Jean Lafitte

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This article is about the privateer. For the town named after him, see Jean Lafitte, Louisiana.
Not to be confused with Jean Laffitte.
Jean Lafitte
— Pirate —
Sketch portrait of middle-aged moustachioed man with bandana. The portrait is encircled by a pistol and dagger.
Late 19th-century artist's depiction of Jean Lafitte
Type Pirate
Born circa 1775
Place of birth Possibly France or Saint-Domingue
Died circa 1823
Place of death Possibly Yucatán, the Gulf of Mexico, Texas, Louisiana, South Carolina, Illinois, or Leon, Nicaragua, or São Miguel Island, Azores
Rank Captain
Base of operations Barataria Bay, Galveston
Commands The Republican
Battles/wars Battle of New Orleans

Jean Lafitte (c. 1776c. 1823) was a French pirate and privateer in the Gulf of Mexico in the early 19th century. He and his elder brother, Pierre, spelled their last name Laffite, but English-language documents of the time used "Lafitte". The latter has become the common spelling in the United States, including for places named for him.

Lafitte is believed to have been born either in France or the French colony of Saint-Domingue. By 1805, he operated a warehouse in New Orleans to help disperse the goods smuggled by his brother Pierre Lafitte. After the United States government passed the Embargo Act of 1807, the Lafittes moved their operations to an island in Barataria Bay, Louisiana. By 1810, their new port was very successful; the Lafittes pursued a successful smuggling operation and also started to engage in piracy.

Though Lafitte tried to warn Barataria of a British attack, the American authorities successfully invaded in 1814 and captured most of Lafitte's fleet. In return for a pardon, Lafitte helped General Andrew Jackson defend New Orleans against the British in 1815. The Lafittes became spies for the Spanish during the Mexican War of Independence and moved to Galveston Island, Texas, where they developed a pirate colony called Campeche.

Lafitte continued attacking merchant ships as a pirate around Central American ports until he died around 1823 trying to capture Spanish vessels. Speculation about his life and death continues among historians.

Origins[edit]

Painting of stern-faced man with Guy Fawkes' style black hat. His right hand holds the handle of a dagger tucked into a cloak hanging from his left shoulder.
Anonymous portrait claimed to be of Jean Lafitte in the early 19th century, Rosenberg Library, Galveston, Texas

A number of details about Jean Lafitte's early life remain obscure - often they contradict each other. In one document, Lafitte claimed to have been born in Bordeaux, France, in 1780. He and his brother Pierre alternately claimed to have been born in Bayonne, while other documents of the time place his birthplace as St. Malo or Brest. Lafitte's biographer Jack C. Ramsay says, "this was a convenient time to be a native of France, a claim that provided protection from the enforcement of American law".[1] Other contemporary accounts claim that Lafitte was born in Orduna, Spain or in Westchester, New York.[1]

Saint-Domingue[edit]

Ramsay speculates that Lafitte was born in the French colony of Saint-Domingue (now Haiti).[1] In the late 18th century, adult children of the French planters in Saint-Domingue often resettled along the Mississippi River in La Louisiane, an area claimed by France, and especially in its largest city of New Orleans. He has found families with the surname Lafitte in Louisiana documents dating as early as 1765.[2] According to Ramsay, Lafitte, his elder brother Pierre, and his widowed mother migrated from Saint-Domingue to New Orleans in the 1780s. In approximately 1784, his mother married Pedro Aubry - a New Orleans merchant - and kept Jean with her. Pierre was raised by extended family elsewhere in Louisiana.[3]

According to Ramsay, as a young man, Lafitte likely spent much time exploring the wetlands and bayou country south of New Orleans. In later years, he was described as having "a more accurate knowledge of every inlet from the Gulf than any other man".[3] His elder brother Pierre became a privateer; he may have operated from Saint-Domingue, which frequently[when?] issued letters of marque.[3] Lafitte likely helped his brother to sell or trade the captured merchandise. By 1805 he was thought[by whom?] to be running a warehouse in New Orleans and possibly a store on Royal Street.[4]

France[edit]

The biographer William C. Davis reports a different childhood for Lafitte. According to his book, Lafitte was born in or near Pauillac, France, the son of Pierre Lafitte and his second wife, Marguerite Desteil. The couple had six children, including at least three daughters. Jean Lafitte was likely born in 1782, although he was not baptized until 1786. Pierre Lafitte had one other child, also named Pierre, from his first marriage to Marie LaGrange, who died in childbirth. The boys were given a basic Catholic education.[5]

Acknowledging that details of Lafitte's first twenty years are sparse, Davis speculates that Lafitte spent much time at sea as a child, probably aboard ships owned by his father, a known trader.[6] Davis places Lafitte's brother Pierre in Saint-Domingue in the late 1790s and the early 19th century. Due to escalating violence from the Haitian Revolution, in early 1803 Pierre boarded a refugee ship for New Orleans.[7] By 1806, several "Captain Lafitte"s operated in New Orleans; Jean Lafitte was likely one of them.[6]

Barataria[edit]

This recent map shows Barataria Bay [lower right], near Grande Isle

The United States made the Louisiana Purchase in 1803. In January 1808, the government began to enforce the Embargo Act of 1807, which barred American ships from docking at any foreign port. This was problematic for New Orleans merchants, who had relied heavily on trade with Caribbean colonies of other nations.[8] The Lafitte brothers began to look for another port from which they could smuggle goods to local merchants.

They established themselves on the small and sparsely populated island of Barataria, in Barataria Bay. The bay was located beyond a narrow passage between the barrier islands of Grande Terre and Grande Isle.[9] Barataria was far from the U.S. naval base, and ships could easily smuggle in goods without being noticed by customs officials. Workers would reload goods into smaller batches onto pirogues or barges for transport through the bayous to New Orleans.[10]

Based in New Orleans, Pierre Lafitte served as a silent partner, looking after their interests in the city. Jean Lafitte spent the majority of his time in Barataria managing the daily hands-on business of outfitting privateers and arranging the smuggling of stolen goods. By 1810, the island had become a booming port.[11] Seamen flocked to the island, working on the docks or at the warehouses until they were chosen as crew for one of the privateers.[12]

Lafitte was unhappy with the time it took to transport goods from the port to the merchants; navigating the swamps could take a full week. In 1812, Lafitte and his men began holding auctions at the Temple, a prehistoric memorial earthwork mound halfway between Grande Terre and New Orleans.[13]

Dissatisfied with their role as brokers, in October 1812 the Lafitte brothers purchased a schooner and hired a Captain Trey Cook to sail it.[14] As the schooner did not have an official commission from a national government, its captain was considered a pirate operating illegally.[15] In January 1813 they took their first prize, a Spanish hermaphrodite brig loaded with 77 slaves. Sale of the slaves and additional cargo generated $18,000 in profits and the brothers adapted the captured ship for use in piracy, naming it Dorada. Within weeks, Dorada captured a schooner loaded with over $9,000 in goods. The captured schooner was not considered useful for piracy so, after unloading its cargo, the Lafittes returned the ship to its former captain and crew.[16] The Lafittes gained a reputation for treating captive crew members well, and often returned captured ships to their original crew.[17]

The brothers soon acquired a third ship, La Diligent.[18] They outfitted it with 12 fourteen-pounder cannons.[19] Dorada captured a fourth ship, a schooner they renamed Petit Milan. The brothers stripped down their original ship and used its guns to outfit the new one. They sailed three ships, which Davis described as likely "one of the largest privately owned corsair fleets operating on the coast, and the most versatile."[20] For several months, the Lafittes would send the ships directly to New Orleans with a legal cargo and would take on outgoing provisions in the city. The crew would create a manifest that listed not the provisions that had been purchased, but smuggled items stored at Barataria. Uninterested in exports from New Orleans, customs agents rarely checked the accuracy of the manifests. The ship would sail to the mouth of Bayou Lafourche, load the contraband goods, and sail "legally" back to New Orleans, with goods listed on a certified manifest.[21]

Shifting attitudes[edit]

Governor William C.C. Claiborne took a leave of absence in September 1810, leaving Thomas B. Robertson as acting governor. Robertson was incensed by Lafitte's operation, calling his men "brigands who infest our coast and overrun our country".[22] The residents of New Orleans were grateful to the Lafittes for providing them with luxuries otherwise prevented by the embargo.[12] When Claiborne returned to office, he was relatively quiet on the subject.[13]

On June 18, 1812, the United States declared war on Britain. Britain maintained a powerful navy, while the United States had little naval power.[23] To supplement their navy, the United States offered letters of marque to private armed vessels. New Orleans issued six such letters, primarily to smugglers who worked with Lafitte at Barataria. The smugglers often held letters of marque from multiple countries, authorizing them to capture booty from differing nations. They submitted booty from captured British ships to the American authorities at New Orleans, while booty from all other ships was often channelled for sale on the markets through Lafitte's operation.[24] As the smuggling operations reduced the amount of revenue collected by customs offices, American authorities were determined to halt Barataria's operations.[25] Because the US Navy did not have enough ships to act against the Baratarian smugglers, the government turned to the courts. On November 10, 1812, the United States District Attorney John R. Grymes charged Lafitte with "violation of the revenue law".[26] Three days later, 40 soldiers were sent to ambush the Baratarians; they captured Lafitte, his brother Pierre, and 25 unarmed smugglers on November 16, and confiscated several thousand dollars of contraband. Officials released the smugglers after they posted bond, and they disappeared, refusing to return for a trial.[26]

Although under indictment, in March 1813 Lafitte registered as captain of Le Brig Goelette la Diligente for a supposed journey to New York.[27] Biographer Jack Ramsay speculates that the voyage was intended to "establish...[Lafitte] as a privateering captain".[28] Lafitte soon acquired a letter of marque from Cartagena, but never sent any booty there. He brought all captured goods to Barataria.[29]

Lafitte's continued flouting of the laws angered Governor Claiborne, who, on March 15, issued a proclamation against the Baratarian "banditti ... who act in contravention of the laws of the United States ... to the evident prejudice of the revenue of the federal government".[29] The proclamation was printed in the nationally read Niles' Weekly Register.[29]

In October, a revenue officer prepared an ambush of a band of Lafitte's smugglers. The smugglers wounded one of the officers and safely escaped with the contraband.[30] The following month, the governor offered a $500 reward for Lafitte's capture. Within two days of his offer, handbills were posted all over New Orleans offering a similar award for the arrest of the governor. Although the handbills were made in Lafitte's name, Ramsay believes "it is unlikely [the handbills] originated with him".[31] Following the reward offer, Lafitte wrote Claiborne a note denying the charges of piracy.[31]

Given the success of his auctions at the Temple, in January 1814 Lafitte set up a similar auction at a site just outside New Orleans. Officials tried to break up this auction by force, and in the ensuing gunfight, one of the revenue officers was killed and two others were wounded.[32] Many of the city's merchants were also unhappy with this auction, because it allowed their customers to buy goods directly from Lafitte at a lower price than the merchants could charge.[33]

Claiborne appealed to the new state legislature, citing the lost revenues due to the smuggling. He requested approval to raise a militia company to "disperse those desperate men on Lake Barataria whose piracies have rendered our shores a terror to neutral flags".[33] The legislature appointed a committee to study the matter but, as most of their constituents benefitted by the smuggling, they never authorized the militia. A grand jury indicted Pierre Lafitte after hearing testimony against him by one of the city's leading merchants.[33] Lafitte was arrested, tried, convicted and jailed on charges of "having knowingly and wittingly aided and assisted, procured, commanded, counselled, and advised" persons to commit acts of piracy".[34]

War of 1812[edit]

British offer[edit]

While Pierre was jailed, Jean operated the piracy and smuggling business. Over the next few months, the British Navy increased patrols in the Gulf of Mexico, and by August they had established a base at Pensacola. On September 3, 1814, the British ship HMS Sophie fired on a pirate ship returning to Barataria.[35] Lafitte's ship grounded in shallow water where the larger British ship could not follow. The British raised a white flag and launched a small dinghy with several officers. Lafitte and several of his men rowed to meet them halfway.[36]

Captain Nicholas Lockyer, the commander of the Sophie, had been ordered to contact the "Commandant at Barataria". He was accompanied by a Royal Marine infantry Captain, John McWilliam,[37][38] who had been given a package to deliver to Lafitte. The Baratarians invited the British officers to row to their island. When they had disembarked and were surrounded by his men, Lafite identified himself to them. Many of the smugglers wanted to lynch the British men, but Lafitte intervened and placed guards outside his home to ensure their protection.[36] McWilliam brought two letters in his packet for Lafitte: one, under the seal of King George III, offered Lafitte and his forces British citizenship and land grants in the British colonies in the Americas if they promised to assist in the naval fight against the United States and to return any recent property that had been taken from Spanish ships. (The British were allied with Spain against the French and the US.) If they refused the offer, the British Navy would destroy Barataria. The second item was a personal note to Lafitte from McWilliam's superior, Lieutenant Colonel Edward Nicolls, urging him to accept the offer.[39]

Believing that the US would eventually prevail in the war against Great Britain, Lafitte thought he could more easily defeat the US revenue officers than he could the British navy.[40] He had also been told in August that American officials were planning an assault on Baratria with forces under the command of Commodore Daniel Patterson. They feared that Lafitte and his men might side with the British.

Lafitte tried to convince the Americans that they had nothing to fear from him.[41] He sent a message to the Americans that few of his men favored helping the British, but said he needed 15 days to review their offer.[40] Lafitte had copies of the letters sent to Jean Blanque, a member of the state legislature who had invested in the Barataria operation. In a personal note, Lafitte reminded Blanque that his brother Pierre was still in jail and deserved an early release. Lafitte added a note to Governor Claiborne, saying,

"I am the stray sheep, wishing to return to the sheepfold ... If you were thoroughly acquainted with the nature of my offenses, I should appear to you much less guilty, and still worthy to discharge the duties of a good citizen."[42]

Lafitte committed him and his men for any defensive measures needed by New Orleans. Within two days of Lafitte's notes, Pierre "escaped" from jail.[42]

American invasion[edit]

Black and white painting of side-burned 30-something man in naval uniform
US Commodore Daniel Patterson commanded an offensive force against Lafitte and his men at Barataria, 1814

The US ordered an attack on Lafitte's colony. On September 13, 1814 Commodore Daniel Patterson set sail aboard the USS Carolina for Barataria. He was accompanied by six gunboats and a tender. The fleet anchored off Grande Terre and the gunboats attacked. By midmorning, 10 armed pirate ships formed a battle line in the bay. Within a short period, Lafitte's men abandoned their ships, set several on fire, and fled the area. When Patterson's men went ashore, they met no resistance. They took 80 people captive, but Lafitte escaped safely. The Americans took custody of six schooners, one felucca, and a brig, as well as 20 cannon and goods worth $500,000.[43]

On September 23, Patterson and his fleet, including the eight captured ships, began the return trip to New Orleans. Widely publicized, the raid was hailed by the Niles' Weekly Register as "a major conquest for the United States".[44] Lafitte was described as

"a man who, for about two years past, has been famous for crimes that the civilized world wars against. ... [He] is supposed to have captured one hundred vessels of all nations, and certainly murdered the crews of all that he took, for no one has ever escaped him."[44]

Following the custom of the times, Patterson filed a legal claim for the profits from the confiscated ships and merchandise. An attorney representing Lafitte argued that the captured ships had flown the flag of Cartagena, an area at peace with the United States. One of Lafitte's men testified that the Baratarians had never intended to fight the US but had prepared their vessels to flee. The judge ruled that Patterson should get the customary share of profits from the goods that had already been sold, but he did not settle the ownership of the ships. They were held in port under custody of the United States marshal.[45] Likely inspired by Lafitte's offer to help defend Louisiana, Governor Claiborne wrote the US Attorney General, Richard Rush requesting a pardon for the Baratarians, saying that for generations, smugglers were "esteemed honest ... [and] sympathy for these offenders is certainly more or less felt by many of the Louisianans".[46] According to Ramsay, Claiborne next wrote to General Andrew Jackson, "implying Patterson had destroyed a potential first line of defense for Louisiana". by his capture of Lafitte and his ships.[47] Jackson responded, "I ask you, Louisianans, can we place any confidence in the honor of men who have courted an alliance with pirates and robbers?"[47]

Battle of New Orleans[edit]

Main article: Battle of New Orleans

When Andrew Jackson arrived in New Orleans on December 1, 1814, he discovered the city had not created any defenses.[48] It had approximately 1,000 unseasoned troops and two ships for its use. Although the city kept control of the eight ships taken from Lafitte, it did not have enough sailors to man them for defense. Resentful of the raid on Barataria, Lafitte's men refused to serve on their former ships.[49]

In mid-December, Jackson met with Lafitte, who offered to serve if the US would pardon those of his men who agreed to defend the city. Jackson agreed to do so.[50] On December 19, the state legislature passed a resolution recommending a full pardon for all of the former residents at Barataria.[51] With Lafitte's encouragement, many of his men joined the New Orleans militia or as sailors to man the ships. Others formed three artillery companies.[52]

On December 23, advance units of the British fleet reached the Mississippi River.[52] Lafitte realized that the American line of defense was so short as potentially to allow the British to encircle the American troops. He suggested that the line be extended to a nearby swamp, and Jackson ordered it done.[53] The British began firing at the American lines on December 28, but were repulsed by an artillery crew manned by two of Lafitte's former lieutenants, Renato Beluche and Dominique Youx.[54]

Patterson praised the Barataria men who served on one of the US Navy ships, and whose skill with artillery was greater than their British counterparts.[55] On land and sea, the former pirate gunners earned praise as the battle continued. On January 21, Jackson issued a statement praising his troops, especially the cannoneers and "Captains Dominique and Beluche, lately commanding privateers of Barataria, with part of their former crews and many brave citizens of New Orleans, were stationed at Nos. 3 and 4."[56] Jackson named Jean and Pierre Lafitte for having "exhibited the same courage and fidelity".[56] He formally requested clemency for the Lafittes and the men who had served under them. The government granted them all a full pardon on February 6.[57][58]

Galveston[edit]

In late 1815 and early 1816, the Lafitte brothers agreed to act as spies for Spain, which was embroiled in the Mexican War of Independence. Collectively they were known as "Number thirteen". Pierre was to inform about the situation in New Orleans, and Jean was sent to Galveston Island, a part of Spanish Texas that served as the home base of Louis-Michel Aury, a French privateer who claimed to be a Mexican revolutionary.[59] By early 1817, other revolutionaries had begun to congregate at Galveston, hoping to make it their base to wrest Mexico from Spanish control. Lafitte visited in March 1817.[60] Two weeks into his stay, the two leaders of the revolutionaries left the island.

The following day, Lafitte took command of the island and appointed his own officers. On April 18, he sailed for New Orleans to report his activities.[61] With Spanish permission, Lafitte returned to Galveston, promising to make weekly reports of his activities.[62]

Lafitte essentially developed Galveston Island as another smuggling base. Like Barataria, Galveston was a seaward island that protected a large inland bay. As part of Mexico, it was outside the authority of the United States, and was largely uninhabited, except by Native American Karankawa.[63]

Lafitte named his colony Campeche, after a Mexican outpost further south along the Gulf Coast. His men tore down the existing houses and built 200 new, sturdier structures.[64] Ships operating from Galveston flew the flag of Mexico, but they did not participate in the revolution. Lafitte wanted to avoid a Spanish invasion.[65] Aury returned to Galveston several months later, but he left in July when he realized that the men were unwilling to revolt.[66]

In less than a year, Lafitte's colony grew to 100–200 men and several women.[67] Lafitte interviewed all newcomers and required them to take a loyalty oath to him. The headquarters was a two-story building facing the inland harbor, where landings were made. The building was surrounded by a moat and painted red; it became known as Maison Rouge. Lafitte conducted most business aboard his ship, The Pride, where he also lived.[68] Lafitte created "letters of marque" from an imaginary nation to "authorize" all the ships sailing from Galveston as privateers. The letters gave the ships "permission" to attack ships from all nations.[69]

In April 1818, the United States passed a law prohibiting the import of slaves into any port in the United States. The law left several loopholes, giving permission to any ship to capture a slave ship, regardless of the country of origin. Slaves captured in such actions who were turned over to the customs office would be sold within the United States, with half the profits going to the people who turned them in. Lafitte worked with several smugglers, including Jim Bowie, to profit from the poorly written law. Lafitte's men identified slave ships and captured them. Smugglers would purchase the slaves for a discounted price, march them to Louisiana, and turn them in to customs officials. A representative of the smuggler would purchase the slaves at the ensuing auction, and the smuggler would be given half of the purchase price. The smuggler became the lawful owner of the slaves and could resell them in New Orleans, or transport them for sale in other parts of the Deep South, which was the major market of the time.[70]

In 1818, the colony suffered hardships. After Lafitte's men kidnapped a Karankawa woman, warriors of her tribe attacked and killed five men of the colony. The corsairs aimed the artillery at the Karankawa, killing most of the men in the tribe. A hurricane in September resulted in flooding of most of the island, in which several people died. It destroyed four ships and most buildings. Only six houses survived as habitable.[71]

Marriage and family[edit]

Around 1820, Lafitte reportedly married Madeline Regaud, possibly the widow or daughter of a French colonist who had died during an ill-fated expedition to Galveston. They had his only known son, Jean Pierre Lafitte (d. 1832).

End of Campeche[edit]

In 1821, the schooner USS Enterprise was sent to Galveston to remove Lafitte from the Gulf. One of the pirate's captains had attacked an American merchant ship. Lafitte agreed to leave the island without a fight, and on May 7, 1821 departed on The Pride. His men burned the Maison Rouge, fortress and settlement.[72] He reportedly took immense amounts of treasure with him, and was accompanied by his mulatto mistress and an infant son.[72] All that remains of Maison Rouge is the foundation, located at 1417 Harborside Drive near the Galveston wharf.

Later years[edit]

Most of his men had believed that Lafitte had a valid privateering commission, although there was confusion on which country had issued it.[73] Two weeks after setting sail, they captured a Spanish ship, which they sent to Galveston, hoping the Longs would smuggle the goods to New Orleans.[73] Lafitte's men buried some of the cargo on the island and ran the captured vessel aground, but an American patrol spotted the ship and after investigating, discovered the buried cargo. Several of Lafitte's men were arrested and convicted of piracy.[74][Note 1]

The remainder of the crew rejoined Lafitte, who finally acknowledged that he did not have a valid commission. He said his ships would sail as pirates.[75] Almost half of the combined crew refused to sail as pirates; Lafitte allowed them to leave aboard his largest ship, the brig General Victoria. That night his remaining men reboarded the General Victoria and destroyed its masts and spars, crippling the ship, but they left the crew unharmed.[76][Note 2]

Lafitte and his men continued to take Spanish ships in the Gulf of Mexico, often returning to Galveston or the barrier islands near New Orleans to unload cargo or take on supplies arranged by Pierre.[77] The congressional delegation in Louisiana began to demand that the federal government do something to halt the smuggling, and more U.S. Navy ships were sent to the Gulf. Their patrols and interventions reduced the number of active pirates in the region.[78] In October or November 1821, Lafitte's ship was ambushed as he attempted to ransom a recent prize. After first escaping with some crew, he and his men were captured and jailed. On February 13, he escaped, likely with outside help.[79]

Over the next few months, Lafitte established a base along the coast of Cuba, where he bribed local officials with a share of the profits.[80] In late April 1822, Lafitte was captured again after taking his first American ship. The American warship which captured him turned Lafitte over to the local authorities, who promptly released him.[81] When Lafitte and other pirates operating in the area began attacking merchant ships carrying legal goods to Cuba, they angered Cuban officials.[82] By the end of 1822, Cuba had banned all forms of sea raiding.[83]

In June 1822, Lafitte approached the officials in Colombia, whose government had begun commissioning former privateers as officers in their new navy. Lafitte was granted a commission and given a new ship, a 40-ton schooner named General Santander.[84] For the first time, Lafitte was legally authorized to take Spanish ships.[85]

Lafitte continued to patrol the shipping lanes around Cuba. In November 1822, he made news in the American press after escorting an American schooner through the pirate-strewn area and providing them with extra cannonballs and food.[86]

In February 1823, Lafitte was cruising off the town of Omoa, Honduras on his 43-ton armed Colombian schooner named General Santander. Omoa was the site of the largest Spanish fort in Central America, built to guard the Spanish silver shipments from the mines of Tegucigalpa to overseas destinations. Lafitte attempted to take what appeared to be two Spanish merchant vessels on the night of February 4. It was cloudy with low visibility. The Spanish ships appeared to be fleeing but, at 10:00 pm, turned back for a frontal counterattack against Lafitte's ship. The Spanish ships were heavily armed privateers or warships and returned heavy fire.

Wounded in the battle, Lafitte is believed to have died just after dawn on February 5. He was buried at sea in the Gulf of Honduras.[87][Note 3] The Gaceta de Cartagena and the Gaceta de Colombia carried obituaries that noted, "the loss of this brave naval officer is moving."[88] No American newspaper published an obituary of him.[89]

Legacy[edit]

Full length portrait of a man in his forties, in high-ranking dress white and dark blue military uniform. He stands amid rich 18th-century furniture laden with papers, and gazes at the viewer. His hair is Brutus style, cropped close but with a short fringe in front, and his right hand is tucked in his waistcoat.
A persistent rumor claimed that Lafitte rescued Napoleon (pictured) from exile and both of them ended their days in Louisiana. No evidence supports it.

Davis writes that Lafitte's death prevented his becoming obsolete; by 1825 piracy had been essentially eradicated in the Gulf of Mexico, and "the new world of the Gulf simply had no room for [his] kind".[90] Given his legendary reputation, there was much speculation about whether, or how, Lafitte had died. Rumors abounded: he changed his name after leaving Galveston and disappeared; he was killed by his own men shortly after leaving Galveston; or, he rescued Napoleon and they both died in Louisiana.[89] In 1843, Mirabeau B. Lamar investigated many of the Lafitte stories and concluded that, while there were no authentic records of death, Lafitte was likely dead.[89] By this time, Lafitte's only known son, Jean Pierre Lafitte, had died in October 1832 during a yellow fever epidemic in New Orleans.[91]

Ramsay compares the numerous legends related to the life and death of Lafitte to those about King Arthur and Robin Hood.[92] Lafitte is rumored to have buried treasure at many locations, including Galveston and sites along coastal Louisiana, such as Contraband Bayou in Lake Charles.[93] Ramsay believes that over time, almost "every foot of Grande Isle has been spaded for pirate gold".[92] In 1909, a man was given a six-year prison sentence for fraud after swindling thousands of dollars from people, by claiming that he knew where the Lafitte treasure was buried and taking their money for the promise to find it.[94]

In the mid-1920s, a private search for the treasure of Lafitte extended to the draining of Indian Bayou. As an arm of the Natalbany River in Springfield, Louisiana, the entire bayou was dyked and drained. The work was financed exclusively to search for the treasure of Lafitte. An Indian dugout canoe found at the time is displayed at the Cabildo in New Orleans. Under unknown circumstances, the crew and all the workmen broke camp and left one night after several weeks of work.

Representation in popular culture[edit]

Food[edit]

  • Jean LaFoote is a fictional pirate character from the Cap'n Crunch breakfast cereal's character set. The character's name is wordplay on that of the historical pirate, Jean Lafitte.[97]
  • Lafitte's Blacksmith Shop is named after him. Located on Bourbon Street in New Orleans, it is believed Lafitte may have spent time there in his earlier years as a safe place off Royal Street to orchestrate the transfer of smuggled goods. First established in 1772, the structure stands today as the oldest bar in the American South.

Literature[edit]

Numerous novels have been inspired by his exploits.

  • The first novel to feature him was The Memoirs of Lafitte, or The Baratarian Pirate; a Narrative Founded on Fact (1826).[98]
  • Many Americans believed that Lord Byron's poem "The Corsair" was based on the life of Lafitte; the work sold over 10,000 copies on its first day of publication.[99] By 1840, Lafitte was widely known "as a fatal lothario with women, and a cold-blooded murderer of men who yet observed some forms of honor".[100]
  • In Isabel Allende's Zorro, Lafitte is a key character in the plot.
  • In the popular manga/anime series One Piece, the character Lafitte is named after Jean Lafitte.
  • Charles Gayarre wrote the first serious biography of Lafitte, Historical Sketch of Pierre and Jean Lafitte, the Famous Smugglers of Louisiana (1883).[101] Other biographies followed.
  • Lyle Saxon wrote the novel Lafitte the Pirate (1930).
  • Lee Falk's Phantom comic strip story "The Vault of Missing Men" (1979-1980) pitted Jean Lafitte against one of the historical Phantoms. The Phantom eventually married Lafitte's (fictional) sister Jeanette, and Lafitte himself is said to have been buried in a special vault in the Skull Cave, Lee Falk rewriting the details of his death.
  • The young Lafitte is a minor character in Simon Hawke's 1984 science-fiction novel The Pimpernel Plot, set in Paris in 1791.
  • French comics script-writer Marc Bourgne and artist Franck Bonnet created in 2009 a series called Les pirates de Barataria (Glénat éditeur, Paris)

Film[edit]

Daylight photo of canal with many tree branches stretching from the banks out over the canal.
Part of the Barataria Preserve in Jean Lafitte National Historical Park and Preserve
  • Saxon's novel was adapted for the Cecil B. DeMille movie The Buccaneer (1938).[102] The movie dealt with Lafitte's contribution to the War of 1812 between the USA and Great Britain, and starred Fredric March as Lafitte.
  • In 1950 Paul Henreid starred in another movie about Jean Lafitte entitled The Last of the Buccaneers.[103] It was directed by Lew Landers and produced by Sam Katzman for Columbia Pictures Corporation.
  • In 1958 Anthony Quinn directed a remake of The Buccaneer, starring Yul Brynner as Lafitte and Charlton Heston as Andrew Jackson.
  • The Pirate Island of Jean Lafitte (1980s), an 18-minute film directed by C. Grant Mitchell, is screened year-round at The Pier 21 Theater in Galveston.[104]
  • Lafitte's ship "The Pride" is the final hiding place for "The Judas Chalice" in the film The Librarian: Curse of the Judas Chalice (2008), along with Lafitte's skeleton lying on top of the chest containing the chalice.

Lafitte's journal[edit]

In 1948, John Andrechyne Laflin approached the Missouri Historical Society with a document he claimed was a journal Lafitte kept from 1845 until 1850.[105][106] When the historical society could not authenticate the claim, Laflin approached the Louisiana author Stanley Arthur, who wrote Jean Laffitte: Gentleman Rover based on the journal. In 1958, Laflin self-published an English translation of the journal. He refused to allow anyone else to see the original documents until 1969, when he sold them to a professional document dealer.[106] The paper and ink were analyzed and confirmed to be of mid-19th-century origin. An archivist for Bexar County, Texas declared the papers to be authentic.[107]

In 1980, the manuscript was donated to the Sam Houston Regional Library and Research Center in Texas, where, for the first time, it was made available to research.[107] Many researchers noticed a similarity between John Laflin's handwriting and the writing in the journal.[107] Handwriting analysis by experts revealed similarities between John Laflin's handwriting and that of the journal.[108] Laflin had been previously accused of forging letters from Abraham Lincoln, Andrew Jackson, and Davy Crocket.[109] Most historians now believe the Lafitte journal to be a forgery.[110][Note 4]

Video Games[edit]

Portrayals of Lafitte extend to video games, such as Sid Meier's Pirates! (2004). Jean Lafitte was a key part of the PC game Nancy Drew: Legend of the Crystal Skull.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ These men were pardoned after testifying that they had deserted from Lafitte's ship in Galveston when they discovered it did not have a valid privateering commission. (Davis (2005), p. 436).
  2. ^ After more than two weeks, the disabled General Victoria was rescued by an American ship. The starving crew members were given rewards for having taken it from a pirate. (Davis (2005), p. 439).
  3. ^ This account of Lafitte's death is not accepted by all historians. Ramsay believes that Lafitte died of a fever in 1826 or 1827 on Isla Mujeres just northeast of the Yucatán Peninsula. (Ramsay (1996), pp. 129-133.) Davis recounts a similar story, but maintains that the man who died on this island was Pierre Lafitte, and that the death occurred in late 1821. (Davis (2005), pp. 453-455.)
  4. ^ Ramsay believes the documents were written by Laflin's ancestor, Matthew Laflin (1803–1854), who may have convinced his descendants that he was Jean Lafitte.(Ramsay (1996), pp. 151–2.)

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Ramsay (1996), p. 10.
  2. ^ Ramsay (1996), p. 12.
  3. ^ a b c Ramsay (1996), p. 13.
  4. ^ Ramsay (1996), p. 21.
  5. ^ Davis (2005), p. 2.
  6. ^ a b Davis (2005), p. 25.
  7. ^ Davis (2005), pp. 5, 7.
  8. ^ Ramsay (1996), p. 22.
  9. ^ Ramsay (1996), p. 23.
  10. ^ Ramsay (1996), p. 27.
  11. ^ Ramsay (1996), p. 28.
  12. ^ a b Ramsay (1996), p. 29.
  13. ^ a b Ramsay (1996), p. 32
  14. ^ Davis (2005), p. 89.
  15. ^ Davis (2005), p. 90.
  16. ^ Davis (2005), p. 95.
  17. ^ Davis (2005), p. 96.
  18. ^ Davis (2005),p. 97.
  19. ^ Davis (2005), p. 98.
  20. ^ Davis (2005), p. 105.
  21. ^ Davis (2005), p. 123.
  22. ^ Ramsay (1996), p. 30.
  23. ^ Ramsay (1996), p. 34.
  24. ^ Ramsay (1996), pp. 35–6.
  25. ^ Ramsay (1996), p. 36.
  26. ^ a b Ramsay (1996), p. 37.
  27. ^ Ramsay (1996), p. 38.
  28. ^ Ramsay (1996), p. 39.
  29. ^ a b c Ramsay (1996), p. 40.
  30. ^ Ramsay (1996), p. 42.
  31. ^ a b Ramsay (1996), p. 43.
  32. ^ Ramsay (1996), p. 44.
  33. ^ a b c Ramsay (1996), p. 45.
  34. ^ Ramsay (1996), p. 46.
  35. ^ Ramsay (1996), p. 47.
  36. ^ a b Ramsay (1996), p. 48.
  37. ^ Nicolas, p. 277. states that he held a local (acting) rank of Captain of Royal Marines
  38. ^ The Navy List, corrected to the end of December 1814. London: John Murray. 1814. p. 111. 
  39. ^ Ramsay (1996), p. 49.
  40. ^ a b Ramsay (1996), p. 50.
  41. ^ Ramsay (1996), p. 53.
  42. ^ a b Ramsay (1996), p. 51.
  43. ^ Ramsay (1996), p. 54.
  44. ^ a b Ramsay (1996), p. 55.
  45. ^ Ramsay (1996), p. 56.
  46. ^ Ramsay (1996), p. 58.
  47. ^ a b Ramsay (1996), p. 59.
  48. ^ Ramsay (1996), p. 60.
  49. ^ Ramsay (1996), p. 61.
  50. ^ Ramsay (1996), p. 62.
  51. ^ Ramsay (1996), p. 67.
  52. ^ a b Ramsay (1996), p. 69.
  53. ^ Ramsay (1996), p. 70.
  54. ^ Ramsay (1996), p. 71.
  55. ^ Ramsay (1996), p. 72.
  56. ^ a b Ramsay (1996), p. 77.
  57. ^ Ramsay (1996), p. 82.
  58. ^ Ingersoll (1852) pp. 82-83
  59. ^ Ramsay (1996), p. 90.
  60. ^ Ramsay (1996), p. 91.
  61. ^ Ramsay (1996), p. 92.
  62. ^ Ramsay (1996), p. 94.
  63. ^ Ramsay (1996), p. 93.
  64. ^ Ramsay (1995), p. 95.
  65. ^ Ramsay (1996), p. 96.
  66. ^ Ramsay (1996), p. 97.
  67. ^ Ramsay (1996), p. 98.
  68. ^ Ramsay (1996), pp.98–9.
  69. ^ Ramsay (1996), p. 101.
  70. ^ Ramsay (1996), pp. 103–5.
  71. ^ Ramsay (1996), p. 107.
  72. ^ a b Davis (2005), p. 432.
  73. ^ a b Davis (2005), p. 435.
  74. ^ Davis (2005), p. 436.
  75. ^ Davis (2005), p. 437.
  76. ^ Davis (2005), p. 438.
  77. ^ Davis (2005), pp. 440, 450.
  78. ^ Davis (2005), pp. 450-451.
  79. ^ Davis (2005), pp. 455-456.
  80. ^ Ramsay (1996), p. 125.
  81. ^ Davis (2005), pp. 457–8.
  82. ^ Ramsay (1996), p. 126.
  83. ^ Ramsay (1996), p. 127.
  84. ^ Davis (2005), p. 459.
  85. ^ Davis (2005), p. 462.
  86. ^ Davis (2005), pp. 460-461.
  87. ^ Davis (2005), pp. 462-463.
  88. ^ Davis (2005), pp. 463-464.
  89. ^ a b c Davis (2005), p. 468.
  90. ^ Davis (2005), p. 467.
  91. ^ Davis (2005), p. 479
  92. ^ a b Ramsay (1996), p. 137.
  93. ^ Ramsay (1996), p. 136.
  94. ^ Davis (2005), p. 473.
  95. ^ Hayes, Greg (May 2, 2007), "Arrrrrr!", The Orange County News, retrieved 2009-01-23 
  96. ^ Marcus, Frances Frank (January 15, 1989), "Canoeing Among Alligators", New York Times, retrieved 2009-01-23 
  97. ^ Jean LaFoote
  98. ^ Davis (2005), p. 470.
  99. ^ Ramsay (1996), pp. 138–9.
  100. ^ Davis (2005), p. 472.
  101. ^ Ramsay (1996), p. 139.
  102. ^ Ramsay (1996), p. 141.
  103. ^ http://ftvdb.bfi.org.uk/sift/title/39755
  104. ^ Mitchell, Grant, "The Pirate Island of Jean Lafitte", Galveston.com, retrieved 2009-11-29 
  105. ^ Ramsay (1996), p. 147.
  106. ^ a b Ramsay (1996), p. 148.
  107. ^ a b c Ramsay (1996), p. 149.
  108. ^ Nickell (2005), p. 73.
  109. ^ Nickell (2005), p. 73.
  110. ^ Ramsay (1996), p. 150.

Sources[edit]

External links[edit]