Jean Lesage

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Jean Lesage
Jean Lesage.jpg
19th Premier of Quebec
In office
22 June 1960 – 16 August 1966
Monarch Elizabeth II
Lieutenant Governor Onésime Gagnon
Paul Comtois
Hugues Lapointe
Preceded by Antonio Barrette
Succeeded by Daniel Johnson Sr.
Personal details
Born (1912-06-10)10 June 1912
Montreal, Quebec
Died 12 December 1980( 1980-12-12) (aged 68)
Sillery, Quebec
Political party Quebec Liberal Party
Spouse(s) Corinne Lagarde
Profession Lawyer, Politician
Religion Roman Catholic

Jean Lesage, PC, CC, CD (French pronunciation: ​[ʒɑ̃ ləsaʒ]; 10 June 1912 – 12 December 1980) was a lawyer and politician in Quebec, Canada. He served as the 19th Premier of Quebec from 22 June 1960, to 16 August 1966. Alongside Georges-Émile Lapalme, René Lévesque and other Québécois, he is often viewed as the father of the Quiet Revolution.

Biography[edit]

Early Years[edit]

Lesage in the 1940s

Jean Lesage was born on June 10, 1912, in Montréal, Québec to Xavéri Lesage, a district manager of the insurance company Les Prévoyants du Canada and Cécile Côté with whom he also had five more children.[1] Jean began his education at the kindergarten Saint-Enfant-Jésus Montréal. In 1921, the family relocated to Quebec City where Xavéri was appointed assistant manager by his brother Antoni in the headquarters office.[2]

Education[edit]

Jean enrolled as a day student in the private boarding school St-Louis de Gonzague which proved to be a wise decision because in 1923, he was admitted to the élite Seminary next to the Basilica for an eight-year program which eventually lead to the baccalaureate. He was an extremely talented and bright student who ranked highly in courses especially in religion, French, Latin, Greek and philosophy. [3]

He enrolled in the Faculty of Law at Laval University where his natural quick wit, facility in expressing himself, and his argumentative nature assured him success in that field. During his years as a student, Jean was an active liberal and he became interested in having a political career. He graduated with a law degree in 1934.[4]

Legal career[edit]

He practised law in Quebec City with Paul Lesage in 1934, then with Charles Gavan Power, Valmore Bienvenue, Paul Lesage, and Jean Turgeon. He married Corinne Lagarde, a singer and the daughter of Alexandre Lagarde and Valéria Matte.

He was made a Crown attorney for Wartime Prices and Trade Board from 1939 to 1944.

Political career in Ottawa[edit]

Jean Lesage was elected as a federal Member of Parliament for the riding of Montmagny-L'Islet as a Liberal for the first time in the 1945 general election. After his re-election in 1949, he was first named Parliamentary Secretary to the Secretary of State for External Affairs from 25 January 1951 to 31 December 1952, he was then named Parliamentary Secretary for the Minister of Finance from 1 January 1953 to 13 June 1953. Following his re-election in 1953, Jean Lesage was appointed Minister of Resources and Development from 17 September 1953 to 15 December 1953 and then Minister of Northern Affairs and National Resources from 16 December 1953 to 21 June 1957 [5]

He survived the Progressive Conservative ascendancy and was re-elected in both 1957 and 1958. However, he resigned from his seat 13 June 1958 following his election as leader of the Liberal Party of Quebec on 31 May 1958.

The Lesage Government[edit]

Jean Lesage monument in Quebec City.

On June 22, 1960, Jean Lesage's Liberal government won the Quebec general election with 51 of 95 seats and 51 per cent of the popular vote and was elected to the National Assembly of Quebec campaigning with the slogans "l’équipe de tonnerre" – "the terrific team" – and "C’est le temps que ça change" - "It’s time for a change".[6]

His electoral success ended the Union Nationale and Maurice Duplessis’ long conservative reign since 1935 (except between 1940-1944).[7]

Lesage became Premier, President of the Executive Council, and Minister of Finance from 5 July 1960 to 16 June 1966; he was also Minister of Federal-Provincial Affairs from 28 March 1961 to 16 June 1966 and Minister of Revenue from 30 May 1963 to 8 August 1963.

Lesage’s election campaign ushered the Quiet Revolution, which was the rapid and drastic change of values, attitudes, and behaviours in Quebec society also characterized by a great surge in Quebec nationalism.[8]

In 1962, the Liberal Party of Quebec won re-election with the slogan Maîtres chez nous (Masters in Our Own Home). In the last decade, it had already ended its affiliation with the Liberal Party of Canada.

Major Accomplishments[edit]

The Lesage government’s rule significantly contributed to social, economic and political changes in Quebec society as well as strengthened the Québécois identity during the Quiet Revolution. The modernization of Quebec was Lesage’s main objective and many of his goals were based around this objective. In addition, the numerous changes that were made reflected the French-Canadian identity specifically that of the Québécois because Lesage wanted to strengthen Quebec nationalism.[9]

During his rule, Lesage achieved many great changes in Quebec which he and his fellow Quebecers were extremely proud of. Lesage believed that French Canadians could very well develop as a modern people within Canada without losing their identity.[10]

One of the major and most successful changes made by the Lesage government was the secularization of Quebec from the Roman Catholic Church. Education reform was one of the most prominent examples of this secularization. Lesage rejected the role of the Church which had previously controlled the school system and revamped it. He wanted the state of Quebec to provide education for everyone and instill in them Québécois values as well as produce a better skilled labour force. The mandatory schooling age was also increased from 14 to 16. The Ministry of Education was created in 1964 with Paul Gérin-Lajoie becoming Quebec’s first Minister of education.[11]

Another major success which Quebec is extremely proud of-even until today-is Hydro-Québec and the nationalization of the province’s hydro-electricity. “The nationalization of electricity was ‘a logical extension’ of the government’s goal of growth ...based primarily, unfalteringly on the promotion of the French-Canadian people.” [12] With great assistance from René Lévesque, the 11 remaining private power companies were bought out and Hydro-Québec began supplying, distributing and transmitting the entire province’s energy. The Lesage government’s success of Hydro-Québec represents strength, determination and initiative.

Other major economic accomplishments included: the creation of the Société générale de financement which encouraged Quebecers to invest in their future and provided capital for private and mainly Francophone enterprises; the creation of public companies like the Société de Montage Automobile (SOMA) which assembled French automobiles in Quebec, the Société Québécoise d’Exploration Minière (SOQUEM) which ensured that mining resources would be developed in the interests of Quebecers and Sidérurgie Québécoise (SIDBEC) which was established as an integrated steel plant.[13]

Furthermore, during Lesage’s time as Premier, Quebec also took over health care from the Church, was the only province to opt out of the national pension plan in order to create its own version, the Quebec Pension Plan; it formed the Caisse de dépôt et placement du Québec to invest in the pension plan funds and the Régie des rentes du Québec to manage the plan; it revamped the province’s labour force by giving public-sector workers the right to strike; and it laid a foundation for the creation of post-secondary Collèges d’Enseignement Général et Professionnel (CEGEPS) in the area of education.[14]

Defeat and retirement[edit]

Despite winning 47% of the vote in the 1966 provincial election compared to 40% for the Union Nationale, Lesage's Liberals won fewer seats due to the concentration of their vote in urban ridings. Lesage remained Liberal leader for several years, until he resigned as party leader in August 1969. He remained Leader of the Opposition until January 1970 after Robert Bourassa became the new Liberal leader. Lesage retired from politics and sat on several corporate boards until his death in 1980.

See also[edit]

Book references[edit]

  • Rouillard, Jacques (2003), Le syndicalisme Québécois : Deux siècles d'histoire, Boréal Editions, 335p.
  • Comeau, Robert & Bourque, Gilles (1989), Jean Lesage et l'éveil d'une nation Sillery Editions, 367p.
  • Thompson, Dale C. (1984) Jean Lesage and the Quiet Revolution. Macmillan of Canada.
  • Thomson, Dale Carins (1984), Jean Lesage et la révolution tranquille, du Trecarre Editions, 615p.
  • Fullerton, Douglas H. (1978), The dangerous delusion McClelland and Stuart Editions, 240p.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Thompson, Dale C. (1984) Jean Lesage and the Quiet Revolution. Macmillan of Canada.
  2. ^ Thompson, Dale C. (1984) Jean Lesage and the Quiet Revolution. Macmillan of Canada.
  3. ^ Thompson, Dale C. (1984) Jean Lesage and the Quiet Revolution. Macmillan of Canada.
  4. ^ Thompson, Dale C. (1984) Jean Lesage and the Quiet Revolution. Macmillan of Canada.
  5. ^ Government of Canada. Privy Council Office. "Seventeenth Ministry"
  6. ^ (Thompson, 1984:87).
  7. ^ Thompson, Dale C. (1984) Jean Lesage and the Quiet Revolution. Macmillan of Canada.
  8. ^ Thompson, Dale C. (1984) Jean Lesage and the Quiet Revolution. Macmillan of Canada.
  9. ^ Thompson, David C. (1984) Jean Lesage and the Quiet Revolution. Macmillan of Canada.
  10. ^ Thompson, David C. (1984) Jean Lesage and the Quiet Revolution. Macmillan of Canada.
  11. ^ Thompson, David C. (1984). Jean Lesage and the Quiet Revolution. Macmillan of Canada.
  12. ^ (Thompson, 1984:242)
  13. ^ (Thompson, 1984:212)
  14. ^ Thompson, David C. (1984). Jean Lesage and the Quiet Revolution. Macmillan of Canada.

External links[edit]

Parliament of Canada
Preceded by
J.-Léo-K. Laflamme (Liberal)
Member of Parliament for Montmagny—L'Islet
1945–1958
Succeeded by
Louis Fortin (Progressive Conservative)
National Assembly of Quebec
Preceded by
Jean-Paul Galipeault (Liberal)
Member of the National Assembly for Louis-Hébert
(was Québec-Ouest until 1966)

19601970
Succeeded by
Claude Castonguay (Liberal)
Party political offices
Preceded by
Georges-Émile Lapalme
Leader of the Liberal Party of Quebec
1958–1970
Succeeded by
Robert Bourassa
Government offices
Preceded by
Antonio Barrette (Union Nationale)
Premier of Quebec
1960–1966
Succeeded by
Daniel Johnson, Sr. (Union Nationale)
Political offices
Preceded by
Daniel Johnson, Sr. (Union Nationale)
Leader of the Opposition in Quebec
1966–1970
Succeeded by
Robert Bourassa (Liberal)