Jean-Pierre Petit

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Jean-Pierre Petit (born 5 April 1937, Choisy-le-Roi) is a French scientist, senior researcher at National Center for Scientific Research (CNRS) as an astrophysicist in Marseille Observatory, now retired. His main working fields are fluid mechanics, kinetic theory of gases, plasma physics applied in magnetohydrodynamics power generation and propulsion as well as topology and astrophysics applied in cosmology. He is a pioneer in magnetohydrodynamics and has worked out the principle and techniques of parietal MHD converter. In cosmology, he worked on the bi-gravity theory.

Besides his adventure in the UFO topic as well as his assertions about the existence of Ummo, Petit has succeeded in pursuing a scientific career within the CNRS.

Now retired, he is involved with UFO-Science which he co-founded and LAMBDA (Laboratory for Applications of MHD in Bitemperature Discharges to Aerodynamics) which he founded. He claims a true scientific study of the UFO phenomenon would improve our scientific knowledge and help mankind.

Professional work[edit]

Jean-Pierre Petit obtained his Engineer's degree in 1961 at the French aeronautical engineering school ENSAE (Supaero). In the 1960s he worked for several months in a French rocket engine test facility as a test engineer in the development of the first nuclear intercontinental missiles SLBM. Because he felt uncomfortable within the military R&D, he preferred to integrate civilian research. In 1965 he was hired by the Marseille Institute of Fluid Mechanics (IMFM), a French laboratory affiliated with CNRS and the French atomic agency CEA, as a research engineer where he made his first studies in magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). In 1972 he fully incorporated the CNRS after his EngD thesis defense. In 1974 he officially stopped experimental research in MHD and started working at the Marseille Observatory where he reconverted himself in fundamental research as an astrophysicist. However, he personally carried on his experimental research on MHD propulsion until 1987. Convalescent after many months of hospitalization following an industrial injury, he became between 1977 and 1983 codirector of the Calculation Center at the French University of Provence where he developed with students some CAD software marketed in 1978. He retired from CNRS in April 2003 but keeps working. In 2007, he founded a non-profit organization called UFO-Science[1] to concretize some research ideas he could not experiment on while working due to lack of allocated funds at the time.

Professional work overview in MHD[edit]

His career in the field of MHD is well-known: first method of electrothermal instability control and first usable MHD generator with non-equilibrium ionized gas (1967);[2][3] kinetic theory of non-equilibrium plasmas (1972);[4] MHD aerodynes with ionization control (1975);[5][6] Shock wave cancellation by MHD force field around a cylindrical profile imbedded in a liquid flow (1976);[7] 2nd method of electrothermal instability control by magnetic pressure gradient in an MHD accelerator (1981);[8] Thesis director about shock wave annihilation around a flat wing in a hot supersonic gas flow: Resolution of Navier–Stokes equations within an MHD force field by the method of characteristics (1987).[9]

Plasma physics and magnetohydrodynamics (MHD)[edit]

Petit is a pioneer in magnetohydrodynamics involving fluid mechanics, plasma physics and electromagnetism, in both MHD types:

MHD Power generation[edit]

He started working in this field with shock tubes, acting as pulsed power MHD generators delivering several megawatts through direct conversion of supersonic hot gases into electricity, a device invented by Bert Zauderer and Jack Kerrebrock. In 1967, he presented the first experimental results of electrical power generation in a pulsed non-equilibrium high-Hall parameter MHD generator, producing two megawatts of electric power within a magnetic field of 2 teslas in a volume the size of a beer bottle, constituting the first step to cool down the gas in order to protect materials from heat, by controlling the electrothermal instability within MHD converters.[10]

In 1972 he defended in front of Evry Schatzman his Doctor of Engineering thesis:[11]

  • The first part presents the basis for the first kinetic theory of non-equilibrium plasmas, starting from the ChapmanEnskog method for the transport phenomena and extending it to a biparametric expansion in series. This work is published through peer review.
  • The second part is an application of the kinetic theory of gases to galactic dynamics. Through this he resumed the work of Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar, by compacting the calculations into a matrix form.

Coanda effect and air-breathing MHD accelerators[edit]

When he was a student at Supaero, Petit studied there the first supersonic disc nozzle, which radially spits a very thin supersonic flat air jet from an annular convergent output along the surface of the device. Then the Coandă effect sucks the air flow along the bent wall, sucks down ambient air and creates a low pressure area on top of the device, inducing lift. This is how the Aerodina Lenticulara works,[12] a device patented by Henri Coandă, whom Petit met in these days. He also explained Coandă's disc experiments in a popular science review.[13]

In 1975, he invented new MHD converters named MHD aerodynes and published the idea in a scientific journal.[14][15] An MHD aerodyne is an aircraft concept with no moving part, where surrounding air is ionized (for example with microwaves), transformed into a cold plasma, then accelerated by electromagnetic fields around its external hull. It is thus an external flow MHD accelerator with ionization control (opposed to classical magnetoplasmadynamic thrusters where hot gases are electromagnetically accelerated internally, inside a rocket engine nozzle). In order to accommodate electromagnetic coils and the magnetic field lines they create in the air, the hull of MHD aerodynes must have symmetrical geometries (cylinder or sphere for example). A magnetic field as strong as possible is required to rise the acceleration efficiency. But high B-fields give a high Hall parameter β and it is well known in the engineering field of MHD power generation that high Hall effect MHD converters are preferably disk-shaped. It is the same thing with MHD accelerators, and high Hall effect MHD aerodynes must be disk-shaped, so the electric discharges in the plasma (streamers) can swirl freely around axis, for the Lorentz forces J×B to be centrifugal.[16][17]

Thereby the discoidal MHD aerodyne is very similar to Coandă's Aerodina Lenticulara. Both use the Coandă effect to induce lift. The main difference is that the MHD aerodyne uses electromagnetic forces to suck and propel air around the device, instead of mechanical means. It is an "electromagnetic Coanda disk". Admittedly the idea of discoidal aircraft with silent MHD propulsion had been suggested before, but it had never been published in academic journals nor experimented hitherto. However Leik Myrabo later popularized this idea in the USA with his microwave-powered Lightcraft project using an external flow-control MHD accelerator: Myrabo first talked about an "externally-excited-field MHD accelerator" in 1976,[18] but could experiment his annular "MHD Slipstream Accelerator" prototype for the first time at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute in 1999.[19]

MHD flow control and supersonic without shock wave[edit]

Petit calculates MHD forces, creating a partial vacuum area on front or on top of the device, would be powerful enough to evacuate incoming upstream molecules at supersonic speed before they accumulate at the stationary point, preventing the shock waves, thus controlling sound and heat barriers. MHD acceleration can indeed be very powerful, even more than chemical propulsion, because the acceleration efficiency grows like the magnetic field strength and is not limited by propellant's inertia as in chemical propulsion. For example a pulsed small MHD accelerator can accelerate an ionized gas over 5,000 meters per second with only 10-centimeter electrodes and a moderate 2-tesla magnetic field, as shown at IMFM in 1970.[20]

Petit obtained from 1975 to 1983 several positive experimental results with his MHD flow control devices:

He published these results in specialized journals and conferences,[16][17][21][22]

In 1983 he summarized his research about MHD propulsion and flow control in a scientific comic book titled The Silence Barrier where he popularizes these new concepts.[23]

In 1987, the student engineer Bertrand Lebrun from the French Engineering institute ENSAM defended his Doctor of Engineering thesis under the direction of Jean-Pierre Petit.[24] The subject in the mathematical calculation of shock wave cancellation around a flat wing in a supersonic gas flow, where they develop a method to solve the Navier–Stokes equations within an MHD force field by the method of characteristics. This work is published in international MHD meetings,[25][26] and in peer-reviewed journals.[27][28]

New research[edit]

In 2007 Petit created UFO-Science, a non-profit organization devoted to scientific study of the UFO phenomenon. Electromagnetic plasma propulsion and supersonic flight without shock wave through flow control by MHD force field are studied in a new laboratory running with private funds, called LAMBDA λ (Laboratory for Applications of MHD in Bitemperature Discharges to Aerodynamics). He created this concept of "Citizen Research" because he claims the Establishment represented by official scientific public administration, such as the CNRS and the CNES, failed to concretize his ideas because of military strategic implications.

This laboratory publishes scientific result since 2008 with several publications in the scientific peer-reviewed journal Acta Physica Polonica and associated presentations in international MHD conferences, Vilnius in 2008, Bremen in 2009,[29][30][31] Jeju Korea in 2010 [32] and Prague in 2012 [33]

Astrophysics and cosmology[edit]

Galactic dynamics[edit]

From 1972, Petit launched into theoretical research in astrophysics at Marseille Observatory. At the beginning he presented some work consecutive to his thesis about the kinetic theory of gases applied to galactic dynamics. In this work the Friedmann equations emerge from an elliptic solution of the Vlasov equation coupled with Poisson's equation. He then published a rewriting of the Newtonian cosmology, resuming a work from 1934 by Arthur Milne and William McCrea but from the point of view of his kinetic theory of non-equilibrium plasmas, which allows one to find the rotating universe model of Otto Heckmann and Engelbert Schücking.[34]

Variable constants cosmology[edit]

In 1988, Petit introduced the idea of variable speed of light in cosmology,[35][36][37][38] along with the joint variations of all physical constants combined to space and time scale factors changes, so that all equations and measurements of these constants remain unchanged through the evolution of the universe. The Einstein field equation remains invariant through convenient joint variations of c and G in Einstein's constant. The invariances requirement of Schrödinger and Maxwell's equations fulfill the set of gauge joint variations laws of the constants. The fine-structure constant becomes an absolute constant. Late-model restricts the variation of constants to the relativistic radiation-dominated era of the early universe, where spacetime is identified to space-entropy with a conformally flat metric.[39][40]

Bi-gravity cosmological model (Twin universe theory)[edit]

From 1977, Petit started to build an atypical cosmological model, nowadays called the bigravity theory but formerly known as the twin universe theory, completed over the years. This model proposes a radically different vision for the universe, in opposition with the standard cosmology, but shares similarities with a model published before by Andrei Sakharov.[41] In the bi-gravity theory, there is not only one universe, but two parallel universes with two conjugated Riemannian metrics having their own geodesics, interacting through gravitation. Whereas Petit claims his theory explains various observational facts that the standard model cannot answer, and despite several publications through peer review, this model has not triggered much interest in the cosmological community throughout the years. However, in August 2007 Petit incorporated an international club of high-level geometers who take interest in his model and validate his work from its mathematical ground.[42]

Popular science[edit]

The general public have known of Petit from the 1970s, from his series of "scientific comic books" published in France as Les Aventures d'Anselme Lanturlu (Lanturlu land), depicting a young character who explains hard scientific concepts with easy popular meaning and simple analogies. Petit consequently created a non-profit organization named Savoir-sans-frontières (Knowledge without borders) to remunerate people all over the world for translation of these books into all available languages. In English for example, the collection is known as The Adventures of Archibald Higgins. These educational books are freely available to download as PDF files from the organization's web site (Savoir sans frontières ).

He re-published in 2001 his book "On a perdu la moitié de l'univers" [43](We lost half of the universe). The book was first published in 1997 by Albin Michel. This short book is mainly a face to face between two hypothesis (a universe containing dark matter VS a universe interacting via gravitation with shadow-matter) and how do they explain the universe. He also wrote "The dark side of the universe" in 1999, however, this book was never published. It is freely available to download (The dark side of the universe). This book contains also the information published in "On a perdu la moitié de l'univers" but covers more subjects in astrophysics, topology, and cosmology.

Claims and public matter of controversies[edit]

Petit is known to the general public through his popular science publications (books and comics) and by his appearances in French media, mostly about the UFO phenomenon. He is indeed favorable to the extraterrestrial hypothesis explaining some UFO cases, and the conspiracy theory about a cover-up from the armed forces to take a decisive technological, thus strategic advantage over other nations. He loudly denounces the tight relationship between the army and scientists since the Manhattan Project, which has created according to him a powerful military R&D leading to futuristic weapons of mass destruction and unmoral crowd and riot control technologies, to the exclusive use of the military-industrial complex. He also gives credit to 9/11 conspiracy theories through his web site. He thinks that global warming and geopolitics evolution caused by the unconsciousness of world political leaders will create fatal irrevocable disorders in the near future. According to him, becoming aware that we are not alone in the universe and that we are visited by people having a better technology than ours is the last chance for mankind. Such unconventional opinions has raised various enmities against him.

Ummo case and ufology[edit]

In the 1990s he published several books about ufology and the Ummo case,[44][45][46] from which he would have studied documents since 1974. He claimed to have found there useful inspiration for some of his work about MHD propulsion and cosmology. Thereafter those unidentified correspondents even sent mail to him for a while, where he would have again, according to him, found other starting points for additional research developments. His hierarchy does not welcome these books.

American secret weapons[edit]

After an international conference on advanced propulsion,[47] Petit wrote a book, where he proclaims a leading edge science would have secretly emerged inside the US black projects sanctuaries, involving intensive study of aerial plasma propulsion with electromagnetic flow control.[48] He suggested such an acceleration of these technological programs would have been undertaken after military forces of the United States would had the proof of existence of intelligent extraterrestrial life forms visiting Earth in the 1940s, in particular with the so-called Roswell UFO crash which he thinks was real.

Using his knowledge about plasma physics and magnetohydrodynamics, Petit describes a model of hypersonic airplane working with an MHD bypass system, claiming it would correspond to the mythic Aurora secret spyplane US Air Force would have brought into service in the 1990s. He gave several lectures on this subject, especially at the French aeronautical engineering school ENSAE where his object lesson was not criticized. Conversely, detractors of this idea never provided any technical argument in support of their denials.

Petit also envisages that the U.S. Army would have accidentally discovered how to generate antimatter through superdense states of matter by the use of magnetically focused underground thermonuclear explosions of several megatons. Some antimatter bombs would have been created, but too powerful to be tested on Earth they would have been camouflaged into what was known as the comet Shoemaker–Levy 9, then detonated on Jupiter. Most of his colleagues judge this story as overly fanciful.

Aneutronic fusion energy vs pure fusion bombs[edit]

After the breakthrough made by Sandia National Laboratories at the end of 2005 where researchers generated more than 3 billion degrees within the MHD compressor Z machine,[49][50] he tries to draw the attention of scientists, politicians, ecologists and the public to what he presents as a possible future clean nuclear civilian energy, thanks to aneutronic nuclear fusion reactions with none or very few radioactive waste byproducts. But again this technology is potentially proliferating and Petit claims it could also lead to new pure fusion weapons, where the central fission A-bomb used classically for ignition of the H-bomb would be useless, replaced by a fast electric pulsed power detonator (a compact z-pinch fed with some explosively pumped flux compression generator).

See also[edit]

Bibliography[edit]

Enquête sur les ovnis - Voyage aux frontières de la science, Preface by Jacques Benveniste, Éditions Albin Michel, Collection "Aux marches de la science", 1990, ISBN 2-226-0120-6

Enquête sur des extra-terrestres qui sont déjà parmi nous - Le mystère des Ummites, Éditions Albin Michel, Collection "Aux marches de la science", 1991, ISBN 2-226-05515-0

Le mystère des Ummites - Une science venue d'une autre planète?, Éditions Albin Michel, 1995, ISBN 2-226-07845-2

Les enfants du diable - La guerre que nous préparent les scientifiques, Éditions Albin Michel, 1995, ISBN 2-226-07632-8 (discontinued)

On a perdu la moitié de l'univers, Éditions Albin Michel, Collection "Aux marches de la science", 1997, ISBN 222609391 (discontinued)

On a perdu la moitié de l'univers, Preface by Jean-Claude Pecker, 2001 Hachette Littératures, Collection Pluriel, ISBN 978-2-01-278935-7

OVNIS et armes secrètes américaines - L'extraordinaire témoignage d'un scientifique, Éditions Albin Michel, 2003, ISBN 2-226-13616-9

L'année du contact, Éditions Albin Michel, 2004, ISBN 2-226-15136-2

OVNI - Le message, published by himself, 2009, ISBN 978-2-918564-00-3,

not published

Le versant obscur de l'univers, The dark side of the universe, 1998–1999 (the dark side of the universe .pdf free download)

OVNIS et science : les aventuriers de la recherche, published by UFO-SCIENCE, 2008 ISBN 978-2-9532696-0-4,

OVNI et science : ce qu'ont découvert les scientifiques, published by UFO-SCIENCE, 2010 ISBN 978-2-918564-02-7.

External links[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ http://www.ufo-science.com/wpf/?page_id=4&lang=en
  2. ^ J. P. Petit; J. Valensi, J. P. Caressa (24–30 July 1968). "Theoretical and experimental study in shock tube of non-equilibrium phenomena in a closed-cycle MHD generator" in International Symposium on MHD Electrical Power Generation. International Atomic Energy Agency, Warsaw, Poland. Proceedings 2: 745–750.
  3. ^ J. P. Petit; J. Valensi, J. P. Caressa (24–30 July 1968). "Electrical characteristics of a converter using as a conversion fluid a binary mix of rare gases with non-equilibrium ionization" in International Symposium on MHD Electrical Power Generation. International Atomic Energy Agency, Warsaw, Poland. Proceedings 3.
  4. ^ J. P. Petit (March 10, 1972). "Applications de la théorie cinétique des gaz à la physique des plasmas et à la dynamique des galaxies" (tr. "Applications of the kinetic theory of gases to plasma physics and galactic dynamics"). Doctor of Science thesis, CNRS#6717, University of Provence, Aix-Marseille, France.
  5. ^ http://www.ufo-science.com/fr/telechargements/pdf/CRAS_1975_induction.pdf
  6. ^ J. P Petit; J. S. Darrozes (April 1975). "Une nouvelle formulation des équations du mouvement d'un gaz ionisé dans un régime dominé par les collisions" (tr. "New formulation of the equations of motion of an ionized gas in collision dominated regime"), Journal de Mécanique 14 (4): 745–759, France.
  7. ^ J. P. Petit; M. Viton (February 28, 1977). "Convertisseurs MHD d'un genre nouveau. Appareils à induction" (tr. New MHD converters: induction machines"). CRAS 284: 167–179. Paris: French Academy of Sciences.
  8. ^ J. P. Petit; M. Billiotte (May 4, 1981). "Méthode pour supprimer l'instabilité de Velikhov" (tr. "Method for eliminating the Velikhov instability"). CRAS 292 (II): 1115–1118. Paris: French Academy of Sciences.
  9. ^ B. Lebrun [dir. J. P. Petit] (1987). "Approche théorique de la suppression des ondes de choc se formant autour d'un obstacle effilé placé dans un écoulement supersonique d'argon ionisé à l'aide de forces de Laplace" (tr. "Theoretical study of shock wave annihilation around a flat wing in hot supersonic argon flow with Lorentz forces"). Engineer-Doctor thesis, Aix-Marseille University; & Journal of Mechanics, France.
  10. ^ J.P. Petit; J. Valensi (September 1, 1969). "Growth rate of electrothermal instability and critical Hall parameter in closed-cycle MHD generators when the electron mobility is variable". Comptes rendus de l'Académie des sciences (Paris: French Academy of Sciences) (269): 365–367. 
  11. ^ J.P. Petit (1972). "Applications of the kinetic theory of gases to plasma physics and galactic dynamics". Doctor of Engineering thesis, Aix-Marseille University, France. 
  12. ^ US patent 2108652, "Propelling device", published January 15, 1936, issued February 15, 1938 
  13. ^ J.P. Petit (August 1974). "Flying saucers R&D: The Coanda effect" (PDF). Science & Vie (683): 68–73. 
  14. ^ J.P. Petit (September 15, 1975). "New MHD converters". Comptes rendus de l'Académie des sciences. B-Physics (Paris: French Academy of Sciences) 281 (11): 157–160. 
  15. ^ J.P. Petit; M. Viton (February 28, 1977). "New MHD converters: induction machines" (PDF). Comptes rendus de l'Académie des sciences (Paris: French Academy of Sciences) 284: 167–179. 
  16. ^ a b J.P. Petit; M. Billiotte, M. Viton, (October 6, 1980). "Spiral-current accelerators". Comptes rendus de l'Académie des sciences. B-Physics (Paris: French Academy of Sciences) 291 (5): 129–131. 
  17. ^ a b J.P. Petit (September 1983). Is supersonic flight without shock wave possible?; Cancellation of the Velikhov instability by magnetic confinment; "Spiral electric currents with high appearent Hall parameter confinment" in 8th International Conference on MHD Electrical Power Generation. Proceedings, Moscow, Russia.
  18. ^ L.N. Myrabo (1976). "MHD propulsion by absorption of laser radiation". Journal of spacecraft and rockets 13 (8). 
  19. ^ L.N. Myrabo; J.M. Kerl et al. (June 20–24, 1999). "MHD slipstream accelerator investigation in the RPI hypersonic shock tunnel". "AIAA-1999-2842". 35th AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference and Exhibit. Los Angeles, California, USA. 
  20. ^ B. Forestier; B. Fontaine, P. Bournot and P. Parraud (July 20, 1970). "Study of the variations in the aerodynamic flow parameters of ionized argon subjected to Laplacian accelerating forces". Comptes rendus de l'Académie des sciences. B (Paris: French Academy of Sciences) 271: 198–201. Retrieved 2001-06-03. 
  21. ^ J.P. Petit (1979). Prospect on magnetohydrodynamics (Technical report). CNRS on behalf of CNES. 
  22. ^ J.P. Petit; M. Billiotte (April 27, 1981). "Method for eliminating the Velikhov instability". Comptes rendus de l'Académie des sciences (Paris: French Academy of Sciences): 158–161. 
  23. ^ J.P. Petit (1983). The Silence Barrier. Les Aventures d'Anselme Lanturlu, tr. The Adventures of Archibald Higgins. Belin (now freely downloadable). ISBN 2-7011-0467-X. 
  24. ^ B. Lebrun (dir. J.P. Petit) (1987). "Theoretical study of shock wave annihilation around a flat wing in hot supersonic gas flow with Lorentz forces". Energetic Engineer-Doctor thesis 233, University of Poitiers; & Journal of Mechanics, France. 
  25. ^ J.P. Petit; B. Lebrun (November 1986). "Shock wave cancellation by Lorentz forces action around a model embedded in a supersonic flow". "Proceedings". 9th International Conference on MHD Electrical Power Generation. Tsukuba, Japan. 
  26. ^ J.P. Petit; B. Lebrun (October 1992). "Theoretical analysis of shock wave annihilation with MHD force field" (PDF). In Beijing, China. "Proceedings". 11th International Conference on MHD Electrical Power Generation. III, Part.9- Fluid dynamics, art.4. pp. 748–753. 
  27. ^ J.P. Petit; B. Lebrun (1989). "Shock wave annihilation by MHD action in supersonic flow. Quasi one dimensional steady analysis and thermal blockage". European Journal of Mechanics B. B/Fluids 8 (2): 163–178. ISSN 0997-7546. 
  28. ^ J.P. Petit; B. Lebrun (1989). "Shock wave annihilation by MHD action in supersonic flows. Two-dimensional steady non-isentropic analysis. Anti-shock criterion, and shock tube simulations for isentropic flows". European Journal of Mechanics B. B/Fluids 8 (4): 307–326. 
  29. ^ J-.-P. Petit, J. Geffray MHD flow-control for hypersonic flight ' Acta Physica Polonica A June 2009 Volume 115 (6): page 1149–1513 .
  30. ^ J-.-P. Petit, J. Geffray Non-Equilibrium Plasma Instabilities' Acta Physica Polonica A June 2009 Volume 115 (6): page1170-1172.
  31. ^ J-.-P. Petit, J. Geffray Wall Containment Technique by Gradient Magnetic Inversion. Combining Induction Accelerators and Pulsed Ionization Effect. Applications' Acta Physica Polonica A June 2009 Volume 115 (6): 1162–1163 page.
  32. ^ J-.-P. Petit, J.-C. Doré, Wall confinement by magnetic gradient technical Inversion Acta Physica Polonica A Volume 121 March 2012 num 3 page 611.
  33. ^ J-.-P. Petit, J.-C. Doré, Velikhov Electrothermal Instability Cancellation by Value Modification of Electrical Conductivity in a Magnetic Confinement by Streamer ' being published .
  34. ^ J.P. Petit (16–20 September 1974). "Proceedings". "Institut des Hautes Études Scientifiques (IHES)". International meeting on spiral glaxies dynamics. Bures-sur-Yvette, France. 
  35. ^ J.P. Petit (1988). "An interpretation of cosmological model with variable light velocity" (PDF). Modern Physics Letters A 3 (16): 1527. Bibcode:1988MPLA....3.1527P. doi:10.1142/S0217732388001823. 
  36. ^ J.P. Petit (1988). "Cosmological model with variable light velocity: the interpretation of red shifts" (PDF). Modern Physics Letters A 3 (18): 1733. Bibcode:1988MPLA....3.1733P. doi:10.1142/S0217732388002099. 
  37. ^ J.P. Petit; M. Viton (1989). "Gauge cosmological model with variable light velocity: Comparizon with QSO observational data" (PDF). Modern Physics Letters A 4 (23): 2201–2210. Bibcode:1989MPLA....4.2201P. doi:10.1142/S0217732389002471. 
  38. ^ P. Midy, J.P. Petit (1989). "Scale invariant cosmology" (PDF). Int. J. Mod. Phys. D (8): 271–280. 
  39. ^ J.P. Petit; P. Midy, F. Landsheat (June 2001). "Twin matter against dark matter" (PDF). ""Where is the matter?"". International Meeting on Atrophysics and Cosmology. 
  40. ^ J.P. Petit; G. d'Agostini (2007). "Bigravity: a bimetric model of the Universe with variable constants, including VSL (variable speed of light)". CITV, tr. International Meeting on Variational Techniques. arXiv:0803.1362. Bibcode:2008arXiv0803.1362P. 
  41. ^ A.D. Sakharov (1982). Collected Scientific Works. Marcel Dekker. ISBN 0-8247-1714-7. 
  42. ^ The CITV (Colloque International sur les Techniques Variationnelles, in English International Meeting on Variational Techniques) is the annual international meeting of a selective restricted group originally created by Jean-Marie Souriau in 1950, made of specialized mathematicians and geometers working in the field of mathematical physics through functional analysis, strongly linking theories and observations with falsifiability.
  43. ^ On a perdu la moitié de l'Univers (Poche), Jean-Pierre Petit, Jean-Claude Pecker (préface), Hachette Littérature (2 janvier 2001), collection Pluriel, ISBN 978-2-01-278935-7
  44. ^ J.P. Petit (May 31, 1990). Enquête sur les OVNI (in French, tr. Research on UFOs). Albin Michel. ISBN 2-226-04120-6. 
  45. ^ J.P. Petit (September 5, 1991). Enquête sur des extra-terrestres qui sont déjà parmi nous (in French, tr. Investigation on aliens among us). Albin Michel. ISBN 2-226-05515-0. 
  46. ^ J.P. Petit (September 7, 1995). Le Mystère des Ummites (in French, tr. The Ummo Mystery). Albin Michel. ISBN 2-226-07845-2. 
  47. ^ International Workshop in Field Propulsion, 1st, University of Sussex, Brighton, UK, January 2001.
  48. ^ J.P. Petit (January 9, 2003). OVNIS et armes secrètes américaines (in French, tr. UFOs and American secret weapons). Albin Michel. ISBN 2-226-13616-9. 
  49. ^ M.G. Haines et al. (February 2006). "Ion Viscous Heating in a Magnetohydrodynamically Unstable Z Pinch at Over 2×109 Kelvin". Physical Review Letters 96 (96): 075003. Bibcode:2006PhRvL..96g5003H. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.96.075003. 
  50. ^ J.P. Petit (June 25, 2006). "The Z machine: Over two billion Kelvin! - Analysis of Malcolm Haines' paper" (PDF).