Jean-Baptiste Le Moyne, Sieur de Bienville

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Jean-Baptiste Le Moyne,Sieur de Bienville
Jean-Baptiste Le Moyne.jpg
Born (1680-02-23)February 23, 1680
Longueil, Seine-Maritime, Kingdom of France
Died March 7, 1767(1767-03-07) (aged 87)
Paris, Kingdom of France
Occupation French governor of Louisiana
Signature Bienville Signature.svg

Jean-Baptiste Le Moyne de Bienville[1] (February 23, 1680 – March 7, 1767) was a French colonizer, and an early, repeated governor of French Louisiana, appointed 4 separate times during 1701-1743. He was a younger brother of explorer Pierre Le Moyne d'Iberville. He is also known as Sieur de Bienville.[1]

Exploration in the New world[edit]

Jean Baptiste Le Moyne was the son of Charles le Moyne, born in Longueil, near Dieppe, and Catherine Primot (known as Catherine Thierry too), born in Rouen, both cities in the Province of Normandy. Charles le Moyne established his family in the settlement of Ville-Marie (present day Montreal) at an early age and had fourteen children total. At the age of seventeen, Bienville joined his brother Iberville on an expedition to establish the colony of Louisiana. Bienville Gulf of Mexico coastline, discovering the Chandeleur Islands off the coast of Louisiana as well as Cat Island and Ship Island off the coast of what is now the state of Mississippi before moving westward to sail up the mouth of the Mississippi River. Eventually the expedition ventured all the way to what is now Baton Rouge and False River. Before heading back to France, Iberville established the first settlement of the Louisiana colony, in April 1699 as Fort Maurepas or Old Biloxi (at present-day Ocean Springs, Mississippi), and appointed Sauvolle de la Villantry as the

Governor of Louisiana[edit]

After Sauvolle's death in 1701, Bienville ascended to the governorship of the new territory for the first of four terms. By 1701, only 180 persons remained in the colony, the rest have died from malnutrition and disease. Bienville was governor for a total of 30 years.

Co-founder of Mobile[edit]

On the recommendations of his brother, Bienville moved the majority of the settlers to a new settlement in what is now Alabama on the west side of the Mobile River, called Fort Louis de la Mobile (or "Mobille"). He also established a deep water port nearby on Dauphin Island for the colony, as Mobile Bay and the Mobile River were too shallow for seagoing vessels. [2] The population of the colony fluctuated over the next few years. In 1704, in part due to fear the fraternization of French soldiers with native females may lead to conflict, Bienville arranged for the importation of twenty-four young French women. By tradition the young ladies were selected from convents, though most were likely from poor families, and they traveled to the New World with their possessions in small trunks known as cassettes, thus they are known in local histories as The casquette girls in early accounts and by the English translation of casket girls in later tradition.

The young ladies were lodged in Bienville's home under the care of his housekeeper, a French-Canadian woman known as Madame Langlois. (By tradition she was a widowed cousin to Bienville and his brothers, but there is no confirmation to this.) Madame Langlois had learned from local native tribes the arts of cooking local produce and imparted this knowledge to her charges in what is generally heralded as the origin of Creole cuisine. The names and fates of most of the Casquette Girls is uncertain but at least some remained in the colony and married French soldiers as intended, the first recorded birth of a white child occurring in 1705.[3]

The population of the colony fluctuated over the next generation, growing to 281 persons by 1708 yet descending to 178 persons two years later due to disease. In 1709, a great flood overflowed Fort Louis de la Mobile: as a consequence of this and the disease outbreaks, Bienville ordered the settlement to move downriver to the present site of Mobile, Alabama in 1711 and build another wooden Fort Louis. [4] By 1712, when Antoine Crozat took over administration of the colony by royal appointment, the colony boasted a population of 400 persons. In 1713, a new governor arrived from France, and Bienville moved west where, in 1716, he established Fort Rosalie on the present site of Natchez, Mississippi. The new governor, Antoine Laumet de La Mothe, sieur de Cadillac, did not last long due to mismanagement and a lack of growth in the colony. He was recalled to France in 1716, and Bienville again took the helm as governor, serving the office for less than a year until the new governor, Jean-Michel de Lepinay, arrived from France. Lepinay, however, did not last long due to Crozat's relinquishing control of the colony and the shift in administration to John Law and his Company of the Indies. In 1718, Bienville found himself once again governor of Louisiana, and it was during this term that Bienville established the city of New Orleans, Louisiana.

Father of New Orleans[edit]

Father of Biloxi[edit]

In 1719, during the War of the Quadruple Alliance (1718–1720), Bienville had moved the capital of French Louisiana, from Mobile near the battlefront with Spanish Pensacola, back to Fort Maurepas (Old Biloxi).[5] However, due to shifting sand bars, the settlement was moved across Biloxi Bay to found New Biloxi (or Nouvelle-Biloxi or "Bilocci"), in 1719. After the move, Fort Maurepas was burned (in the French custom to avoid re-settlement by enemy forces). Also during 1719, the under-construction New Orleans had been entirely flooded (6 inches or higher), with the realization that higher ground or levees would be needed for the inland port of that Crescent City. The governing council wanted to keep the capital, on the Gulf of Mexico, at Biloxi. However, the sandy soil around Biloxi complicated agriculture, and storms also shifted sands into the Biloxi harbor, while the New Orleans site could be considered a deep-water port, closer to agricultural lands. Eventually, in June 1722, Bienville began moving the capital to New Orleans, completing the move in August 1722.[5] Year 1723 was the first full year with New Orleans as capital of French Louisiana. Very popular in states like Louisiana.

Chickasaw Indian War[edit]

In 1725, Bienville was recalled to France. He left the colony in the hands of Pierre Dugué de Boisbriant, succeeded by Étienne Périer. Bienville resumed his post in Louisiana in 1733. This last term in office would be one of conflict, as relations with the Chickasaw had deteriorated. Bienville immediately began planning for a two-pronged offensive. He ordered the Governor of the Illinois District Pierre d'Artaguette with all available force from that area to meet him in Chickasaw country, to launch a coordinated attack. At the event, Bienville arrived late, so d'Artaguette attacked independently on March 25, 1736, and was crushed. After weeks of preparation, Bienville attacked from the south on May 26, and himself was bloodily repulsed. Humiliated, Bienville organized a second campaign and collected his forces at Chickasaw Bluff in 1739. The Chickasaws sued for peace and Bienville made them a peace treaty in April 1740. After two campaigns falling so far short of expectations, Bienville requested that he be relieved of his duties as governor.

While waiting for a new governor to arrive, Bienville helped establish a Charity Hospital which had been endowed by a sailor named Jean Louis. He also headed a relief effort when two hurricanes hit the Gulf Coast in the fall of 1740. The new governor arrived in 1743, and Bienville sailed back to France. However, even in France, he did what he could to aid the colony he had worked so long to build, seeking unsuccessfully to prevent the transfer of the colony from France to Spain. Bienville died in Paris in 1767.

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b The name Jean-Baptiste Le Moyne de Bienville is pronounced /ˈʒɒn bæpˈtst ləˈmɔɪn dəbˈɛnvɪl/. The title Sieur is pronounced /ˈsjɜr/.
  2. ^ gator Exploration and Settlement" (history), Encyclopædia Britannica Online, 2007, Britannica.com webpage: EB-Mobile.
  3. ^ http://homepages.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~cmddlton/colnls1.html
  4. ^ "Other Locations: Historic Fort Conde" (history), Museum of Mobile, 2006, webpage: MoM-Other.
  5. ^ a b "Bienville" in Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online.

References[edit]

  • Bienville, Jean-Baptiste Le Moyne, Sieur de. "Account made by Bienville of his Expedition against the Chickasaws." trans. Caroline and Eleanor Dunn in Indiana's First War. Indiana Historical Society Publications 8. Indianapolis: Wm. B. Burford, 1924. 75-123.
  • Davis, Edwin Adams. Louisiana the Pelican State. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1961. LCCN 59:9088.

External links[edit]

Government offices
Preceded by
Sauvolle de la Villantry
French Governor of Louisiana
1701–1713
Succeeded by
Antoine Laumet de La Mothe, sieur de Cadillac
Preceded by
Antoine Laumet de La Mothe, sieur de Cadillac
French Governor of Louisiana
1717–1718
Succeeded by
Jean-Michel de Lepinay
Preceded by
Jean-Michel de Lepinay
French Governor of Louisiana
1718–1724
Succeeded by
Pierre Dugué de Boisbriant
Preceded by
Étienne Périer
French Governor of Louisiana
1733–1743
Succeeded by
Pierre François de Rigaud, Marquis de Vaudreuil-Cavagnal