Jean-Guenolé-Marie Daniélou, S.J.
|Cardinal-Deacon of San Saba|
|See||Titular see of Taormina|
|Ordination||20 August 1938|
|Consecration||19 April 1969
by Cardinal François Marty
|Created Cardinal||28 April 1969|
|Born||14 May 1905
|Died||20 May 1974
|Society of Jesus|
History of the Jesuits
Daniélou was born at Neuilly-sur-Seine, son of Charles and Madeleine (née Clamorgan). His father was an anticlerical politician, who served in the French government several times as a minister, and his mother was an educator and founder of institutions for women's education. His brother Alain (1907–1994) was a noted Indologist.
Daniélou studied at the Sorbonne, and passed his agrégation in Grammar in 1927. He joined the Society of Jesus (Jesuits) in 1929, becoming a teacher, initially at a boys' school in Poitiers. He subsequently studied theology at Fourvière in Lyon under Henri de Lubac, who introduced him to patristics, the study of the Fathers of the Church. He was ordained a priest on 20 August 1938.
During World War II, Daniélou served with the Armée de l'Air (Air Force) in 1939–1940. After the fall of France to Nazi Germany, he was demobilised and returned to civilian life. He completed his doctoral thesis on the spiritual doctrine of St. Gregory of Nyssa and received a doctorate of theology in 1942. At that time, he was appointed chaplain to the ENSJF, the female section of the École Normale Supérieure, at Sèvres. He then began full-time research in the field of patristics, and became one of the founders of the Sources Chrétiennes collection.
In 1944 Daniélou was named Professor of Early Christian History at the Institut Catholique de Paris, and later became dean. Beginning in the 1950s, he produced several historical studies, including The Bible and the Liturgy, The Lord of History, and From Shadows to Reality, that provided a major impetus to the development of Covenantal Theology.
At the request of Pope John XXIII, he served as a peritus (expert consultant) to the Second Vatican Council. He was appointed a bishop by Pope Paul VI, for which the titular see of Taormina was created, being consecrated on 19 April 1969. A week later, on 28 April, he was named a cardinal by Pope Paul. He was elected to the Académie française on 9 November 1972, to succeed Cardinal Eugène-Gabriel-Gervais-Laurent Tisserant.
His unexpected death in 1974, in the home of a prostitute, was very diversely interpreted. It was claimed by the Society of Jesus that he was bringing money to pay for the bail of the prostitute's lover. The French Press and the general public however, remain cynical of the Cardinal's altruism.[better source needed]
A number of his works on the early Church, abridged for a popular audience, remain in print.
- L'être et le temps chez Grégoire de Nysse, Brill, Leyde, 1970 ;
- La Trinité et le mystère de l'existence, Desclée de Brouwer, Paris, 1968 ;
- Les Évangiles de l'enfance, Seuil, Paris, 1967 ;
- "L'Église des premiers temps : Des origines à la fin du IIIe siècle", Seuil, Paris, 1963 ;
- "Les Symboles chrétiens primitifs", Seuil, Paris, 1961;
- Philon d'Alexandrie, Fayard, Paris, 1958 ;
- Les manuscrits de la Mer Morte et les origines du Christianisme, L'Orante, Paris, 1957 ;
- Les anges et leur mission, d'après les Pères de l'Église, Desclée, Paris, 1952 ;
- Bible et liturgie, la théologie biblique des sacrements et des fêtes d'après les Pères de l'Église, Cerf, Paris, 1951 ;
- Origène, Table ronde, Paris, 1948 ;
- Platonisme et théologie mystique: doctrine spirituelle de saint Grégoire de Nysse, Aubier, Paris, 1944;
- Dieu et nous (God and the Ways of Knowing), Bernard Grasset, Paris, 1956.
- Libretto for Stravinsky's Oedipus Rex: a Latin translation of Jean Cocteau's arrangement of Sophocles' original Oedipus the King.
- David M. Cheney. "Jean Guénolé Louis Marie Cardinal Daniélou, S.J.". Catholic-hierarchy. Retrieved 23 January 2011.
- Salvador Miranda. "Daniélou, S.J., Jean". The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church. Retrieved 23 January 2011.
- Erik von Kuehnelt-Leddihn: Weltweite Kirche, Christiania-Verlag, Stein am Rhein, 2000.
- Jean Daniélou bio on IgnatiusInsight.com
- Jean Daniélou profile and books on Goodreads
- File on Cardinal Daniélou on the Académie française website