Jean Toomer

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Jean Toomer
Jean Toomer (ca. 1920s).jpg
Toomer circa 1920-1930
Born (1894-12-26)December 26, 1894
Washington, D.C., United States
Died March 30, 1967(1967-03-30) (aged 72)
Doylestown, Pennsylvania, United States
Occupation Writer

Jean Toomer (December 26, 1894 – March 30, 1967) was an American poet and novelist and an important figure of the Harlem Renaissance and modernism. His first book Cane, published in 1923, is considered by many to be his most significant.[1] Of mixed race and majority European ancestry, Toomer struggled to identify as "an American" and resisted efforts to classify him as a black writer.

He continued to write poetry, short stories and essays. After his second marriage in 1934, he moved from New York to Doylestown, Pennsylvania, where he became a member of the Religious Society of Friends (also known as Quakers) and retired from public life. His papers are held by the Beinecke Rare Book Library at Yale University.

Early life and education[edit]

Toomer was born Nathan Pinchback Toomer in Washington, D.C. in 1894. His father Nathan Toomer (1839-1906) was a mixed-race freedman, born into slavery in 1839 in Chatham County, Georgia. He, his mother Kit and siblings were sold to John Toomer in Houston County; after his death, they were bought in 1859 from the estate by John's brother Col. Henry Toomer. Among his siblings was a sister Fannie, who later married a Mr. Colomon.[2] Nathan worked for Henry Toomer as a personal valet and assistant before and after the Civil War, learning the ways of the white upper class and later taking his surname.[3] By 1869 Nathan Toomer had married a mulatto woman named Harriet, and they had four daughters, including Martha, who married Seymour Glover, and Theodosia, who married a Mr. Braswell.[2] By 1870, Nathan Toomer was a farmer and the wealthiest freedman in Hancock County, with $20,000 in real estate and $10,000 in personal property.[4] Harriet Toomer died on August 17, 1891.[2]

Nathan Toomer in 1892 married Amanda America Dickson (1849-1893). A mixed-race woman and daughter of a slave, she was raised by her white planter father, David Dickson, and grandmother Elizabeth Dickson.[2] After his death in 1885, she inherited a 15,000-acre plantation and total estate worth $400,000 from him and was described as the "wealthiest colored woman in America." [2] An agricultural reformer, Dickson and his mother had educated Amanda. In 1866 she married a white paternal first cousin and had two sons by him. Unhappy in the marriage, in 1870 Amanda returned to her father's house. Later she completed college at Atlanta University. She died in 1893 after about a year of marriage to Toomer. He and her sons struggled over her estate, but ultimately, he received almost nothing. Her father's will had left the estate to her sons, and she died intestate.[2][3]

In 1893 Toomer married Nina Pinchback (1866-1909), a wealthy young woman of mixed race. She was born in New Orleans as the third child of people of color free before the Civil War. Her father P. B. S. Pinchback was of majority European heritage, from several nationalities, and also of African and Cherokee descent. He served as an officer in the Union Army; he became a Republican politician in Louisiana during the Reconstruction era and was the first African American to serve as governor of a U.S. state when he succeeded Henry C. Warmoth. He was elected to the US Congress and Senate in 1872 and 1873, respectively, but lost challenges by Democrats in Congress. Her mother Nina (Hawthorne) Pinchback was a free woman of color from Tennessee. Both Pinchback and Hawthorne had white fathers and mothers of mixed race.

In 1891-1892, with white Democrats establishing Jim Crow laws in Louisiana, the Pinchbacks had moved to Washington, DC, where they were easily part of the mulatto elite.[2][5] They built a new house off Fourteenth Street, in what developed as a predominately white, upper-class area of the city. Pinchback was suspicious of the older Toomer and strongly opposed his daughter's choice for marriage, but ultimately acquiesced.[2]

After frequent travels, the senior Nathan Toomer abandoned his wife and son after the boy was born and returned to Georgia. Nina divorced him and took back her name of Pinchback; she and her son returned to live with her parents. At that time, angered by her husband's abandonment, her father insisted they use another name for her son and started calling him Eugene, after the boy's godfather.[6] The boy also was given a variety of nicknames by various family members. As a child in Washington, Toomer attended segregated black schools. When his mother remarried and they moved to suburban New Rochelle, New York, he attended an all-white school. After his mother's death in 1909, Toomer returned to Washington to live with his Pinchback grandparents. He graduated from the M Street School, an academic black high school.[7]

Between 1914 and 1917, Toomer attended six institutions of higher education (the University of Wisconsin, the Massachusetts College of Agriculture, the American College of Physical Training in Chicago, the University of Chicago, New York University, and the City College of New York) studying agriculture, fitness, biology, sociology, and history, but he never completed a degree. His wide readings among prominent contemporary poets and writers, and the lectures he attended during his college years, shaped the direction of his writing.[8]

Career[edit]

After leaving college, Toomer returned to Washington, DC. He published some short stories and continued writing in the volatile social period following World War I. He worked for some months in a shipyard in 1919, then escaped to middle-class life. Labor strikes and race riots of whites attacking blacks occurred in several major industrial cities during the summer of 1919, which was known as Red Summer. People in the working class were competing after World War I for jobs and housing, and tensions erupted in violence. In Chicago and other places, blacks fought back. At the same time, it was a period of artistic ferment.

Toomer devoted several months to the study of Eastern philosophies and continued to be interested in this subject. Some of his early writing was political, and he published three essays from 1919-1920 in the prominent socialist paper New York Call. His work drew from the socialist and "New Negro" movements of New York.[5] Toomer was reading much new American writing, for instance Waldo Frank's Our America (1919).[9] In 1919, he adopted Jean Toomer as his literary name, and it was the way he was known for most of his adult life.[10]

By his early adult years, Toomer resisted racial classifications and wanted to be identified only as an American.[7][8] Accurately claiming ancestry among seven ethnic and national groups, he gained experience in both white and "colored" societies, and resisted being classified as a Negro writer, although he grudgingly allowed his publisher of Cane to use that term to increase sales.[11] As Richard Eldridge has noted, Toomer "sought to transcend standard definitions of race. I think he never claimed that he was a white man,” Mr. Eldridge said. “He always claimed that he was a representative of a new, emergent race that was a combination of various races. He averred this virtually throughout his life.”[12] William Andrews has noted he "was one of the first writers to move beyond the idea that any black ancestry makes you black."[12]

In 1921 Toomer took a job for a few months as a principal at a new rural agricultural and industrial school for blacks in Sparta, Georgia. Southern schools were continuing to recruit teachers from the North, although they had also trained generations of teachers since the Civil War. The school was in the center of Hancock County and the Black Belt 100 miles southeast of Atlanta, near where his father had lived. Exploring his father's roots in Hancock County, Toomer learned that he sometimes passed for white.[2] Seeing the life of rural blacks, accompanied by racial segregation and virtual labor peonage in the Deep South, led Toomer to identify more strongly as an African American. Several lynchings of black men took place in Georgia during 1921-1922, as whites continued to enforce white supremacy with violence. In 1908 the state had ratified a constitution that disfranchised most blacks and many poor whites by raising requirements to voter registration. This situation was virtually maintained to the 1960s, when federal legislation was passed to enforce constitutional rights.

By Toomer's time, the state was suffering labor shortages due to thousands of rural blacks leaving in the Great Migration to the North and Midwest. Trying to control their movement, the legislature passed laws to prevent outmigration. It also established high license fees for Northern employers recruiting labor in the state. Planters feared losing their pool of cheap labor. This period was a formative experience for Toomer; he started writing about it while still in Georgia and submitted the long story "Georgia Night" to The Liberator in New York from Hancock County.[5][7]

Return to New York[edit]

Toomer returned to New York, where he became friends with Waldo Frank. They had an intense friendship through 1923, and Frank served as his mentor and editor on his novel Cane.[9] Afterward they had strong differences.[13]

In 1923, Toomer published the High Modernist novel Cane, in which he used a variety of forms and material inspired by his time in Georgia. It was also an "analysis of class and caste", with "secrecy and miscegenation as major themes of the first section".[5] He had conceived it as a short-story cycle. Toomer acknowledged the influence of Sherwood Anderson's Winesburg, Ohio (1919) as his model, in addition to other influential works of that period. He also appeared to have absorbed The Waste Land of T. S. Eliot and considered him one of the American group of writers he wanted to join, "artists and intellectuals who were engaged in renewing American society at its multi-cultural core."[9]

Jean Toomer's passport (1926)

Many scholars have considered Cane to be Toomer's best work.[1] A series of poems and short stories about the black experience in America, Cane was hailed by critics and is seen as an important work of both the Harlem Renaissance and Modernism. But Toomer resisted racial classification and did not want to be marketed as a Negro writer. As he wrote to his publisher Horace Liveright, "My racial composition and my position in the world are realities that I alone may determine."[14] Toomer found it more difficult to get published throughout the 1930s and the Great Depression, as did many authors.

In the 1920s, Toomer and Frank were among many Americans who were very interested in the work of the spiritual leader George Ivanovitch Gurdjieff, from the Russian Empire, who had a lecture tour in the United States in 1924. That year, and in 1926 and 1927, Toomer went to France for periods of study with Gurdjieff, who had settled at Fontainebleau. He was a student of Gurdjieff until the mid-1930s.[8]

Much of his writing from this period on was related to his spiritual quest and featured allegories. He no longer explored African-American characters. Some scholars have attributed Toomer's artistic silence to his ambivalence about his identity in a culture based on forcing binary racial distinctions.[12]

Marriage and family[edit]

Toomer and Latimer
Jean Toomer and Margery Latimer

In 1931 Toomer married the writer Margery Latimer in Wisconsin. During their travels on the West Coast following their marriage, it was covered in sensational terms by a Hearst reporter, and an anti-miscegenation scandal broke, incorporating rumors about the commune they had organized earlier that year in Portage, Wisconsin. West Coast and Midwest press outlets were aroused and Time magazine sent a reporter to interview them. He was criticized violently by some for marrying a white woman.[15][16] Latimer was a respected young writer known for her first two novels and short stories. The following year she died in childbirth in August 1932; he named their only daughter Margery in her memory.

In 1934 Toomer married a second time, to Marjorie Content, daughter of a wealthy Jewish stockbroker and his wife. Because Toomer was notable as a writer, this marriage also attracted notice. In 1940 the Toomers moved to Doylestown, Pennsylvania. There he formally joined the Quakers and began to withdraw from society. Toomer wrote extensively from 1935 to 1940 about relationships between the genders, influenced by his Gurdjieff studies, as well as Jungian psychology.[17] He had fundamentally traditional views about men and women, which he put in symbolic terms.

In 1939 Toomer changed his name again, to "Nathan Jean Toomer", to emphasize that he was male. He may also have been reaching toward his paternal ancestry with it. He usually signed his name N. Jean Toomer, and continued to be called "Jean" by friends.[10]

Late writing[edit]

He had continued with his spiritual exploration, traveling to India in 1939. Later he studied the psychology developed by Carl Jung, the mystic Edgar Cayce, and the Church of Scientology.

Toomer wrote a small amount of fiction in this later period. Mostly he published essays in Quaker publications during these years. He devoted most of his time to serving on Quaker committees for community service and working with high school students.[18]

His last literary work published during his lifetime was Blue Meridian, a long poem extolling "the potential of the American race".[18] He stopped writing for publication after 1950. He continued to write for himself, including several autobiographies. He died in 1967 after several years of poor health.[8]

Racial issues[edit]

Toomer's appearance was "racially indeterminate".[12] As noted above, not wanting to be bound by race and claiming to be an American and representing a new mixed culture, he lived in both white and black societies during his life. He resisted being classified as a Negro writer, although his most enduring work was Cane, inspired by his time in the South and imaginative exploration of his absent father's world. He was born into slavery and as a freedman had become successful as a farmer, marrying two elite women in succession.

In preparing a new edition of that work, scholars Henry Louis Gates, Jr. and Rudolph P. Byrd said in 2010 that, based on their research, they believe that Toomer passed for white in his life.[12] [19] They note that in the 1920 and 1930 censuses he was classified as white. (At that time, such data was provided by the census taker, often based on appearance, class, area of residence, etc.) He twice had been classified (or registered) as Negro in draft registration in 1917 and 1942. When Toomer married Marjorie Latimer, a white woman, in Wisconsin in 1931, the license noted both as white.[12] Other scholars disagree with Gates' and Byrd's interpretation, while acknowledging that Toomer tried to stretch racial boundaries. William Andrews said, “If people didn’t ask,” he said, “I expect he didn’t tell.” [12]

Legacy and archives[edit]

  • Toomer's papers and unpublished manuscripts are held by the Beinecke Library at Yale University.[8]
  • When Cane was reprinted in 1969, it was favorably reviewed as a "Black Classic", leading to a revival of interest in Toomer's work.[5]
  • Since the late 20th century, collections of Toomer's poetry and essays have been published, and his Essentials was republished; he self-published it in 1931. It included "Gurdjieffian aphorisms".[18]
  • 2002, Toomer was elected to the Georgia Hall of Fame.[18]

Books by Toomer[edit]

  • Cane (New York: Boni and Liveright, 1923) ISBN 0-87140-151-7
  • Problems of Civilization, by Ellsworth Huntington, Whiting Williams, Jean Toomer and others, (New York: D. Van Nostrand Co., 1929)
  • Essentials: Definitions and Aphorisms (Chicago: Lakeside Press, 1931)
  • An Interpretation of Friends Worship (Philadelphia: Committee on Religious Education of Friends General Conference, 1947)
  • The Flavor of Man (Philadelphia: Young Friends Movement of the Philadelphia Yearly Meeting, 1949)
  • The Collected Poems of Jean Toomer (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1988) ISBN 0-8078-4209-5
  • The Letters of Jean Toomer, 1919-1924, University of Tennessee Press, 2006

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Poetry Foundation profile
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i Kent Anderson Leslie and Willard B. Gatewood Jr. "'This Father of Mine ... a Sort of Mystery': Jean Toomer's Georgia Heritage", Georgia Historical Quarterly 77 (winter 1993)
  3. ^ a b Kent Anderson Leslie, "Amanda America Dickson, (1849-1893)", History and Archaeology, New Georgia Encyclopedia, 2003/2013
  4. ^ "Nathan Toomer", Hancock County, GA; US Census
  5. ^ a b c d e Charles Scruggs, Lee VanDeMarr, Jean Toomer and the Terrors of American History, University of Pennsylvania Press, 1998, "Introduction", accessed 15 January 2011
  6. ^ Cynthia Earl Kerman, The Lives of Jean Toomer: A Hunger for Wholeness, LSU Press, 1989, p. 29
  7. ^ a b c "Jean Toomer", Poets.org, accessed 27 Dec 2010
  8. ^ a b c d e Jones, Robert B. "Jean Toomer's Life and Career". Modern American Poetry. Urbana-Champaign, Illinois: Department of English, University of Illinois. Retrieved 29 May 2012. 
  9. ^ a b c Charles Scruggs, Jean Toomer and the Harlem Renaissance - book review, African American Review, Spring, 2002, accessed 15 January 2011
  10. ^ a b Kerman (1989), The Lives of Jean Toomer, p. 29
  11. ^ "Introduction," The Letters of Jean Toomer, 1919-1924, University of Tennessee Press, 2006
  12. ^ a b c d e f g FELICIA R. LEE, "Scholars Say Chronicler of Black Life Passed for White", New York Times, 26 December 2010, accessed 27 March 2014
  13. ^ Brother Mine: The Correspondence of Jean Toomer and Waldo Frank, Edited by Kathleen Pfeiffer, Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 2010
  14. ^ Harmon, Charles. "Cane, Race, and 'Neither/Norism'", Southern Literary Journal, 2000 Spring; 32 (2): 90-101, accessed 15 January 2011.
  15. ^ "Races: Just Americans". Time 19 (13): 21. March 28, 1932. 
  16. ^ Anastasia Carol Curwood, Stormy Weather: Middle-Class African American Marriages between the Two World Wars, University of North Carolina Press, 2010, p. 75
  17. ^ Curwood (2010), Stormy Weather, pp. 74-79
  18. ^ a b c d Keith Hulett, "Jean Toomer", New Georgia Encyclopedia Library, accessed 8 February 2011
  19. ^ "A new look at the life of Jean Toomer" NPR, (Robert Siegel and Professor Byrd), 30 December 2010. (Transcript and audio, 5 mins)

Further reading[edit]

  • Brother Mine: The Correspondence of Jean Toomer and Waldo Frank, Edited by Kathleen Pfeiffer, Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 2010
  • Barbara Foley, "'In the Land of Cotton': Economics and Violence in Jean Toomer's Cane," African American Review 32 (summer 1998).
  • Barbara Foley, "Jean Toomer's Sparta," American Literature 67 (December 1995).
  • Jean Toomer and the Harlem Renaissance, editors Michael Feith and Genevieve Fabre. (New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 2000. ISBN 0-8135-2846-1
  • Cynthia Earl Kerman and Richard Eldridge, The Lives of Jean Toomer: A Hunger for Wholeness (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1987), online at Googlebooks.
  • Nellie Y. McKay, Jean Toomer, Artist: A Study of His Literary Life and Work, 1894-1936 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1984).
  • Donald A. Petesch, A Spy in the Enemy's Country: The Emergence of Modern Black Literature (Google eBook), University of Iowa Press, 1989
  • Turner, Darwin T. "Introduction," Cane by Jean Toomer (New York: Liveright, 1993). ix-xxv. ISBN 0-87140-151-7.
  • Hans Ostrom, "Jean Toomer" (poem), in The Coast Starlight: Collected Poems 1976-2006 (Indianapolis: Dog Ear Publishing, 2006, p. 17.) First published in Xavier Review 23, no. 2 (Fall 2003).

External links[edit]

Profiles[edit]

Articles and archive[edit]