traditions and art forms.


For other uses, see Javanese historical texts.
Javanese adapted many aspects of Indian culture, such as Ramayana epic.

Like most Indonesian ethnic groups, including the Sundanese of West Java, the Javanese are of Austronesian origins whose ancestors are thought to have originated in Taiwan, and migrated through the Philippines,[8] reaching Java between 1,500BC and 1,000BC.[9]

Ancient Javanese kingdoms and empires[edit]

The Prambanan temple complex, built during Mataram kingdom.

Hindu and Buddhist influences arrived through trade contacts with the Indian subcontinent.[10] Hindu and Buddhist proselytizers arrived in the 5th century. The Hindu, Buddhist and Javanese faiths blended into a unique local philosophy.[8]

The cradle of Javanese culture is commonly described as being in Kedu and Kewu Plain in the fertile slopes of Mount Merapi as the heart of the Medang i Bhumi Mataram kingdom.[11] Earliest dynasties, Sanjaya and Sailendra has their power base there.[12]:238–239

Center of Javanese culture and politics was moved to eastern part of the island when Mpu Sindok (r. 929-947) moved the capital of the kingdoms eastward to the valleys of Brantas River in the 10th century CE. The move was most likely caused by volcanic eruption of Merapi and/or invasion from Srivijaya.[12]:238–239

The major spread of Javanese influence occurred under King Kertanegara of Singhasari in late 13th century. The expansionist king launched major expeditions to Madura, Bali in 1284,[13] Borneo[when?] and most importantly to Sumatra in 1275.[12] Following the defeat of Melayu Kingdom, Singhasari controlled trade in the Strait of Malacca.

Singhasari dominance was cut short in 1292 by Kediri's rebellion under Jayakatwang, killing Kertanegara. However, Jayakatwang reign as king of Java soon ended as he was defeated by Kertanegara's son-in-law, Raden Wijaya with the help of invading Mongol troops in March 1293.

Raden Wijaya would later established Majapahit near the delta of Brantas River in modern-day Mojokerto, East Java. Kertanegara policies would later be continued by the Majapahits under King Hayam Wuruk and his minister Gajah Mada.[13]

Kingdoms of Java actively involved in spice trade in the sea route of Silk Road. Although not a major spice producer itself, they were able to stockpile spice by trading it with rice, of which Java was a major producer.[14] Majapahit is usually regarded as the greatest of these kingdoms. It was both an agrarian and a maritime power, combining wet-rice cultivation and foreign trade.[15] The ruin of their capital can be found in Trowulan.

Javanese sultanates[edit]

Sultan Amangkurat II of Mataram (upper right) watching warlord Untung Surapati fighting Captain Tack of the Dutch East India Company (VOC). ca 1684 AD.

Islam gained its foothold in port towns on Java northern coast such as Gresik, Ampel Denta (Surabaya), Tuban, Demak and Kudus. The spread and proselytizing of Islam among Javanese people was traditionally credited to Wali Songo.[16]

Following succession disputes and civil wars, Majapahit power collapsed. Java underwent major changes as Islam spread. After the collapse of Majapahit, its various dependencies and vassals broke free.[17] Sultanate of Demak became the new strongest power, gaining supremacy among city-states on the northern coast of Java.[18] Apart from Javanese city-states, it also gained overlordship of ports of Jambi and Palembang in eastern Sumatra.[18] Demak played major role opposing the newly arrived colonial power, the Portuguese. Demak twice attacked the Portuguese following their capture of Malacca. They also attacked alliance between Portuguese and the Sunda Kingdom, establishing in process the Sultanate of Banten.

Demak was succeeded by Kingdom of Pajang and finally Sultanate of Mataram. The center power moved from coastal Demak, to Pajang in Blora, and later further inland to Mataram lands in Kotagede near present day Yogyakarta. Mataram Sultanate reach its peak of power and influence during the reign of Sultan Agung Hanyokrokusumo in 1613-1645.

Colonial Java[edit]

A Javanese courtly ceremony at Keraton Surakarta in 1932.

In 1619 the Dutch established their trading headquarter in Batavia. Java slowly fell to the Dutch East India Company, which would also eventually control most of Maritime Southeast Asia. The internal intrigue and war of succession, added with Dutch interference caused the Mataram Sultanate to break up into Surakarta and Yogyakarta. The further separation of the Javanese realm was marked by the establishment of Mangkunegaran and Pakualaman princedom. Although the real political power in those days actually lay with the colonial Dutch, the Javanese kings, in their keratons, still held prestige as the center of the Javanese realm, especially in and around Surakarta and Yogyakarta.

Dutch rule was briefly interrupted by British rule in early 19th century. While short, the British administration led by Stamford Raffles, was significant, and included re-discovery of Borobudur. Conflict with foreign rule was exemplified by the Java War between 1825 and 1830, and the leadership of Prince Diponegoro.

Like the rest of Dutch East Indies, Java was captured by the Empire of Japan during World War II. With Japan's defeat, independence was proclaimed in the new Republic of Indonesia.

Republic of Indonesia[edit]

August 17, 1945, when the Indonesian independence was proclaimed, the last sovereign Javanese monarchies, represented by the Sri Sultan of Yogyakarta, the Sunanate of Surakarta and Prince of Mangkunegara made a declaration they would become part of the Republic of Indonesia.

Yogyakarta and Pakualam were later united to form the Yogyakarta Special Region and the Sri sultan became Governor of Yogyakarta and the Prince of Pakualaman vice-governor; both were responsible to the President of Indonesia. The Special Region of Yogyakarta was created after the war of independence ended and formalised on August 3, 1950. Surakarta was later absorbed as part of the Central Java province.


Main article: Javanese culture
Javanese cultural expressions, such as wayang and gamelan are often used to promote the excellence of Javanese culture.
Gamelan is one of Javanese cultural expression that demonstrate refinement.

Javanese culture is among one of the oldest civilization and a well-developed culture ever flourished in Indonesia. Gradually it absorbed various elements and influences, from native reverence for ancestral and natural spirits, Hindu and Buddhist dharmic civilization, to Islamic values, and to lesser extent, Christianity also Western philosophy and modern ideas. Nevertheless Javanese culture — especially in Javanese cultural heartland; those of highly polished aristocratic culture of keratons in Yogyakarta and Surakarta — demonstrated some hallmark of specific traits, such as obsession with elegance and refinement (Javanese: alus), subtlety, politeness, courtesy, indirectness, emotional restraint and consciousness to one's social stature. Javanese values harmony and social order highly, and abhorred direct conflicts and disagreements. These Javanese values were often promoted through Javanese cultural expressions, such as Javanese dance, gamelan, wayang and batik as national culture of Indonesia. It also being reinforced through adherence to Javanese adat (traditional rules) in ceremonies, such as Slametan, Satu Suro, Javanese wedding and Naloni Mitoni.

On the other hand, the culture of pesisiran of Javanese north coast, and also in Eastern Java demonstrated some slightly different traits. They tends to be more open to new and foreign ideas, more egalitarian, and less conscious of one's social stature. Some of these northern coast Javanese settlements — such as Demak, Kudus, Tuban, Gresik and Ampel in Surabaya — has become more overtly Islamic, traditionally because these port towns are among the earliest place that Islamic teachings gained foothold in Java.

Javanese culture is traditionally centered in the Central Java, Yogyakarta and East Java provinces of Indonesia. Due to various migrations, it can also be found in other parts of the world, such as Suriname (where 15% of the population are of Javanese descent), the broader Indonesian archipelago region,[19] Cape Malay,[20] Malaysia, Singapore, Netherlands and other countries. The migrants bring with them various aspect of Javanese cultures such as Gamelan music, traditional dances[21] and art of Wayang kulit shadow play.[22] The migration of Javanese people westward has created the coastal Javanese culture that distinct to inland Sundanese culture in West Java.


Main article: Javanese language
For other uses, see Javanese poetry.

Javanese is a member of the Austronesian family of languages and is closely related to, but distinct from, other languages of Indonesia.[23] It is notable for its great number of nearly ubiquitous Sanskrit loans, found especially in literary Javanese.[24] This is due to the long history of Hindu and Buddhist influences in Java.

Most Javanese in Indonesia are bilingual fluent in Indonesian and Javanese.[25] In a public poll held circa-1990, approximately 12% of Javanese used Indonesian, around 18% used both Javanese and Indonesian, and the rest used Javanese exclusively.

The Javanese language was commonly written with the a script descended from the Brahmi script, natively known as Hanacaraka or Carakan. Upon Indonesian independence it was replaced with a form of the Latin alphabet.

While Javanese was not made an official language of Indonesia, it has the status of 'regional language' for communication in the Javanese-majority regions. The language also can be viewed as an 'ethnic language' because it is one of the defining characteristics of the Javanese ethnic identity.[23]

Literature and Philosophy[edit]

Main article: Javanese literature

Javanese intellectuals, writers, poet and man of letters are known for their ability to formulate ideas and creating idioms for high cultural purpose, through stringing words to express a deeper philosophical meanings. Several philosophical idioms sprung from its classical literature, Javanese historical texts and oral traditions, and had spread into several media and promoted as the popular mottos. For example "Bhinneka Tunggal Ika" that used as the national motto of Republic of Indonesia, another phrase are "Gemah Ripah Loh Jinawi, Toto Tentrem Kerto Raharjo", "Jer Basuki Mawa Bea", "Rawe-Rawe rantas, Malang-Malang putung" and "Tut Wuri Handayani".[26]

Social structure[edit]

Javanese priyayi and servants, c. 1865.

The American anthropologist Clifford Geertz in the 1960s divided the Javanese community into three aliran or "streams": santri, abangan and priyayi. According to him, the Santri followed an orthodox interpretation Islam, the abangan was the followed a syncretic form of Islam that mixed Hindu and animist elements (often termed Kejawen), and the priyayi was the nobility.[27]

But today the Geertz opinion is often opposed because he mixed the social groups with belief groups. It was also difficult to apply this social categorisation in classing outsiders, for example other non-indigenous Indonesians such as persons of Arab, Chinese and Indian descent.

Social stratification is much less rigid in northern coast area, which is much more egalitarian.


Today, most Javanese follow a moderate form of Islam as their religion,[28] while only 5-10 percent of Javanese follow orthodox Islamic traditions.[29] Orthodox Muslims are the strongest in northern coast bordering the Java Sea, where Islam was first brought to the island. Islam first came in contact with Java during Majapahit periods, when they traded or made tributary relations with various states like Perlak and Samudra Pasai in modern-day Aceh.[15]

A minority of Javanese also follow Christianity (Protestantism and Catholicism), which are rather concentrated in Central Java (particularly Surakarta, Magelang and Yogyakarta for Catholicism) such as the Gereja Kristen Jawa. On a smaller scale, Buddhism and Hinduism are also found in the Javanese community. The Javanese Tengger tribe is still practicing Javanese-Hindu till today.[30]

Kebatinan, also called Kejawen,[31] Agama Jawa[32] and Kepercayaan[33] is a Javanese religious tradition, consisting of an amalgam of animistic, Hindu-Buddhist, and Islamic, especially Sufi, beliefs and practices. It is rooted in the Javanese history and religiosity, syncretizing aspects of different religions.


Main article: Javanese calendar

The Javanese calendar is used by Javanese people concurrently with two other calendars, the Gregorian calendar and the Islamic calendar. Gregorian calendar is the official calendar of Indonesia while the Islamic calendar is used by Muslims and Indonesian government for religious worship and deciding relevant Islamic holidays. Javanese calendar presently used mostly for cultural events (such as Siji Surå). The present Javanese calendar system is a lunar calendar adopted by Sultan Agung in 1633, based on the Islamic calendar. Previously, Javanese people used a solar system based on the Hindu calendar.

Unlike many other calendars, the Javanese calendar uses a 5-day week known as the Pasaran cycle. This is still in use today and superimposed with 7-day week of the Gregorian calendar and Islamic calendar to become what is known as the 35-day Wetonan cycle.


Traditional Javanese house.
Candi Plaosan in Prambanan (9th century).

Throughout their long history, the Javanese have produced many important buildings, ranging from Hindu monuments, Buddhist stupa, mortuary temples, palace complexes, and mosques.

The paragon of religious monuments are Hindu temple of Prambanan and Buddhist temple of Borobudur. Both of them 9th centuries temples which are UNESCO World Heritage Site. Both are located near city of Yogyakarta in the slope of Mount Merapi.

Meanwhile, example of secular building can be seen in ruins of former capital city of Majapahit Kingdom (14th to 16th century AD) in Trowulan, East Java. The complex covers an area of 11 km x 9 km. It consists of various brick building, ranging from 20 to 40 meter-wide canal, purification pools, temples and iconic split gates.[34] The capital complex is currently being considered as a candidate for becoming a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

Traditional Javanese building can be identified by its trapezoid shaped roof supported by wooden pillars.[35] Another common feature in Javanese building is pendopo, a pavilion with open-side and four large pillars. The pillars and other part of the buildings can be richly carved. This architecture style can be found at kraton or palace of the Sultanates of Yogyakarta (palaces of Hamengkubuwono and Pakualaman) and Surakarta (palaces of Pakubuwono and Mangkunegaran).[36]

Traditional mosques in Java maintain a distinctive Javanese style. The pendopo model is used as main feature of the mosque as its prayer hall. A trapezoidal roof is used instead of the more typically Muslim dome. These roofs are often multi-tiered and tiled.[37] In addition to not using domes, traditional Javanese mosques also often lack minarets.[38] The split gate from earlier Hindu-Buddhist period is still used in many mosques and public buildings in Java.

Some notable examples of mosques using traditional Javanese architecture include Agung Demak Mosque, Menara Kudus Mosque and the Grand Mosque of Banten. The Kudus Mosque is also of note because it incorporates Hindu-style stone architecture.


Main article: Javanese cuisine
Example of Javanese cuisine. Clockwise: fried tempeh, mlinjo crackers, gudeg with rice wrapped in teak leaf, green chili sambal and sliced lime.
Nasi tumpeng, the quintessentially Javanese rice dish, symbolises the volcano.

Javanese cuisine and culture place an important role in rice, the staple food of the island. Among Javanese it is considered not to have a meal if a person hasn't eaten rice yet.[39] It is also important part of identity that differentiate Javanese with foreigners that eat bread (the Europeans) and resident of other island who eat sago (for example Moluccans). Rice is also symbol of development and prosperity, while cassava and tuber is associated with poverty.[40]

Javanese cuisine is varied by regions. Eastern Javanese cuisine has preference for more salty and hot foods,[40] while the Central Javanese prefer sweeter foods.

Famous food in Javanese cuisine is for example Rujak Cingur,[41] a marinated cow lips and noses, served with vegetable, shrimp prawn and peanut sauce with chili. Rojak Cingur is considered traditional food of Surabaya in East Java.

Gudeg is a traditional food from Yogyakarta[42] and Central Java which is made from young Nangka (jack fruit) boiled for several hours with palm sugar, and coconut milk.

Pecel, a type of peanut sauce with chili[43] is a common ingredient in Javanese cuisine. It is used in various type of Rujak and Gado-gado. It can also be used as stand alone sauce with rice and prawn, egg and vegetables as Nasi Pecel (Pecel rice).[44]

Tumpeng, is a rice served in the shape of a conical volcano,[45] usually with rice colored yellow using turmeric. It is an important part of ceremony in Java. Tumpeng served in landmark events such as birthday, moving house, or other ceremonies.[46] Traditionally, Tumpeng is served alongside fried chicken, boiled egg, vegetables, goat meat on a round plate made from bamboo called besek.

A notable food in Java is tempeh, a meat substitute made from soy bean fermented with mold. It is a staple source of protein in Java and popular in the world as an excellent meat substitute for vegetarians.


Main article: Javanese names

Javanese do not usually have family names or surnames. Many have just a single name. For example, Sukarno or Suharto. Javanese names may come from traditional Javanese languages, many of which are derived from Sanskrit. Names with the prefix Su-,which means good, are very popular. After the advent of Islam, many Javanese began to use Arabic names, especially coast populations, where Islamic influences are stronger. Commoners usually only have one-word names, while nobilities use two-or-more-word names, but rarely a surname. Due to the influence of other cultures, many people started using names from other languages, mainly European languages. Christian Javanese usually use Latin baptism names followed by a traditional Javanese name.

Some people use a patronymic. For example, Abdurrahman Wahid's name is derived from his father's name (Wahid Hasyim) who was an independence fighter and minister. In turn, Wahid Hasyim's name was derived from that of his father: Hasyim Asyari, a famous cleric and founder of the Nahdlatul Ulama organization.


Village in the slope of Mount Semeru, East Java. Colonial period painting.

In Indonesia, Javanese can be found in all occupations, especially in the government and the military.


Traditionally, most Javanese are farmers. This was especially common because of the fertile volcanic soil in Java. The most important agricultural commodity is rice. In 1997, it was estimated that Java produced 55% of Indonesian output of the crop.[47] Most farmers work small-scale rice field, with around 42% of farmers cultivate less than 0.5 hectare of rice field.[47] In region where soil is less fertile of where rainy season is short, other staple crops is cultivated, such as cassava.[48]


A decorative kris with a figure of Semar as the handle. The bilah has thirteen luk.

For the Javanese, blacksmiths are traditionally valued. Some blacksmiths fast, and meditate to reach perfection. Javanese blacksmiths provide a range of tools such as farming equipment and to cultural items such as gamelan instruments and kris.[48] Majapahit rigidly use fire-arms and cannonade as a feature of warfare. The Javanese bronze breech-loaded swivel-gun, more correctly known as a meriam was used ubiquitously by the Majapahit navy and unfortunately pirates and rival lords. The demise of the Majapahit empire also cause the flight of disaffected skilled bronze cannon-smiths to Brunei, modern Sumatra and Malaysia, and the Philippines lead to near universal use of the swivel-gun, especially on trade vessels to protect against prevalent marauding pirates, in the Makassar Strait.[49]

Kris is an important item, with many heirloom kris made by master blacksmiths holding significant historical value. The design of the keris, with its snake like blade, is to torn apart an opponents abdomen, making the injury more severe. While the Javanese canting, enables them to make intricate Batik.

Kota Gede is famous for its silverworks and silver handicrafts.[50]

Batik Making[edit]

Batik is traditionally done as a past time activity for women. But some town and villages have specialized in making Batik, such as Pekalongan, Kauman, Kampung Taman and Laweyan.

Wood carving[edit]

Javanese woodworkers making traditional masks during the Dutch East Indies era.

The Javanese art of wood carving is traditionally applied to various cultural attributes such as statues, (wayang-)dolls, and masks.


An illustration of a ship on a Borobudur relief.

Javanese were probably involved in Austronesian migration to Madagascar in the first centuries C.E. While the core culture of the migration is most closely related with Ma'anyan of Borneo, a portion of the Malagasy language is derived from loanwords from the Javanese language.[51]

Since the Hindu kingdom period, Javanese merchants settled at many places in the archipelago.[12]:247 In the late 15th century, following the collapse of Majapahit and the rise of Muslim principalities on the northern coast of Java, many Hindu nobilities, artisans and courtiers migrated to Bali,[13] where they would contribute to the refined culture of Bali. Others who refused to convert to Islam retreated to Tengger mountain, retaining their Hindu religions and became the Tenggerese people.

In the conflicts during the transitions of power between the Demak, the Pajang and the Mataram in the late 16th century, some Javanese migrated to Palembang in southern Sumatra. There they established a sultanate and formed a mix of Malay and Javanese culture.[52] Palembang language is a dialect of Malay language with heavy influence of Javanese.

During the reign of Sultan Agung (1613–1645), Javanese began to established settlements in coastal West Java around Cirebon, Indramayu and Karawang. These Javanese settlements were originally commissioned by Sultan Agung as rice farming villages to support the Javanese troop logistics on his military campaign against Dutch Batavia.

The Javanese also present in Peninsular Malaya since early times.[53] The Link between Java and Malacca was important during spread of Islam in Indonesia, when religious missionaries were sent from Malacca to seaports on the northern coast of Java.[15] Large migrations to the Malay Peninsula occurred during the colonial period, mostly from Central Java to British Malaya. From 1880 to 1930 migration from other parts of Java and secondary migration from Sumatra also took place during this period. Those migrations were to seek a new life away from the Dutch colonists who ruled Indonesia at that time. Today these people live throughout Peninsular Malaysia and are mainly concentrated in parts of Perak, Johor, Selangor, and Kedah. [54] In Singapore, approximately 50-60% of its Malay population have some degree of Javanese ancestry. Most of them have identified themselves as Malays, rather than Javanese.[55]

Javanese merchants were also present in the Maluku Islands as part of the spice trade. Following Islamization of Java, they spread Islam in the islands, with Ternate being a Muslim sultanate circa 1484.[56] Javanese merchants also converted coastal cities in Borneo to Islam.[57] The Javanese thus played an important part in transmitting Islam from the western part to the eastern part of the Archipelago with trade based from northern coast of Java.

Javanese migrant workers in Suriname. ca. 1940

New migration patterns emerged during colonial periods. During the rise of VOC power starting in the 17th century, many Javanese were exiled, enslaved or hired as mercenaries to Dutch colonies of Ceylon in South Asia and the Cape colony in South Africa. These included princes and nobility who lost their dispute with the Company and were exiled along with their retinues. These, along with exiles from other ethnicities like Bugis and Malay became the Sri Lankan Malay[19] and Cape Malay,[20] ethnic groups respectively. Other political prisoners were transported to closer places. For example Prince Diponegoro and his followers were transported to North Sulawesi, following his defeat in Java War in the early 19th century. Their descendants are well known as Jaton (abbreviation of "Jawa Tondano"/Tondano Javanese).

Major migrations started during the Dutch colonial period under Transmigration programs. The Dutch needed many laborers for their plantations, moved many Javanese under the program as contract workers, mostly to other part of the colony in Sumatra. But they also sent the Javanese workers to Suriname in South America. Today approximately 15% of the Suriname population is of Javanese ancestry.

The Transmigration program that was created by the Dutch was continued following Independence. A significant Javanese population can be found in the Jabodetabek (Greater Jakarta) area, Lampung, South Sumatra and Jambi provinces. Several paguyuban (traditional community organization) were formed by these Javanese immigrants, such as "Pujakesuma" (abbreviation of Indonesian: Putra Jawa Kelahiran Sumatera or Sumatra-born Javanese).

Notable people[edit]

See also[edit]


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  3. ^ Census of Population 2010 Table 5 - Malay Resident Population by Age Group, Dialect Group and Sex, Department of Statistics Singapore, retrieved 17 February 2013
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  5. ^ See: Javanese language: Politeness
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  • Caldarola, Carlo (1982), Religion and Societies: Asia and the Middle East, Walter de Gruyter 
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Further reading[edit]

  • Kuncaraningrat Raden Mas; Southeast Asian Studies Program (Institute of Southeast Asian Studies) (1985), Javanese culture, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-582542-8