Jean Pictet

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Jean Simon Pictet (born 2 September 1914 in Geneva, died 30 March 2002 in Meyrin) was a Swiss jurist, expert in international humanitarian law and senior staff member and Vice President of the International Committee of the Red Cross. He was the main architect of the 1949 Geneva Conventions and Additional Protocol I and Protocol II.[1] He also proposed the Red Cross Movement’s seven Fundamental Principles, which were adopted at Vienna in 1965: Humanity, Impartiality, Neutrality, Independence, Voluntary Service, Unity and Universality.[1][2] In 1989, an international humanitarian law competition for students was founded and named after him.

Life[edit]

After secondary education in Paris, Pictet completed his study of law at the University of Geneva, earning a doctorate in 1935 and then practiced law in Vienna and Geneva.[3] In 1937 he began working as a legal assistant at the International Committee of the Red Cross. During the Second World War he wrote most of the ICRC's appeals on behalf of prisoners of wars and civilian victims of the war.[4] and was one of the key staff of the Committee and worked directly with ICRC President Max Huber. Even before the war ended, he embarked on a project for a complete overhaul of the Geneva Conventions, in particular including the protection of civilians, despite Huber's pessimism about its prospects.[4][5] 1946 he became Director in the Directorate and the ICRC. In 1966 he became Director General of the ICRC Directorate and thus held the highest office in the administration of the committee. From 1967 to 1979 he was a member of the ICRC (restricted to 25 Swiss citizens) and from 1971 to 1979 was the Vice President.

He was also responsible for directing the establishment of the general report on the work of the ICRC during the global conflict. He ran for the ICRC, the work and negotiations that led to the revision of the Regulations of the Red Cross International in 1952, and agreements with the League of Red Cross. He also chaired the conference of experts to prepare for the negotiation of the two Protocols Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 1977.

The four volume commentary on the Conventions under his general editorship is in constant use by those applying the convention. His short 1955 volume Les Principes de la Croix-Rouge (Red Cross Principles) was a decisive step in formulating common principles of the different organizations of the Red Cross Movement, and led to the unanimous adoption by the 1965 XXth International Conference of the Red Cross in Vienna, of the seven Fundamental Principles of the Red Cross. He was also involved in drafting the statutes of the Movement.[4]

Jean Pictet was appointed lecturer at the University of Geneva and Professor of International Humanitarian Law at the Faculty of Law and Associate Professor 1974 to 1979. He also lectured at the Academy of International Law (1950) and the International Institute of Human Rights (1971, 1972, 1982). From 1975 to 1981 he was director and president of the Henry Dunant Institute, research center, training and teaching of the International Red Cross.

Jean Pictet was the main author of the commentary on the four Geneva Conventions of 1949 and 1977 completed two additional protocols. He has also published the 1948 "Report of the International Committee of the Red Cross on its activities during the Second World War (1 September 1939-30 June 1947)" and later presented with the basis for publications in 1965 adopted seven principles of the International Red Cross - and Rothalbmond movement. Among his other works include several works on international humanitarian law and about the Native Americans.

1950 he taught at the Hague Academy of International Law in The Hague. In the years 1971, 1972 and 1982 he held lectures at the International Institute for Human Rights, from 1974 to 1979 he was Professor of international humanitarian law at the Law Faculty of the University of Geneva. From 1975 to 1981 he worked as director and later president of the Henry Dunant Institute. [2]

In his later years, his Rousseauian faith in humanity declined, and he emphasized the necessity of legal compulsion. He wrote several books on the conquest of North America from the Indians.[5]

Honours[edit]

Pictet received honorary doctorates from the Universities of Leiden, Zurich, and Leuven, as well as several awards from the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement, including posthumously in 2005 the Henry Dunant Medal, the highest award of the movement. The bilingual, international Jean-Pictet Competition, which focuses on international humanitarian law, was named after him.

Works[edit]

  • Les principes de la Croix-Rouge. Geneva: ICRC. 1955. 
  • The Geneva conventions of 12 August 1949: commentary published under the general editorship of J.S. Pictet. Geneva: ICRC. 1960. 
  • Humanitarian law and the protection of war victims. Leyden: Sijthoff. 1975. ISBN 90-286-0305-0.  (Translation of Le droit humanitaire et la protection des victimes de la guerre.)
  • Development and Principles of International Humanitarian Law (Nijhoff Law Specials, 2). The Hague: Kluwer Law International. 1985. ISBN 90-247-3199-2. 
  • C. Swinarski (1985). Etudes et Essais sur le Droit International Humanitaire et sur les Principes de la Croix-Rouge en l'Honneur de Jean Pictet / Studies and Essays on International Humanitarian Law and Red Cross Principles in Honor of Jean Pictet. The Hague: Kluwer Law International. ISBN 90-247-3079-1. 
  • L'épopée des peaux-rouges. Lausanne: Favre. 1988. ISBN 2-8289-0354-0. 
  • La grande storia degli indiani d'America. Mondadori. 2000. ISBN 88-04-48399-7. 

Jean-Pictet Competition[edit]

The Jean-Pictet competition was founded in 1989 by Christophe Lanord and Michel Deyra. Originally, the competition was run only in French with four members in each team. In 1997, the competition was changed so that each team had three members. In 2000, an English-speaking round was introduced. From 2007 to 2009, a Spanish-speaking round was also included; however, this has since been discontinued.

Since 2000, nine of the Jean-Pictet champions have been teams from the English-speaking round, four have been from the French-speaking round. The Université Libre de Bruxelles has won the Jean-Pictet more than any other university, with four wins across 1989, 1998, 2006 and 2012. Three universities have won the Jean-Pictet Competition two years in a row: Barreau de Montréal in 1991 and 1992, Université catholique de Louvain in 2000 and 2001, and Interdisciplinary Center, Herzliya in 2010 and 2011. In fact, there are more winners who have won two or more times than there are winners who have won only once. Universities from Belgium have won the Jean-Pictet Competition six times.

Table of Honours[edit]

Year Location Number of teams French-speaking Round Winners French-speaking Round Finalists English-speaking Round Winners English-speaking Round Finalists Gilbert Apollis Award Winners Jean Pictet Champion Champion's Country
2014 Sintra, Grande Lisboa, Portugal 48 Université de Grenoble (France) Université Laval (Canada), University of Neuchâtel (Switzerland), Université du Québec à Montréal (Canada) University of Virginia (USA) and University of Essex University of New South Wales (Australia), New York University (USA), Hebrew University of Jerusalem (Israel), Московский государственный университет имени М.В.Ломоносова (Russia), University of Essex (UK), United States Air Force Academy (USA), National University of Singapore (Singapore) Jamie Brown (University of Groningen, The Netherlands), Kosuke Onishi (Doshisa University, Japan), Pierre Molard (University of Grenoble, France) University of Virginia USA
2013 Kanchanaburi, Thailand 47 University of Neuchâtel (Switzerland) Université du Québec à Montréal (Canada), Université de Liège (Belgium), Panthéon-Assas University (France) Santa Clara University (USA) and University of New South Wales (Australia) New York University (USA), American University Washington College of Law (USA), University of Essex (UK), Pontificia Universidad Católica del Ecuador (Ecuador), National University of Singapore (Singapore), Universidad de Buenos Aires (Argentina) Julie Carlesso (Université de Montréal), Tim Clark (University of New South Wales), Matias Gonzalez Mama (Universidad de Buenos Aires) University of New South Wales Australia
2012 Winterton / Drakensberg, South Africa 47 Université Libre de Bruxelles (Belgium) Université du Québec à Montréal (Canada), Université de Caen (France), Université de Liège (Belgium) National University of Singapore (Singapore) and Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú (Peru) Académie de droit international humanitaire et de droits humains (Switzerland), University of the Philippines (Philippines), University of Essex (UK), Maastricht University (Netherlands), Interdisciplinary Center, Herzliya (Israel), Hebrew University of Jerusalem (Israel) Augustin Denous (Université de Caen), Paulo Dutra (United States Air Force Academy), Giovanna Quiroz (Pontifícia Universidad Católica de Peru) Université Libre de Bruxelles Belgium
2011 Najac, France 48 Université de Lomé (Togo) Universidad de Buenos Aires (Argentina), Université de Montréal (Canada), Panthéon-Assas University (France) Académie de droit international humanitaire et de droits humains (Switzerland) and Interdisciplinary Center, Herzliya (Israel) New York University (USA), Utrecht University (Netherlands), University of Essex (UK), University of Athens (Greece), University of Michigan (USA), University of the Philippines (Philippines) Etienne Quillet (Panthéon-Assas University), Levan Asatiani (Tbilisi State University), Halim Shebaya (University of Nottingham) Interdisciplinary Center, Herzliya Israel
2010 Orford, Canada 45 Université du Québec à Montréal (Canada), Université de Montréal (Canada), Université de Liège (Belgium), Université Paris-Sud 11 (France) Interdisciplinary Center, Herzliya (Israel), New York University (USA) Jeremy Etkind (University of New South Wales) Interdisciplinary Center, Herzliya Israel
2009 Évian-les Bains, France 55 Université de Caen (France) Université du Québec à Montréal (Canada), Académie de droit international humanitaire et de droits humains (Switzerland) University of Essex (UK) and National University of Singapore (Singapore) Maëlle Audoin (Université de Caen), Zoe Richards (Pakistan - National Team), Samuel Njoroge Njeri (University of Nairobi) Université de Caen France
2008 Schwarzenburg, Switzerland 56 Université de Liège (Belgium) Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (Brazil) and University of Nairobi (Kenya) Manon Ballestero (Université Libre de Bruxelles), Diego Valadares (Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais), Ben Winks (University of Johannesburg) Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais Brazil
2007 El Escorial, Spain 56 Université Libre de Bruxelles (Belgium) and University of Lausanne (Switzerland) National University of Singapore (Singapore), University of New South Wales (Australia), University of Cape Town (South Africa), Inn's of Court School of Law (UK) Victor Augusto Saco (Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú), Matei Purice (Université de Bucarest), Renu Rajan Menon (National University of Singapore), Shingira Samantha Masanzu (University of Cape Town) University of New South Wales Australia
2006 Université Libre de Bruxelles Belgium
2005 London School of Economics United Kingdom
2004 University of Cambridge United Kingdom
2003 University of New South Wales Australia
2002 Université de Fribourg Switzerland
2001 Katholieke Universiteit Leuven Belgium
2000 Katholieke Universiteit Leuven Belgium
Year Location Number of teams Grand Finalists Semi-Finalists Gilbert Apollis Award Winners Jean Pictet Champion Champion's Country
1999 Goúves, Heraklion, Crete, Greece 24 Katholieke Universiteit Leuven (Belgium), Universidad de Buenos Aires (Brazil), Université Libre de Bruxelles (Belgium) Tom Thomas (Katholieke Universiteit Leuven) Université de Fribourg Switzerland
1998 Qawra, Malta 23 IUHEI Geneva (Switzerland) Université du Québec à Montréal (Canada), Université d'Auvergne (France), University of Western Ontario (Canada), University of Essex (UK) Christophe Menu (IUHEI Geneva) Université Libre de Bruxelles Belgium
1997 Cascais, Lisbon, Portugal 23 University of Essex (UK) Institut Universitaire de Hautes Études Internationales (Switzerland), McGill University (Canada), Barreau de Sherbrooke (Canada), ? Céline Pouilly (IUHEI Geneva) Université d'Auvergne France
1996 Geneva, Switzerland 16 IUHEI Geneva (Switzerland) Universidade de Coimbra (Portugal), Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne (France), Barreau de Sherbrooke (Canada), Université Libre de Bruxelles (Belgium) Dominique Ménard (Barreau de Sherbrooke) Université du Québec à Montréal Canada
1995 Paris, France 15 University of Essex (UK) Université d'Auvergne (France), Barreau de Québec (Canada), Université du Québec à Montréal (Canada), Université Libre de Bruxelles (Belgium) Alexandre Dalmau (Université du Québec à Montréal) IUHEI Geneva Switzerland
1994 Montréal, Québec, Canada 19 Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne (France) Aix-Marseille III (France), Université d'Auvergne (France), Barreau de Sherbrooke (Canada), IUHEI Geneva (Switzerland) Stéphane Dubreuil (Barreau de Sherbrooke) Collège militaire royal du Canada Canada
1993 Clermont-Ferrand, France 10 Université de Montréal (Canada) Aix-Marseille III (France), Barreau de Québec (Canada) Catherine Bohémier (Université de Montréal) Essex University United Kingdom
1992 Brussels, Belgium 10 Aix-Marseille III (France) University of Berlin (Germany), Université Libre de Bruxelles (Belgium) Daphné Cousineau (Barreau de Montréal) Barreau de Montréal Canada
1991 Geneva, Switzerland 8 Université Libre de Bruxelles (Belgium) Aix-Marseille III, University of Essex Valérie Jochmans (Université Libre de Bruxelles) Barreau de Montréal Canada
1990 Montpellier, France 9 Université de Neuchâtel (France) Olivier Raluy (Université d'Auvergne) Aix-Marseille III France
1989 Clermont-Ferrand, France 4 Université de Fribourg (Switzerland) Christian Linsi (Université de Fribourg) Université Libre de Bruxelles Belgium

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Henry Dunant medals awarded at Red Cross Red Crescent Council of Delegates". ICRC. 
  2. ^ Jean Pictet (1-01-1979). "The Fundamental Principles of the Red Cross : commentary". ICRC.  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  3. ^ "Pictet, Jean". Archiv für Zeitgeschichte. Retrieved 2009-08-05. 
  4. ^ a b c François Bugnion (2002-06-30). "Hommage à Jean Pictet". Revue internationale de la Croix-Rouge (846): 317–319. 
  5. ^ a b Peter Capella (12 August 1999). "The Man Who Wrote the Rules of War". The Guardian. 

External links[edit]


This article incorporates information from the revision as of 2009-08-04 of the equivalent article on the French Wikipedia.
This article incorporates information from the revision as of 2009-08-04 of the equivalent article on the German Wikipedia.