- for others with similar names, see Jean Marchand
General Jean-Baptiste Marchand (2 November 1863 – 13 January 1934) was a French military officer and explorer in Africa. Marchand is best known for commanding the French expeditionary force during the Fashoda Incident.
He participated in the French conquest of Senegal and was severely wounded in 1889 at the capture of Diena by the French. In 1890 Major Marchand was sent to explore the sources of the Niger River and the Nile and to occupy the area around Fashoda, Sudan, now known as Kodok, and bring it under French control. After a 14-month trek on foot and by boat from West Africa Marchand's expedition of 20 French officers and NCOs and 130 French Senegalese troops arrived at Fashoda, an abandoned fort on the Nile, on 10 July 1898. Marchand rebuilt the fort, but the expected support from other French columns and from Abyssinia did not arrive.
On 18 September, a detachment led by Sir Herbert Kitchener, commander of the Anglo-Egyptian army that had just defeated the forces of the Mahdi at the Battle of Omdurman, arrived at Fashoda. Following the battle Kitchener had opened sealed orders from London to investigate the French expedition some 600 kilometres to the south. Both sides insisted on control of Fashoda but the two commanders were diplomatic and the encounter was polite. It led to a period of intense diplomatic discussions between Paris and London, at the end of which the French Government ordered their forces to leave. Marchand had already been recalled to France and insisted on travelling through Abyssinia rather than down the British-controlled Nile. 
Marchand later fought with French expeditionary forces in China during the 1900 Boxer Rebellion. He was promoted to the rank of General in 1915 during World War I and was wounded in 1915 in the Battle of Champagne and again in 1916 in the Battle of the Somme. He retired from the Army in 1919.
- Alan Moorehead, The White Nile, Hamish Hamilton, London, 1962, also published by Penguin.
- Chisholm 1922.
- This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Wood, James, ed. (1907). "article name needed". The Nuttall Encyclopædia. London and New York: Frederick Warne.
- Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1922). "Marchand, Jean-Baptiste". Encyclopædia Britannica (12th ed.). London & New York.
- Bates, Darell The Fashoda incident of 1898: encounter on the Nile. Oxford: OUP, 1984, ISBN 0-19-211771-8.
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