Jayalalithaa

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For the Telugu actress, see Jayalalita.
In this Indian name, the name Jayaram is a patronymic, not a family name, and the person should be referred to by the given name, Jayalalithaa.
Jayalalithaa
ஜெயா லலிதா
Jayalalithaa1.jpg
Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu
Incumbent
Assumed office
16 May 2011
Preceded by Karunanidhi
Constituency Srirangam
In office
2 March 2002 – 12 May 2006
Preceded by O. Panneerselvam
Succeeded by Karunanidhi
Constituency Andipatti
In office
14 May 2001 – 21 September 2001
Preceded by Karunanidhi
Succeeded by O. Panneerselvam
Constituency Did not contest
In office
24 June 1991 – 12 May 1996
Preceded by President's rule
Succeeded by Karunanidhi
Constituency Bargur
Personal details
Born Komalavalli
(1948-02-24) 24 February 1948 (age 66)
Mysore, Mysore State, India
Political party All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam
Residence Veda Nilayam, 81/36, Poes Garden, Chennai-600 086

Jayalalithaa Jayaram (born 24 February 1948), commonly referred to as Jayalalithaa, is an Indian politician who has been Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu since 2011. Previously she served as chief minister from 1991 to 1996, briefly in 2001, and from 2002 to 2006. She was a popular film star in Indian cinema before her entry into politics, having appeared as the lead heroine in over 140 films which includes films in Tamil, Telugu, Kannada and worked in one Hindi film. She is the incumbent general secretary of All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (AIADMK). She is called 'Amma' ('Mother') and sometimes 'Puratchi Thalaivi' ('Revolutionary Leader') by her followers.[1]

Although there have been claims that Jayalalithaa was introduced to politics by M. G. Ramachandran, she has denied this. She was a member of the Rajya Sabha elected from Tamil Nadu during 1984–89. Soon after the death of Ramachandran, Jayalalithaa proclaimed herself as his political heir. She is the second elected female chief minister of Tamil Nadu.

Early life and education[edit]

Jayalalithaa was born on 24 February 1948, at Melukote, in Pandavapura taluk of Mandya district, Mysore State (now Karnataka). Her grandfather was in the service of the then Mysore kingdom as a surgeon, and the prefix 'Jaya' ('the victorious') was added to the names of various family members to reflect their association with Maharaja Jayachamarajendra Wodeyar of Mysore.[1] Her mother called her Komalavalli.[2]

Jayalalithaa's father died when she was two years old.[1] Her mother then moved to Bangalore, where her parents lived, with Jayalalithaa. Her mother eventually began to work as an actress in Tamil cinema, based in Chennai, having taken the screen name of Sandhya.[1] While in Bangalore, Jayalalithaa attended Bishop Cotton Girls' School.[3] She completed her childhood education at Sacred Heart Matriculation School (popularly known as Church Park Presentation Convent or Presentation Church Park Convent) in Chennai.[4] She excelled at school and was offered a government scholarship to pursue further education.[3] She appears not to have accepted the admission offered to her at Stella Maris College, Chennai.[1]

She is fluent in several languages, including English, Hindi, Kannada, Malayalam, Tamil and Telugu.[5]

Film career[edit]

Early career[edit]

Her mother persuaded her to work in films when Jayalalithaa was 15 years old and was still in school, taking assurances from producers that shooting would take place only during summer vacations and that she would not miss her classes. Jayalalithaa acted in an English language film, Epistle, released in 1961. She made her debut as the lead actress in Kannada films while still in school, age 15, in Chinnada Gombe (1964).[1] Jayalalithaa's debut in Tamil cinema was a role in Vennira Aadai (1965), directed by C. V. Sridhar. The following year, she made her debut in Telugu cinema with Manushulu Mamathalu. She was the first heroine to appear in skirts in Tamil films.[6] She acted in one Hindi film called Izzat, with Dharmendra as her male costar in 1968.[7]

Later career[edit]

In 1972, Jayalalithaa acted in Pattikada Pattanama opposite Sivaji Ganesan, which went onto win the National Film Award for Best Feature Film in Tamil in 1973. It fetched her a Filmfare Award for Best Actress. Her performance in Suryakanthi and Chandradhoyam were critically acclaimed and the former won her another Filmfare Award for Best Actress in 1973. The same year she acted in the Telugu Sri Krishna Satya and won her third Filmfare Award for Best Actress.[8] Her other films with Sivaji Ganesan include Galatta Kalyanam and Deiva Magan. Deiva Magan holds the distinction of being the first Tamil film to be submitted by India for an Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film.[9] She continued pairing up with younger actors such as Ravichandran and Jaishankar in a number of films such as Vairam, Baghdad Perazhagi.[10][11] Later Tamil films in which she acted included Kandan Karunai.[12] Her last film was Nadhiyai Thedi Vandha Kadal which was released in 1980.[7] During the 1960s and 1970s, she starred opposite M. G. Ramachandran in a number of successful films, including Aayirathil Oruvan, Kavalkaran, Adimai Penn, Engal Thangam, Kudiyirundha Koyil, Ragasiya Police 115 and Nam Naadu.[7][13]

Political career[edit]

Early political career[edit]

Although there have been claims that Ramachandran, who had been chief minister for the state since 1977, was instrumental in introducing Jayalalithaa to politics, she has denied it.[1][14] In 1982, she joined the AIADMK, which was founded by Ramachandran.[15] Her maiden public speech, Pennin Perumai (the Greatness of a Woman), was delivered at the political conference of the AIADMK that year.[16] In 1983, she became propaganda secretary for the party and was selected as AIADMK candidate in the by-election for the Tiruchendur Assembly constituency.[15]

Ramachandran wanted her to be a member of the Rajya Sabha because of her fluency in English.[17] Jayalalithaa was nominated and elected to that body as a Member of Parliament in 1984 and retained her seat until 1989.[18] She was successful in her role as Propaganda Secretary and this caused resentment among high-ranking members of the party. Those members engineered a rift between her and Ramachandran, among the alleged consequences of which was that Ramachandran stopped Jayalalithaa writing about her personal life in a Tamil magazine. Despite these machinations, she remained admired by the rank and file of the party.[1]

In 1984, when Ramachandran was incapacitated due to a stroke, Jayalalithaa was said to have attempted to take over the position of chief minister or the party on the pretext that his health would prevent him from the proper execution of his duties.[19] She successfully led the campaign in the 1984 general elections, in which the ADMK allied with the Congress.[18]

Ramachandran died in 1987 and following this the AIADMK split into two factions, with one section supporting his widow, Janaki Ramachandran, and the other favouring Jayalalithaa. Janaki was selected as the Chief minister on 7 January 1988 with the support of 96 members and she won the confidence motion in the house, following irregularities by the speaker P.H. Pandian, who dismissed six members to ease her victory. However, the Indian Central Government under the late Rajiv Gandhi used Article 356 of the Constitution of India to dismiss the Janaki led government and impose President's rule on the State.[1][20][21]

Jayalalithaa fought the subsequent 1989 elections on the basis of being MGR's political heir.[22][23]

Leader of the Opposition, 1989[edit]

She was elected to the Tamil Nadu Legislative Assembly in 1989 as a representative of the Bodinayakkanur (State Assembly Constituency). This election saw the Jayalalithaa-led faction of the AIADMK win 27 seats and Jayalalithaa became the first woman to be elected Leader of the Opposition. In February 1989, the two factions of ADMK merged and they unanimously accepted Jayalalithaa as their leader and the "Two leaves" symbol of the party was restored.[18] On 25 March 1989, quoted as one of the worst incidents to have happened in the Tamil Nadu Legislative Assembly, there was heavy violence inside the house among the ruling DMK party members and the opposition. There were allegedly rude remarks made by Karunanidhi, the chief minister, on Jayalilatha. The heated conversation lead to some of the ADMK members tearing the budget report to be read by the ruling party. Mikes were broken and shoes were thrown at Jayalalithaa. At the peak of the situation, when Jayalalithaa was about to leave the house, Durai Murugan, a DMK minister, was seen pulling her saree. She took a vow that she would not attend the house until the conditions are fit for women to attend, which is seen by a section of the media as "not until I enter the house as a Chief Minister". Though some sections of media term it as a theatrics launched by Jayalalithaa, it got a lot of media coverage and sympathy from the public.[24][25][26] During the 1989 general elections, the ADMK allied with the Congress party and had a significant victory. The ADMK, under her leadership, won the by-elections in Marungapuri, Madurai East and Peranamallur assembly constituencies.[18]

First term as Chief Minister, 1991[edit]

In 1991, following the assassination of Rajiv Gandhi days before the elections, her alliance with the Indian National Congress enabled her to ride the wave of sympathy that gave the coalition victory.[27][28] The ADMK alliance with the Congress won 225 out of the 234 seats contested and won all 40 constituencies in the centre.[18] Re-elected to the assembly, she became the first elected female chief minister and the youngest ever chief minister of Tamil Nadu, serving the full tenure from 24 June 1991 to 12 May 1996.[18][21] In 1992, her government introduced the "Cradle Baby Scheme". At that time the ratio of male to female in some parts of Tamil Nadu was skewed by the practice of female infanticide and the abortion of female foetuses. The government established centres in some areas, these being equipped to receive and place into adoption unwanted female babies. The scheme was extended in 2011.[29] Her party had 26 elected members to the assembly. Her government was the first to introduce police stations operated solely by women. She introduced 30 per cent quota for women in all police jobs and established as many as 57 all-women police stations. There were other all-women establishments like libraries, stores, banks and co-operative elections.[30]

Loss of power, 1996[edit]

The Jayalalithaa-led AIADMK lost power in the 1996 elections, when it won 4 of the 168 seats that they contested.[31] Jayalalithaa was herself defeated by the DMK candidate in Bargur Constituency.[32] The outcome has been attributed to an anti-incumbency sentiment and several allegations of corruption and malfeasance against her and her ministers.[28][31] The wedding event of her foster son Sudhakaran, who married a granddaughter of the Tamil film actor Shivaji Ganesan, was held on 7 September 1995 at Chennai and was viewed on large screens by over 150,000 people. The event holds two Guinness World Records: one is for the most guests at a wedding and the other is for being the largest wedding banquet.[1][33][34] Subsequently, in November 2011, Jayalalithaa told a special court than the entire Rs. 6 Crore expenses associated with the wedding were paid by the family of the bride.[35]

Second term as Chief Minister, 2001[edit]

Jayalalithaa was barred from standing as a candidate in the 2001 elections because she had been found guilty of criminal offences, including allegedly obtaining property belonging to a state-operated agency called TANSI. Although she appealed to the Supreme Court, having been sentenced to five years' imprisonment, the matter had not been resolved at the time of the elections.[36] Despite this, the AIADMK won a majority and she was installed as Chief Minister as a non-elected member of the state assembly on 14 May 2001.[21]

Her appointment was legally voided in September 2001 when the Supreme Court ruled that she could not hold it whilst convicted of criminal acts.[36] O. Panneerselvam, a minister in her party, was subsequently installed as the Chief Minister. However, his government was purported to have been puppeted and micro-managed by Jayalalithaa.[21][37]

Subsequently, in March 2002, Jayalalithaa assumed the position of Chief Minister once more, having been acquitted of some charges by the Madras High Court.[38] This cleared the way for her to contest a mid-term poll to the Andipatti constituency, after the sitting MLA for the seat, gave up his membership, which she won by a handsome margin.[39] India's first company of female police commandos was set up in Tamil Nadu in 2003. They underwent the same training as their male counterparts, covering the handling of weapons, detection and disposal of bombs, driving, horseriding, and adventure sports.[40]

Jayalaithaa and US Secretary Hillary Clinton

Third term as Chief Minister, 2011[edit]

In April 2011 the AIADMK was part of a 13-party alliance that won the 14th state assembly elections. Jayalalithaa was sworn in as the chief minister of Tamil Nadu for the third time on 16 May 2011, having been elected unanimously as the leader of the AIADMK party subsequent to those elections.[41] On 19 December 2011, Jayalalithaa expelled her long-time close aide Sasikala Natarajan and 13 others from the AIADMK. Most of the party members welcomed her decision,[42] and on 2 February 2012, Tehelka magazine claimed that Natarajan and some of her relatives were conspiring to kill her by poisoning her food over a period of time.[43] The matter was resolved by 31 March, when Sasikala Natarajan was reinstated as a party member after issuing a written apology.[44]

Legislative career[edit]

Elections contested[edit]

Year Constituency Result Vote percentage Opposition Candidate Opposition Party Opposition vote percentage
1989 Bodinayakkanur Won 54.51 Muthumanokaran DMK 27.27[45]
1991 Bargur, Kangayam Won 69.3 T. Rajhendher TMK 29.34[32]
1996 Bargur Lost 43.54 E. G. Sugavanam DMK 50.71[32]
2001 Andipatti,
Krishnagiri,
Bhuvanagiri,
Pudukkottai
Nomination rejected[46]
2002 Andipatti Won 58.22 Vaigai Sekar DMK 27.64[39]
2006 Andipatti Won 55.04 Seeman DMK 36.29[47]
2011 Srirangam Won 58.99 N Anand DMK 35.55[48][49]

Honours[edit]

Jayalalithaa has received several honorary doctorates and other honours since that awarded to her in 1991 by the University of Madras.[50][51][52] In 1972 she was awarded the Kalaimamani by the Government of Tamil Nadu.[50]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Srinivasaraju, Sugata (21 March 2011). "The Road To Ammahood". Outlook India. Retrieved 10 November 2013. 
  2. ^ "In school her name was Komalavalli". DNA. 7 May 2006. Retrieved 10 November 2013. 
  3. ^ a b "Profile". Government of Tamil Nadu. Archived from the original on 3 March 2009. Retrieved 10 November 2013. 
  4. ^ Raman, A. S. (September 2001). "The Iron Lady of India". The Contemporary Review. Retrieved 10 November 2013. 
  5. ^ "Jayalalitha to debut in Hindi for campaigns". The Economic Times. IANS. 8 April 2007. Retrieved 10 November 2013. 
  6. ^ Nadar, Ganesh (6 May 2004). "J Jayalalithaa: The Iron Lady". Rediff. Retrieved 3 September 2011. 
  7. ^ a b c "Who is J Jayalalithaa?". Chennai: NDTV. 17 May 2012. Retrieved 10 November 2013. 
  8. ^ TOI 1984, p. 305
  9. ^ R.L, Hardgrave (1979). Essays in the political sociology of South India. Usha. p. 120. 
  10. ^ "Vairam". India Glitz. 2013. Retrieved 10 November 2013. 
  11. ^ "Baghdad Perazhagi". IMDB. 2013. Retrieved 10 November 2013. 
  12. ^ "Box office report of 1968". Box Office India. Retrieved 10 November 2013. 
  13. ^ Ramaswamy 2007, p. 101
  14. ^ "Personality cult". BBC. 30 March 2009. Retrieved 10 November 2013. 
  15. ^ a b "Political Career". Government of Tamil Nadu. Retrieved 10 November 2013. 
  16. ^ "MGR: The original 'ladies man'". Times of India. 13 March 2010. Retrieved 10 November 2013. 
  17. ^ Nalpat, Madhav (25 December 2011). "First impressions". The Sunday Guardian (New Delhi). Retrieved 10 November 2013. 
  18. ^ a b c d e f "Honourable Chief Ministe r". Tamil Nadu Legislative Assembly. Retrieved 10 November 2013. 
  19. ^ Pillai, Ajith; Panneerselvan, A. S. (4 May 1998). "The Life And Times of Jayalalitha". outlookindia. Retrieved 10 November 2013. 
  20. ^ Jagmohan 2007, pp. 303-305
  21. ^ a b c d "List of Chief Ministers in Tamil Nadu". Tamil Nadu Legislative Assembly. Retrieved 10 November 2013. 
  22. ^ "I'm the political heir of MGR: Jayalalitha". Zee News. 13 March 2010. Retrieved 10 November 2013. 
  23. ^ "I'm MGR's true heir: Jayalalithaa". Chennai, India: The Hindu. 15 February 2002. Retrieved 10 November 2013. 
  24. ^ Vaasanthi 2008, pp. 86-88
  25. ^ "1989 ugly episode haunts the House". The Hindu (Chennai). 26 March 2003. Retrieved 10 November 2013. 
  26. ^ Jacob, Satish (1 July 2001). "Rival's revenge in Tamil Nadu". BBC. Retrieved 10 November 2013. 
  27. ^ Das 2005, p. 45
  28. ^ a b Ramaswamy 2007, p. xxxiv
  29. ^ "TN: Cradle Baby Scheme In Districts With Low Sex Ratio". Chennai: Outlook India. PTI. 24 July 2011. Retrieved 10 November 2013. 
  30. ^ Vanitha 2007, p. 158
  31. ^ a b T.S., Subramanian (13–26 December 1997). "No respite". Frontline 14 (25). Retrieved 10 November 2013. 
  32. ^ a b c "Party wise comparison since 1977 in Bargur constituency". Election Commission of India. Retrieved 10 November 2013. 
  33. ^ "Largest wedding banquet/reception". guinnessworldrecords. Retrieved 10 November 2013. 
  34. ^ "Most wedding guests". guinnessworldrecords. Retrieved 10 November 2013. 
  35. ^ Kumar, Anil (22 November 2011). "My foster son's Rs6 cr. wedding expense not paid by me". The Times of India. Retrieved 10 November 2013. 
  36. ^ a b Subramanian, T. S. (21 May 2001). "The disqualification debate". Frontline 18 (10). Retrieved 10 November 2013. 
  37. ^ "Panneerselvam govt only a temporary arrangement". The Times of India. 22 September 2001. Retrieved 17 June 2013. 
  38. ^ Ramakrishnan, T. (15 May 2011). "End of 7-year lean phase for AIADMK". The Hindu (Chennai, India). Retrieved 17 June 2013. 
  39. ^ a b T., Ramakrishnan (20 January 2002). "The conundrum in an AIADMK stronghold". The Hindu. Retrieved 10 November 2013. 
  40. ^ Haviland, Charles (10 June 2003). "Indian women join elite police". BBC. Retrieved 10 November 2013. 
  41. ^ "Jayalalithaa sworn in Tamil Nadu Chief Minister". Chennai, India: The Hindu. 16 March 2011. Retrieved 16 March 2011. 
  42. ^ "Jaya expels close aide Sasikala, husband from AIADMK". IndianExpress. 19 December 2011. Retrieved 30 December 2011. 
  43. ^ "Did Modi & a Gujarati help Jaya fight Sasikala's mafia?". DNA. 2 February 2012. Retrieved 17 June 2013. 
  44. ^ "Sasikala back at Poes Garden". The New Indian Express. 3 April 2012. Retrieved 10 November 2013. 
  45. ^ "Party wise comparison since 1977 in Bodinayakkanur constituency". Election Commission of India. Retrieved 10 November 2013. 
  46. ^ J., Venkatesan (31 March 2012). "Jayalalithaa's SLP listed for final hearing in July". The Hindu. Retrieved 10 November 2013. 
  47. ^ "Party wise comparison since 1977 in Andipatti constituency". Election Commission of India. Retrieved 10 November 2013. 
  48. ^ "Winner and runners of 2011 Tamil Nadu legislative assembly elections" (PDF). Election Commission of India. p. 8. Retrieved 10 November 2013. 
  49. ^ "Statistical report of 2011 Tamil Nadu legislative assembly elections" (PDF). Election Commission of India. p. 162. Retrieved 10 November 2013. 
  50. ^ a b "Awards and Special Degrees". Chennai, India: Government of Tamil Nadu. Retrieved 10 November 2013. 
  51. ^ "Awards". NDTV. Retrieved 10 November 2013. 
  52. ^ "Awards". NDTV. Retrieved 10 November 2013. 

References[edit]

External links[edit]

Political offices


Preceded by
Karunanidhi
Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu
First Tenure

1991–1996
Succeeded by
Karunanidhi
Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu
(Quashed)

14 May 2001 – 16 September 2001
Succeeded by
O. Panneerselvam
Preceded by
O. Panneerselvam
Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu
Second Tenure

2002–2006
Succeeded by
Karunanidhi
Preceded by
Karunanidhi
Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu
Third Tenure

2011
Incumbent