Jayaatu Khan, Emperor Wenzong of Yuan

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Jayaatu Khan Tugh Temür
Emperor Wenzong of Yuan
Emperor of the Yuan Dynasty
Khagan of the Mongols
Emperor of China
YuanEmperorAlbumTughTemurPortrait.jpg
Portrait of Jayaatu Khan Tugh Temur (Emperor Wengzong) during the Yuan era.
Emperor of Yuan Dynasty
Reign 16 October 1328 – 3 April 1329
8 September 1329 – 2 September 1332
Coronation 16 October 1328
Predecessor Emperor Tianshun
Successor Emperor Mingzong
Predecessor Emperor Mingzong
Successor Emperor Ningzong
Consort Budashiri
Full name
Mongolian: ᠲᠥᠸᠲᠥᠮᠥᠷ
Chinese: 圖帖睦爾
Jayaatu Khan Tugh Temür
Era dates
Tianli (天曆) 1328–1330
Zhishun (至順) 1330–1332
Posthumous name
Emperor Shengming Yuanxiao
(聖明元孝皇帝)
Temple name
Wenzong (文宗)
Dynasty Yuan
Dynasty Borjigin
Father Kulug Khan
Born 16 February 1304
Died 2 September 1332 (aged 28–29)

Jayaatu Khan (Mongolian: Заяат хаан, Jayaγatu qaγan, 1304–1332), born Tugh Temür, also known as Emperor Wenzong of Yuan (Chinese: 元文宗, 16 February 1304 – 2 September 1332), was an Emperor of the Yuan Dynasty, and is regarded as the 12th Great Khan of the Mongols in Mongolia.

He first ruled from 16 October 1328 to 3 April 1329, second ruled from 8 September 1329 to 2 September 1332. Thanks to his father's loyal partisans, Tugh Temur did restore the line of Khayishan to the throne; but persecuted his eldest brother Kusala's family, and later expressed remorse for what he had done to him. His name means "Blessed/lucky Khan" in the Mongolian language.

Tugh Temur sponsored many cultural activities, wrote poetry, painted, and read the classical texts.[1] Examples of his quite competent poetry and calligraphy have survived. He mandated and closely monitored the compilation called "The Imperial Dynasty's grand institutions for managing the world"; through this textual production, he proclaimed his reign as new beginning, which took stock of the administrative practices and rules of the past and looked forward to a fresh chapter in Mongolian dynastic governance.[2] But his reign was brief, and his administration was in the hands of powerful ministers, such as El Temür of the Qipchaq and Bayan of the Merkid who had helped him to win the succession struggle in 1328.

Early life[edit]

He was the second son of Khayishan (Külüg Khan or Emperor Wuzong) and a Tangut woman, and a younger brother of Kuśala. When his father Khayishan suddenly died and his younger brother Ayurbarwada inherited leadership in 1311, he and his brother were removed from the central government by his grandmother Dagi and other Khunggirad faction members including Temüder since they were not mothered by Khunggirad khatuns. After Ayurbarwada's son Shidibala ascended the throne in 1320, Tugh Temür was banished to Hainan.[3] When Shidibala was assassinated and Yesün Temür took over as the new ruler, conditions improved for Tugh Temur. He was given the title of Prince of Huai (Chinese: 懷王) and relocated to Jiankang (modern-day Nanjing) and then to Jiangling.[4] By this time he already showed a wide range of scholarly and artistic interests and had surrounded himself with many distinguished Chinese literati and artists. As the persecuted sons of Khayisan Kulug Khan, Tugh Temur and Kusala still enjoyed a measure of sympathy among the Borjigin princes and, more importantly, the lingering loyalty of some of their father's followers who had survived various political purges.

Civil war[edit]

The death of Yesün Temür Khan in Shangdu in 1328 gave Khayisan's line an opportunity to surface. But it was mainly due to El Temür's political ingenuity, whose Qipchaq family reached its zenith under Khayisan. He activated a conspiracy in Dadu to overthrow the late Khagan's court. He and his entourages enjoyed enormous geographical and economic advantages over the loyalists of Yesun Temur. Tugh Temür was recalled to Dadu by El Temür since his more influential brother Kuśala stayed in far-away Central Asia. He was installed as the new ruler in Dadu in September while Yesün Temür's son Ragibagh succeeded to the throne in Shangdu with the support from Yesün Temür's favorite retainer Dawlat Shah. Not everyone who participated in the movement had ties as close as El Temür's to Khayisan's family.[5] The restorationists under El Temür had the extensive human and material resources of Zhongshu, Hunan, Jiangzhe, Jiangxi and Huguang provinces whereas the loyalists at Shangdu took the support of only Lingbei, Liaoyang, Shaanxi, Sichuan and Yunnan, all of which were geographically peripheral.[6]

Ragibagh's forces broke through the Great Wall at several points, and penetrated as far as the outskirts of Dadu. El Temür, however, was able to turn the tide quickly in his favor. The restorationists from Manchuria and eastern Mongolia launched a surprise attack on the loyalists. Their army under the command of Bukha Temur and Orlug Temur, descendants of Genghis Khan's brothers, surrounded Shangdu on 14 November, at a time most of the loyalists were involved on the Great Wall front.[7] The loyalists in Shangdu surrendered on the very next day, and Dawlat Shah and most of the leading loyalists were taken prisoner and later executed. Ragibagh was reported to be missing.[8] With the surrender of Shangdu, the way to restoring Khayisan's imperial line was cleared.

However, the loyalists elsewhere carried on fighting for much longer. Indeed, the loyalists in Shanxi did not lay down their arms until December 1328, and their counterparts in Sichuan surrendered only in the following month.[9] Early in the next year there was a revolt in Yunnan, where the Prince Tugel declared himself independent. Troops were sent against him, and were ordered to march by the country of Pa fan. With the support of the province's aboriginal tribes, such as the Lolos and other tribes of Miaotze on the borders of Yunnan, Tugel successfully resisted the imperial army. The Yuan army under the command of Temur Buka was defeated, and sent for reinforcements. Upon which the Prince Yuntu Temur was ordered to withdraw 20,000 men from the provinces of Jiangzhe, Jiangxi and Henan Jiangbei, and to lead them by way of Huguang towards Yunnan.[10]

Regicide and purge[edit]

At the same time, however, his elder brother Kuśala gathered support from princes and generals in Mongolia and Chagatai Khanate and entered Karakorum with the overwhelming military presence. Realizing disadvantages, Tugh Temür declared abdication and summoned his brother. Accompanied by the Chagatayid Khan Eljigidey, Kusala in response enthroned himself on 27 February 1329 north of Karakorum.[11] El Temür brought the imperial seal to Kuśala in Mongolia and announced Dadu's intent to welcome him, and Tugh Temür was made heir apparent. According to an oral tradition, Kusala's retainers treated him discourteously when he came to the camp of Kusala, thus making him both fearful and angry.[12] But Kusala thanked El Temür and appointed him grand councillar of the right wing of the Secretariat with the title of Darqan taishi.[13] Kuśala had proceeded to appoint his own loyal followers to important posts in the Secretariat, the Bureau of Military Affairs, and the Censorate.

On his way to Dadu, in 26 August, Kuśala met with Tugh Temür in Ongghuchad near Shangdu. Only 4 days after a banquet with Tugh Temür, he suddenly died, or was supposedly killed with poison by El Temür since he feared being lost power to princes and officers of Chaghadayid Khanate and Mongolia, who followed Kuśala. Tugh Temür was restored to the throne on 8 September 1329. His conspiracy and victory over the loyalists and the death of Kusala eliminated the power of the steppe candidates from Mongolia.

Tugh Temur's administration carried out a bloody purge against its enemies. Not only leading supporters of Yesün Temür's successor Raghibagh were executed and exiled, but their properties were confiscated. Tugh Temur denied posthumous names of Yesün Temür and Raghibagh, and destroyed the chamber in the imperial shrine which contained the tablet of Yesün Temür's father Gammala. El Temür purged pro-Kuśala officers and brought power to warlords.

Reign[edit]

Administration and court life[edit]

The four-year reign of Jayaatu Khan Tugh Temur was dominated by El Temur and Bayan of the Merkid. As the persons who had been chiefly responsible for making the restoration possible, they acquired a measure of power and honor that had never before been attained by any official in the Yuan. They built their own power bases in the bureaucracy and the military, and their role overshadowed Tugh Temur. Tugh Temur honored his father's former ministers and gave them honorific titles, and restored the honors of Sanpo and Toghto who had been persecuted by Ayurbarwada. The participants in the restoration were given most of the positions of importance in his administration. A few of the Muslims held posts in provinces, however, they did not have any position in the central government.

In the latter part of 1330 the Emperor went in person to perform the great sacrifice to the sky, which was done by deputy. This was followed by a general amnesty, and by the proclamation of his young son Aratnadara as heir apparent in January 1331. Tugh Temur's consort Budashiri, having a grudge against Babusha, the widow of Kusala, had her assassinated by an eunuch.[14] Then she sent Kusala's son Toghan Temur in exile to Korea to secure her son's succession; but Aratnadara died one month after his designation as heir.[15] This sudden death of his son completely upset Tugh Temur's plan for succession. Jayaatu Khan Tugh Temur caused his another son, Gunadara (Kulatana), to live with El Temur and recognize him as his father, and changed his name to El Tegus.[16]

Because a budget deficit of the government drastically increased, and reached 2.3 million ding of paper currency in 1330 alone, Tugh Temur's court attempted to curtail its spending on such items as imperial grants, Buddhist sacrifices, and palace expenses. With those measures, they could keep the budget deficit within manageable figure, and had sufficient grain reserves at its disposal.

Rebellion[edit]

The added costs of the war against the loyalists and the suppression of the revolts by the ethnic minorities, and natural disasters heavily taxed resources of Tugh Temur's government. The war in Yunnan continued with doubtful success, but the Imperial general Aratnashiri having collected an army of 100,000 men, defeated the Lolos and other mountaineers, and killed two of their chiefs. He seems to have quelled the rebellion and pacified Yunnan and Sichuan. Lo yu, one of the rebel chiefs in Yunnan, had escaped to the mountains; he collected a body of his people, and, dividing them into sixty small parties, overran the country of Chunyuen, where they committed frightful devastation. A force marched against them and Tugh Temur's army stormed their chief stronghold. Three sons and two brothers of Prince Tugel were made prisoners, while a third brother drowned himself rather than fall into the hands of the imperial army. Tugel's partisans gave up their cause in March 1332.[17] This campaigns costed 630,000 ding of paper currency.[18] Tugh Temur, who preferred luxury life, hardly deigned to show any interest in this distant campaign. The conduct of the Emperor caused much discontent, and Yelu Timur, son of Ananda who attempted to take the throne in 1307, in conjunction with the heads of the Lama religion in China, formed a plot to displace him; but this was discovered, and they were duly punished.

Academy, arts and learning[edit]

The Bailin Temple Pagoda of Zhaoxian County, Hebei Province, built in 1330 during the Yuan Dynasty.

Tugh Temür had a good knowledge of the Chinese language and history and was also a creditable poet, calligrapher, and painter. With his actual power greatly circumscribed by El Temür, Tugh Temür is known for his cultural contribution. Posing as a cultivated sovereign of the Yuan, Tugh Temür adopted many measures honoring Confucianism and promoting Chinese cultural values. In 1330, he awarded laudatory titles to several past Confucian sages and masters, and himself performed the suburban offerings (Chinese: 孝祖) to Heaven, and thus became the first Yuan emperor to perform in person this important traditional Chinese state observance.[19] To promote Confucian morality, the court each year honored many men and women who were known for their filial piety and chastity.

To prevent the Chinese from following Mongolian and hence un-Confucian customs, the government decreed in 1330 that men who took their widowed stepmothers or sister-in-law as wives, in violation of their own community's customs, would be punished. In the mean time, to encourage the Mongols and the Muslims to follow the Chinese customs, the officials of these two ethnic groups were allowed in 1329 to observe the Chinese custom of three years of mourning for deceased parents. He supported Zhu Xi's Neo-Confucianism and also devoted himself in Buddhism. He supervised the construction of the Stupa of Master Zhaozhou in the Buddhist Bailin Temple.

His most concrete effort to patronize Chinese learning was his founding of the Academy of the Pavilion of the Star of Literature (Chinese: 奎章閣學士院), first established in the spring of 1329, and was designed to undertake "a number of tasks relating to the transmission of Confucian high culture to the Mongolian imperial establishment". These tasks included the elucidation of the Confucian classics and Chinese history to the emperor; the education of the scions of high-ranking notables and the younger members of the kesig; the collection, collation, and compilation of books; and the appraisal and classifications of the paintings and calligraphic works in the imperial collection. Of the 113 officials successively serving in the academy, there were many distinguished Chinese literati, and the best Mongolian and Muslim scholars of Chinese learning of the time. Concentrating so many talents in one governmental organ to perform various literary, artistic, and educational activities was unprecedented not only in the Yuan Dynasty but also in Chinese history.

The academy was responsible for compiling and publishing a number of books. But its most important achievement was its compilation of a vast institutional compendium named Jingshi Dadian (Chinese: 經世大典, "Grand canon for governing the world"). The purpose of bringing together and systematizing all important Yuan official documents and laws in this work according to the pattern of Huiyao (Chinese: 會要, "Comprehensive essentials of institutions") of the Tang and Song dynasties was apparently to demonstrate that Yuan rule was as perfect as that of earlier Chinese dynasties. Started in May 1330, this ambitious project was completed in thirteen months. It later provided the basis for the various treatises of the Yuanshi (History of Yuan), which was compiled at the beginning of the Ming Dynasty.

Mongol Empire[edit]

Action was also taken to win recognition from the other Mongolian khanates to be accepted as their nominal suzerain. Tugh Temür sent 3 princes with lavish gifts to the Golden Horde and the Ilkhanate.[20] And he also sent Muqali's descendant Naimantai to Eljigidey, who strongly supported Kusala, to give the royal seal and gifts in order to mollify his anger. However, Tugh Temur made regarding success, and saw favorable responses.[21]

The western Mongol khanates under Abu Said, Eljigidey, Tarmashirin and Ozbeg sent total 14 tributary missions to the Yuan court during his reign.[22] The Chagatayid prince Changshi, who would later become khan, sent 170 Russian captives to Tugh Temür.[23] Tugh Temür rewarded him with precious stones. There were settlements of Russians in Dadu and eastern Mongolia.[24] Tugh Temür formed a regiment composed of them as Ever faithful Russian (Ulosz or Urosh) life guard in 1330, and appointed Bayan head of the kheshigs. The Emperor was also given more Russian captives by Mongol princes in Moghulistan and Ozbeg Khan. Pope John XXII was presented a memorandum from the eastern church describing the Pax Mongolica of the Mongol Empire that "...Khagan is one of the greatest monarchs, and all lords of this state, e.g. the king of Almaligh (Chagatai Khanate), emperor Abu Said and Uzbek Khan, are his subjects, who salute his holiness to pay their respects. These three monarchs send their sovereign cheetahs, camels, falcons as well as precious jewelries every year...They acknowledge him as their absolute supreme lord.".[25]

Later life[edit]

Due to the fact that the bureaucracy was dominated by El Temür, whose despotic rule clearly marked the decline of the empire, the actual impact of the Academy of the Pavilion of the Star of Literature on the government as a whole was limited. El Temür eventually seized control of the academy in early 1332, just six months before the death of Tugh Temür. The academy had come to an end after Tugh Temür's death. Although El Tegüs was still alive, on his deathbed the Khagan expressed remorse for what he had done to his elder brother, Kusala, and his intention to pass the throne to Toghan Temur. After Jayaatu Khan Tugh Temur died on 2 September 1332, Kuśala's second son Rinchinbal was installed by El Temür only at the age of six because Toghan Temur was far away from the central government.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Frederick W. Mote-Imperial China 900–1800, p.471
  2. ^ On Cho Ng, Q. Edward Wang-Mirroring the past, p.184
  3. ^ Herbert Franke, Denis Twitchett, John King Fairbank-The Cambridge History of China: Alien regimes and border states, 907–1368, p.542
  4. ^ Yuan shi, 35. p.387
  5. ^ Herbert Franke, Denis Twitchett, John King Fairbank-The Cambridge History of China: Alien regimes and border states, 907–1368 , p.542
  6. ^ Dardess-Conquerors and Confucians, pp.39–42
  7. ^ Yuan shi, 32, pp.605
  8. ^ Frederick W. Mote- Imperial China 900–1800, p.471
  9. ^ Herbert Franke, Denis Twitchett, John King Fairbank-The Cambridge History of China: Alien regimes and border states, 907–1368, p.544
  10. ^ Yuan shi, 31, pp.697
  11. ^ Herbert Franke, Denis Twitchett, John King Fairbank-The Cambridge History of China: Alien regimes and border states, 907–1368, p.545
  12. ^ Fujishima Tateki-Gen no Minso no Shogai, p.22
  13. ^ Sh.Tseyen-Oidov-Chinggis bogdoos Ligden Khutughtu hurtel (khaad), p.108
  14. ^ It is said that Budashiri accused her of installing his son Toghan Temur to the throne instead of the living khan's line
  15. ^ Herbert Franke, Denis Twitchett, John King Fairbank-The Cambridge History of China: Alien regimes and border states, 907–1368 , p.557
  16. ^ Yuan shi, 35, p.790
  17. ^ Yuan shi, 31, p.701
  18. ^ li-Yuan shih hsian chiang, vol.3, p.527
  19. ^ Henry H.Howorth-History of the Mongols: From the 9th to the 19th Century: part 1, p.309
  20. ^ Herbert Franke, Denis Twitchett- Alien Regimes and Border States, 907–1368 p.543
  21. ^ Herbert Franke, Denis Twitchett- Alien Regimes and Border States, 907–1368 p.550
  22. ^ The Chaghadaids and Islam: the conversion of Tarmashirin Khan (1331–34), The Journal of the American Oriental Society 2002 – Biran, Michal, Yuan shi, Vladimir Vernadsky – Mongols and Rus, Cambridge history of China, p. 550
  23. ^ Henri Cordier, Marco Polo, Henry Yule- Ser Marco Polo, p.130
  24. ^ Encyclopaedia Britannica Publishers, Inc. Staff, Encyclopaedia Britannica, inc-The New Encyclopaedia Britannica, p.109
  25. ^ G.V.Vernadsky – The Mongols and Russia, p.93
  • The Cambridge History of China By Denis Twitchett, Herbert Franke, John K. Fairbank ISBN 0-521-24331-9, Cambridge University Press, 1994
  • Mediaeval Researches from Eastern Asiatic Sources By E. Bretschneider, Routledge ISBN 0-415-24486-2, Routledge, 2001
  • "The Chaghadaids and Islam: the conversion of Tarmashirin Khan (1331–34)". The Journal of the American Oriental Society, 1 October 2002. Biran
Jayaatu Khan, Emperor Wenzong of Yuan
Died: 1332
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Ragibagh Khan, Emperor Tianshun
Emperor of the Yuan Dynasty (1st Time)
1328–1329
Succeeded by
Khutughtu Khan, Emperor Mingzong
Preceded by
Khutughtu Khan, Emperor Mingzong
Emperor of the Yuan Dynasty (2nd Time)
1329–1332
Succeeded by
Rinchinbal Khan, Emperor Ningzong
Preceded by
Ragibagh Khan
Great Khan of the Mongol Empire
1328–1329
Succeeded by
Khutughtu Khan
Preceded by
Khutughtu Khan
Great Khan of the Mongol Empire
1329–1332
Succeeded by
Rinchinbal Khan
Preceded by
Emperor Tianshun
Emperor of China (1st Time)
1328–1329
Succeeded by
Emperor Mingzong
Preceded by
Emperor Mingzong
Emperor of China (2nd Time)
1329–1332
Succeeded by
Emperor Ningzong

See also[edit]