Jeep

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Jeep
Type Division
Industry Automobile
Founded 1941[1]
Headquarters Toledo, Ohio; Auburn Hills, Michigan, US
Area served Worldwide
Key people Michael Manley (CEO of Jeep division)
Sergio Marchionne (CEO of Chrysler Group LLC)
Products Sport utility vehicles
Parent Chrysler Group LLC
Website www.jeep.com

Jeep is a brand of American automobiles that is a division of Chrysler Group LLC, a wholly owned subsidiary of Italian multinational automaker Fiat S.p.A..[2][3] The former Chrysler Corporation acquired the Jeep brand, along with the remaining assets of its owner American Motors, in 1987. Jeep's product range current consists solely of sport utility vehicles and off-road vehicles, but has also included pickup trucks in the past.

The first Willys MB Jeeps were produced in 1941,[1] making it the oldest off-road vehicle ever made, and the first civilian models were produced in 1945.[4] It inspired a number of other light utility vehicles, such as the Land Rover[5][6] which is the second oldest 4-wheel-drive brand. The original Jeep vehicle that first appeared as the prototype Bantam BRC became the primary light 4-wheel-drive vehicle of the United States Army and Allies during World War II, as well as the postwar period. Many Jeep variants serving similar military and civilian roles have since been created in other nations.

Development[edit]

Origin of the name[edit]

Many explanations of the origin of the word jeep have proven difficult to verify. The most widely held theory is that the military designation GP (for Government Purposes or General Purpose) was slurred into the word Jeep in the same way that the contemporary HMMWV (for High-Mobility Multi-purpose Wheeled Vehicle) has become known as the Humvee. Joe Frazer, Willys-Overland President from 1939 to 1944, claimed to have coined the word jeep by slurring the initials G.P.[7]

An alternative view launched by R. Lee Ermey, on his television series Mail Call, disputes this "slurred GP" origin, saying that the vehicle was designed for specific duties, and was never referred to as "General Purpose" and it is highly unlikely that the average jeep-driving GI would have been familiar with this designation. The Ford GPW abbreviation actually meant G for government use, P to designate its 80-inch (2,000 mm) wheelbase and W to indicate its Willys-Overland designed engine. Ermey suggests that soldiers at the time were so impressed with the new vehicles that they informally named it after Eugene the Jeep, a character in the Popeye comic strip and cartoons created by E. C. Segar, as early as mid-March 1936. Eugene the Jeep was Popeye's "jungle pet" and was "small, able to move between dimensions and could solve seemingly impossible problems."[8]

The word jeep, however, was used as early as 1914 by US Army mechanics assigned to test new vehicles. In 1937, tractors which were supplied by Minneapolis Moline to the US Army were called jeeps. A precursor of the Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress was also referred to as the jeep.[7]

Words of the Fighting Forces by Clinton A. Sanders, a dictionary of military slang, published in 1942, in the library at The Pentagon gives this definition:

Jeep: A four-wheel drive vehicle of one-half- to one-and-one-half-ton capacity for reconnaissance or other army duty. A term applied to the bantam-cars, and occasionally to other motor vehicles (U.S.A.) in the Air Corps, the Link Trainer; in the armored forces, the ½-ton command vehicle. Also referred to as "any small plane, helicopter, or gadget."[citation needed]

This definition is supported by the use of the term "jeep carrier" to refer to the Navy's small escort carriers.

Early in 1941, Willys-Overland demonstrated the vehicle's off-road capability by having it drive up the steps of the United States Capitol, driven by Willys test driver Irving "Red" Haussman, who had recently heard soldiers at Fort Holabird calling it a "jeep." When asked by syndicated columnist Katharine Hillyer for the Washington Daily News (or by a bystander, according to another account) what it was called, Irving answered, "It's a jeep."

Katharine Hillyer's article was published nationally on February 19, 1941, and included a picture of the vehicle with the caption:

LAWMAKERS TAKE A RIDE- With Senator Meade, of New York, at the wheel, and Representative Thomas, of New Jersey, sitting beside him, one of the Army's new scout cars, known as "jeeps" or "quads", climbs up the Capitol steps in a demonstration yesterday. Soldiers in the rear seat for gunners were unperturbed.

Although the term was also military slang for vehicles that were untried or untested, this exposure caused all other jeep references to fade, leaving the 4x4 with the name.

Trade name[edit]

The original trademark brand-name application was filed in February 1943 by Willys-Overland.[9] It is also used as a generic term with a lowercase (jeep) for vehicles inspired by the Jeep that are suitable for use on rough terrain.[10]

As the only company that continually produced Jeep vehicles after the war, in June 1950 Willys-Overland was granted the privilege of owning the name "Jeep" as a registered trademark.[9]

Bantam BRC 40
Dashboard of World War II era jeep.

Bantam Reconnaissance Car[edit]

When it became obvious that the United States was eventually going to become involved in the war raging in Europe, the U.S. Army contacted 135 companies asking for working prototypes of a four-wheel-drive reconnaissance car. Only two companies responded to the request, The American Bantam Car Company and Willys-Overland. The Army had set what seemed like an impossible deadline of 49 days to supply a working prototype. Willys asked for more time but was refused. The bankrupt American Bantam Car Company had no engineering staff left on the payroll and solicited Karl Probst, a talented freelance designer from Detroit. After turning down Bantam's initial request, Probst responded to an Army request and commenced work, initially without salary, on July 17, 1940.

Probst laid out full plans for the Bantam prototype, known as the BRC or Bantam Reconnaissance Car, in just two days, working up a cost estimate the next. Bantam's bid was submitted complete with blueprints on July 22.[11] While much of the vehicle could be assembled from off-the-shelf automotive parts, custom four-wheel drivetrain components were to be supplied by Spicer. The hand-built prototype was completed in Butler, Pennsylvania,[12] and driven to Camp Holabird, Maryland, for Army testing September 21. The vehicle met all the Army's criteria except its engine torque requirements.

Ford Pygmy and Willys MB[edit]

The Army felt that the Bantam company was too small to supply the number of vehicles it needed, so it supplied the Bantam design to Willys and Ford who were encouraged to make their own changes and modifications. The resulting Ford "Pygmy" and Willys "Quad" prototypes looked very similar to the Bantam BRC (Bantam Reconnaissance Car) prototype and Spicer supplied very similar four-wheel drivetrain components to all three manufacturers.[13]

Fifteen hundred of each of the three models were built and extensively field-tested. Willys-Overland's chief engineer Delmar "Barney" Roos made design changes to meet a revised weight specification (a maximum of 1,275 lb (578 kg),[14] including oil and water). He was thus able to use the powerful but comparatively heavy Willys "Go Devil" engine, and win the initial production contract. The Willys version of the car would become the standardized jeep design, designated the model MB and was built at their plant in Toledo, Ohio. The familiar pressed metal Jeep grille was actually a Ford design feature and incorporated into the final design by the Army.

Since the War Department required a large number of vehicles to be manufactured in a relatively short time, Willys-Overland granted the United States Government a non-exclusive license to allow another company to manufacture vehicles using Willys' specifications. The Army chose Ford as the second supplier, but building Jeeps to the Willys' design. Willys supplied Ford with a complete set of plans and specifications. American Bantam; the creators of the first Jeep, built approximately 2700 of them to the BRC-40 design, but then spent the rest of the war building heavy-duty trailers for the Army.

World War II Jeeps[edit]

1943 Willys Jeep

Final production version Jeeps built by Willys-Overland were the Model MB, while those built by Ford were the Model GPW (G=government vehicle, P designated the 80" wheelbase, and W = the Willys engine design). There were subtle differences between the two.[15] The versions produced by Ford had every component (including bolt heads) marked with an "F". Willys also followed the Ford pattern by stamping its name into some body parts, but stopped this in 1942.[16] The cost per vehicle trended upwards as the war continued from the price under the first contract from Willys at US$648.74 (Ford's was $782.59 per unit).[17] Willys-Overland and Ford, under the direction of Charles E. Sorensen (Vice-President of Ford during World War II), produced about 640,000 Jeeps towards the war effort, which accounted for approximately 18% of all the wheeled military vehicles built in the U.S. during the war.[18]

Jeeps were used by every service of the U.S. military. An average of 145 were supplied to every Army infantry regiment. Jeeps were used for many purposes, including cable laying, saw milling, as firefighting pumpers, field ambulances, tractors and, with suitable wheels, would even run on railway tracks. An amphibious jeep, the model GPA, or "seep" (Sea Jeep) was built for Ford in modest numbers but it could not be considered a huge success—it was neither a good off-road vehicle nor a good boat. As part of the war effort, nearly 30% of all Jeep production was supplied to Great Britain and to the Soviet Red Army.

Postwar military Jeeps[edit]

The Jeep has been widely imitated around the world, including in France by Delahaye and by Hotchkiss et Cie (after 1954, Hotchkiss manufactured Jeeps under license from Willys), and in Japan by Mitsubishi Motors and Toyota. The utilitarian good looks of the original Jeep have been hailed by industrial designers and museum curators alike. The Museum of Modern Art described the Jeep as a masterpiece of functionalist design, and has periodically exhibited the Jeep as part of its collection.[19][20] Ernie Pyle called the Jeep, along with the Coleman G.I. Pocket Stove, "the two most important pieces of noncombat equipment ever developed."[21] Jeeps became even more famous following the war, as they became available on the surplus market. Some ads claimed to offer "Jeeps still in the factory crate." This legend persisted for decades, despite the fact that Jeeps were never shipped from the factory in crates.

The Jeepney is a unique type of taxi or bus created in the Philippines. The first Jeepneys were military-surplus MB and GPWs, left behind in the war-ravaged country following World War II and Filipino independence. Jeepneys were built from Jeeps by lengthening and widening the rear "tub" of the vehicle, allowing more passengers to ride. Over the years, Jeepneys have become the most ubiquitous symbol of the modern Philippines, even as they have been decorated in more elaborate and flamboyant styles by their owners. Most Jeepneys today are scratch-built by local manufacturers, using different powertrains. Some are even constructed from stainless steel.[citation needed]

In the United States military, the jeep has been supplanted by a number of vehicles (e.g. Ford's M151 MUTT) of which the latest is the Humvee.

The CJ-V35/U[edit]

After WWII, Jeep began to experiment with new designs in the jeep, including a model that could drive underwater. On February 1, 1950, contract N8ss-2660 was approved for 1,000 units “especially adapted for general reconnaissance or command communications” and “constructed for short period underwater operation such as encountered in landing and fording operations." The engine was modified with a snorkel system so that the engine could properly breathe underwater.[22]

The M715[edit]

Jeep M715

In 1965, Jeep developed the M715 1.25-ton army truck, a militarized version of the civilian J-series Jeep truck, which served extensively in the Vietnam War. It had heavier full-floating axles and a foldable vertical flat windshield. Today, it serves other countries, and is still being produced by Kia under license.

The CJ ("Civilian Jeep") series began in 1945 with the CJ-2A followed by the CJ-3B in 1953. These early Jeeps are commonly referred to as "flatfenders" because their front fenders were flat across the front, the same as their military precedents, the Willys MB and identical Ford GPW models. The CJ-4 exists only as a 1951 prototype, and is the "missing" link between the flat-fendered CJ-2A and CJ-3B and the round-fendered CJ-5 first introduced in 1955.

The Jeep brand[edit]

The brand has gone through many owners, starting with Willys, which produced the first Civilian Jeep (CJ) in 1945 and who were the first granted the trademark in 1950. Willys was sold to Kaiser Motors in 1953, which became Kaiser-Jeep in 1963. American Motors Corporation (AMC) purchased Kaiser's money-losing Jeep operations in 1970. The utility vehicles complemented AMC's passenger car business by sharing components, achieving volume efficiencies, as well as capitalizing on Jeep's international and government markets.

The French automaker Renault began investing in AMC in 1979. However, by 1987, the automobile markets had changed and even Renault itself was experiencing financial troubles. At the same time, Chrysler Corporation wanted to capture the Jeep brand, as well as other assets of AMC. Chrysler bought out AMC in 1987, shortly after the Jeep CJ-7 was replaced with the AMC-designed Jeep Wrangler or YJ. Chrysler merged with Daimler-Benz in 1998 to form DaimlerChrysler. DaimlerChrysler eventually sold most of their interest in Chrysler to a private equity company in 2007. Chrysler and the Jeep division now operate under the name Chrysler Group LLC.

Jeeps have been built under licence by various manufacturers around the world, including Mahindra in India, EBRO in Spain, and several in South America. Mitsubishi built more than 30 different Jeep models in Japan between 1953 and 1998. Most of them were based on the CJ-3B model of the original Willys-Kaiser design.[23]

Toledo, Ohio has been the headquarters of the Jeep brand since its inception, and the city has always been proud of this heritage. Although no longer produced in the same Toledo Complex as the World War II originals, two streets in the vicinity of the old plant are named Willys Parkway and Jeep Parkway.

American Motors set up the first automobile-manufacturing joint venture in the People's Republic of China on January 15, 1984.[24] The result was Beijing Jeep Corporation, Ltd., in partnership with Beijing Automobile Industry Corporation, to produce the Jeep Cherokee (XJ) in Beijing. Manufacture continued after Chrysler's buyout of AMC. This joint venture is now part of DaimlerChrysler and DaimlerChrysler China Invest Corporation. The original 1984 XJ model was updated and called the "Jeep 2500" toward the end of its production that ended after 2005.[25]

A division of Chrysler Group LLC, the most recent successor company to the Jeep brand, now holds trademark status on the name "Jeep" and the distinctive 7-slot front grille design. The original 9-slot grille associated with all World War II jeeps was designed by Ford for their GPW, and because it weighed less than the original "Slat Grille" of Willys (an arrangement of flat bars), was incorporated into the "standardized jeep" design.

AM General[edit]

The history of the HMMWV (Humvee) has ties with Jeep. In 1971, Jeep's Defense and Government Products Division was turned into AM General, a wholly owned subsidiary of American Motors Corporation, which also owned Jeep. In 1979, while still owned by American Motors, AM General began the first steps toward designing the Humvee. AM General also continued manufacturing the two-wheel-drive DJ, which Jeep created in 1953.

The General Motors Hummer and Chrysler Jeep have been waging battle in U.S. courts over the right to use seven slots in their respective radiator grills. Chrysler Jeep claims it has the exclusive rights to use the seven vertical slits since it is the sole remaining assignee of the various companies since Willys gave their postwar jeeps seven slots instead of Ford's nine-slot design for the Jeep.

Off-road abilities[edit]

Jeep Wrangler off-roading

Jeep advertising has always emphasized the vehicle's off-road capabilities.[26] Today, the Wrangler is one of the few remaining four-wheel-drive vehicles with solid front and rear axles. These axles are known for their durability, strength, and articulation. New Wranglers come with a Dana 44 rear differential and a Dana 30 front differential. The upgraded Rubicon model of the JK Wrangler is equipped with electronically activated locking differentials, Dana 44 axles front and rear with 4.10 gears, a 4:1 transfer case, electronic sway bar disconnect and heavy duty suspension.

Another benefit of solid axle vehicles is they tend to be easier and cheaper to "lift" with aftermarket suspension systems. This increases the distance between the axle and chassis of the vehicle. By increasing this distance, larger tires can be installed, which will increase the ground clearance, allowing it to traverse even larger and more difficult obstacles. In addition to higher ground clearance, many owners aim to increase suspension articulation or "flex" to give their Jeeps greatly improved off-road capabilities. Good suspension articulation keeps all four wheels in contact with the ground and maintains traction.

Useful features of the smaller Jeeps are their short wheelbases, narrow frames, and ample approach, breakover, and departure angles, allowing them to fit into places where full-size four-wheel drives have difficulty.

Ownership[edit]

Jeep model list[edit]

Historical and military models[edit]

World War II era jeep built by Ford, using the Willys-Overland design
World War II era Willys jeep

Jeep Forward Control, Jeep Jeepster, & Jeep FJ[edit]

(Forward Control Jeep)

(Fleetvan Jeep)

(Commando)

  • 1966–1971 C101—Jeepster Commando
    • Hurst Jeepster (only 100 produced)
    • Hurst Half Cab
    • Revival Jeepster
    • Commando convertible
    • open body roadster
  • 1972–1973 C104—Jeep Commando
    • Commando Half Cab

Jeep CJ[edit]

(Civilian Jeep)

A USPS mail delivery vehicle made by Jeep
1982 Jeep Scrambler
  • 1944 CJ-1
  • 1944–1945 CJ-2
  • 1945–1949 CJ-2A
  • 1949–1953 CJ-3A
  • 1950 CJ-V35
  • 1950 CJ-4—Prototype
  • 1950 CJ-4M—Prototype
  • 1950 CJ-4MA—Prototypes
  • 1953–1968 CJ-3B
  • 1954–1983 CJ-5
    • 1961–1963 Tuxedo Park Mark III
    • 1969 Camper
    • 1969 462
    • 1970 Renegade I
    • 1971 Renegade II
    • 1972–1983 Renegade Models
    • 1973 Super Jeep
    • 1977–1979 Golden Eagle
    • 1977 Golden Eagle California Edition (available only through California AMC Dealerships)
    • 1980 Golden Hawk
    • 1979 Silver Anniversary CJ-5 Limited Edition (estimated 1,000 built)
  • 1955–1975 CJ-6
  • 1955–1968 CJ-3B Long—Spain
  • 1960–1977 Jeep Rural—Brazil
  • 1964–1967 CJ-5A/CJ-6A Tuxedo Park
  • 1976–1986 CJ-7
    • 1982 Jamboree Limited Edition (2500 units)
  • 1979 CJ-5 Silver Anniversary Limited Edition (estimated 1,000 built)
  • 1981–1985 CJ-8 Scrambler
  • 1981–1985 CJ-10

Jeep DJ[edit]

(Dispatcher Jeep)

Jeep SJ[edit]

(Full Size Jeep)

1974 Cherokee S in action

Jeep Cherokee (XJ)[edit]

  • 1984–2001 XJ Cherokee
    • 1984–2001 Base "SE"
    • 1984–1988 Chief
    • 1984–1990 Pioneer
    • 1985–1992 Laredo
    • 1987–1992/1998-2001 Limited
    • 1988–2001 Sport
    • 1991–1992 Briarwood
    • 1993–1997 Country
    • 1996–2001 Classic
    • 2000 Freedom
    • 2001 60th Anniversary Edition
  • 1984–1990 XJ Wagoneer
    • 1984–1985 Broughwood
    • 1984–1990 Limited

Jeep Comanche[edit]

(Metric Ton Jeep Comanche)

  • 1986–1992 MJ Comanche
    • 1986 Custom
    • 1986 X
    • 1986 XLS
    • 1987–1992 Base SE
    • 1987–1990 Chief
    • 1987–1992 Laredo
    • 1987–1990 Pioneer
    • 1987–1992 SporTruck
    • 1987–1992 Eliminator
1997 Jeep Wrangler TJ

Jeep Wrangler[edit]

(Jeep Wrangler)

  • 1987–1995 Wrangler YJ
    • 1991–1993 Renegade
    • 1988–1995 Wrangler Long—Venezuela
    • 1995 Wrangler Rio Grande
2005 TJ Rubicon
  • 1997–2006 Wrangler TJ
    • 2002 TJ Se, X, Sport, Sahara models
    • 2003 TJ Rubicon, Rubicon Tomb Raider Edition, Sahara, Sport, X, Se models, Freedom Edition
    • 2004–2006 TJ Long Wheel Base (LJ) Unlimited(15" Longer than a standard TJ) Rubicon, Sport, X, Se models
    • 2004–2005 Willys Edition (2004–1997 made, 2005–2001 made)
    • 2004 Columbia Edition
    • 2005 Rubicon Sahara Unlimited TJ LWB (LJ) (1000 made)
    • 2006 Golden Eagle Edition, 65 Year Anniversary Edition (1,675 Black 65th Anniversary Editions made)
2006 Golden Eagle
  • 2007–2009 Wrangler JK
    • 2007–2009 JK Rubicon, Sahara, X
    • 2010 JK Rubicon, Sahara, Mountain, Islander, Sport
    • 2011 Mojave Edition
    • 2011 Call of Duty : Black Ops Edition
    • 2011 70th Anniversary Edition
2010 Jeep Wrangler Unlimited Mountain

ZJ, WJ, and WK models[edit]

(Jeep Grand Cherokee)

Second generation ZJ
1994 ZJ Laredo Model
  • 1993–1998 ZJ Grand Cherokee
    • 1993–1995 Base SE
    • 1993–1998 Laredo
    • 1993–1998 Limited
    • 1995–1997 Orvis "Limited Edition"
    • 1997–1998 TSi
    • 1998 5.9 Limited
  • 1993 ZJ Jeep Grand Wagoneer
  • 1999–2004 WJ Grand Cherokee
    • 2002–2003 Sport
    • 2002–2004 Special edition
    • 2002–2004 Overland
    • 2004 Columbia Edition
  • Jeep Grand Cherokee: Five-passenger family-oriented SUV
    • WK: Grand Cherokee, 2005–2010 ("WK" is the designator for the 2005–2010 Grand Cherokee, marks the beginning of the -K designation compared to the -J designation)

XK models[edit]

  • 2006–2010 Jeep Commander
    • 2006 Base
    • 2007–2010 Sport
    • 2006–2010 Limited
    • 2007–2009 Overland

KJ models[edit]

  • 2002–2007 Jeep Liberty (Jeep Cherokee in Europe)
    • Sport
    • Limited
    • Renegade
    • 2003 Freedom Edition
    • 2004–05 Rocky Mountain Edition
    • 2004 Columbia Edition
    • 2006 65th Anniversary Edition
    • 2007 Latitude Edition(replaced Renegade)

Current models[edit]

The Jeep brand currently produces five models:

Concept vehicles[edit]

  • 1958 DJ-3A Pickup
  • 1970 XJ001
  • 1970 XJ002
  • 1971 Jeep Cowboy: A design study using AMC's "compact" automobile platform[35]
  • 1977 Jeep II
  • 1979 Jeep Jeepster II
  • 1986 Cherokee Targa: A two-door Cherokee convertible (later revised as Jeep Freedom show car)
  • 1987 Comanche Thunderchief: This vehicle was put into production later as the Comanche Eliminator
  • 1989 Jeep Concept 1: Evolved into the ZJ Grand Cherokee
  • 1989 Jeep Rubicon Wrangler: This vehicle was later put in production
  • 1990 Jeep JJ: Essentially what would later be called the Icon
  • 1990 Jeep Freedom:[36] A revised Cherokee Targa
  • 1991 Jeep Wagoneer 2000: A design study be the next generation Wagoneer, but was not put into production
  • 1993 Jeep Ecco
  • 1997 Jeep Cherokee Casablanca: A special edition of Cherokee, never produced
  • 1997 Jeep Wrangler Ultimate Rescue: A tuned version of a regular TJ Wrangler developed for SEMA show
  • 1997 Fender Jeep Wrangler
  • 1997 Jeep Dakar: A fused version of a XJ Cherokee and TJ Wrangler
  • 1997 Jeep Icon: A design study for the next-generation Wrangler
  • 1999 Jeep Journey
  • 1999 Jeep Jeepster Concept
  • 2000 Jeep Cherokee Total Exposure
  • 2000 Jeep Varsity: Subsequently put into production as the Compass
  • 2000 Jeep Commander Concept: Subsequently put into production as the XK
  • 2000 Jeep Willys
  • 2001 Jeep Willys 2
  • 2002 Jeep Wrangler Tabasco
  • 2002 Jeep Wrangler Patriot: A special decal package for the Wrangler X/Sport
  • 2002 Jeep Wrangler Mountain Biker
  • 2004 Jeep Grand Cherokee (WJ) Concierge
  • 2004 Jeep Treo
  • 2004 Jeep Rescue
  • 2004 Jeep Liberator CRD
  • 2005 Jeep Hurricane: The 4-wheel steering system allows the vehicle to have both a zero turning circle, and "crab" sideways.[37] Its engine was later put in the Grand Cherokee (WK) SRT-8
  • 2005 Jeep Gladiator Concept
  • 2005 Jeep Aggressor (the Rezo)
  • 2007 Jeep Trailhawk
  • 2008 Jeep Renegade
  • 2010 Jeep J8
  • 2010 Jeep Nukizer: Design study inspired by the Military Kaiser M-715

Jeeps around the world[edit]

The Troller T4
Mahindra & Mahindra Limited Indian Jeep

Jeeps have been built and/or assembled around the world by various companies.[38]

Jeep apparel and sponsorships[edit]

Jeep is also a brand of apparel of outdoor lifestyle sold under license. It is reported that there are between 600 and 1,500 such outlets in China, vastly outnumbering the number of Jeep auto dealers in the country.[58][59]

In April 2012 Jeep signed a shirt sponsorship deal worth €35m ($45m) with Italian football club Juventus.[60]

They also sponsor Australian NRL Rugby League Bid team the Brisbane Bombers

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Inline
  1. ^ a b Auto Editors of Consumer Guide (14 December 2007). "1940–1941 Jeep". Retrieved 24 February 2012. 
  2. ^ Chrysler 8-K/A SEC filing December 3, 2012 "... served as the auditor for Fiat S.p.A. and its consolidated subsidiaries, which include Chrysler Group". Retrieved 29 March 2013.
  3. ^ InsideView company data for Chrysler Group LLC "Chrysler Group LLC operates as a subsidiary of Fiat North America LLC". Retrieved 29 March 2013.
  4. ^ Swan, Tony (January 1991). "Jeep Thrills". Popular Mechanics 168 (1): 106–107. 
  5. ^ Gunn, Richard (2006). Trucks & Off-Road Vehicles. Motorbooks. p. 137. ISBN 978-0-7603-2569-8. Retrieved 31 July 2011. 
  6. ^ Robson, Graham (1981). The Rover Story. Stephens. p. 87. ISBN 978-0-85059-543-7. "The first Land-Rover owed a lot to the Jeep. Designer Gordon Bashford, who laid out the basic concept, makes no secret of that. It was also his job to go off to an ex-WD surplus vehicle dump in the Cotswolds, buy a couple of roadworthy Jeeps..." 
  7. ^ a b Brown, Arch (2001). Jeep: The Unstoppable Legend. Publications International. p. 42. ISBN 0-7853-5562-6. 
  8. ^ "Wordorigins.org". Wordorigins.org. Retrieved 2010-07-04. 
  9. ^ a b Statham, Steve (2002). Jeep Color History. MBI Publishing. pp. 26–27. ISBN 978-0-7603-0636-9. Retrieved 28 October 2010. 
  10. ^ Morr, Tom; Brubaker, Ken (2007). The Joy of Jeep. MBI Publishing. p. 50. ISBN 978-0-7603-3061-6. Retrieved 28 October 2010. 
  11. ^ "The Military Jeep". Cossor.com.au. Retrieved 2010-03-12. 
  12. ^ "Invention of the Jeep - Pennsylvania Historical Markers". Waymarking.com. 2006-03-09. Retrieved 23 February 2012. 
  13. ^ "Ford Manufacturers a Jeep". Jeep History. Retrieved 4 July 2012. 
  14. ^ Notman, Robert (2006). Bantam, Ford and Willys-1/4-Ton Reconnaissance Cars. Lulu.com. p. 68. ISBN 978-1-84728-188-3. Retrieved 2010-11-30. 
  15. ^ Allen, Jim (2003). Jeep: Collector's Library. MBI Publishing. pp. 36–39. ISBN 978-0-7603-1486-9. 
  16. ^ Scott, Graham (1996). Essential Military Jeep: Willys, Ford & Bantam models 1941–45. MBI Publishing. p. 25. ISBN 978-1-870979-76-4. 
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  21. ^ R. Cole, "Chairman Offers to Buy Coleman", The New York Times, Page D1, Feb. 15, 1989.
  22. ^ "The 3A's Navy Cousin - The CJ-V35/U". Cj3apage.com. 1950-02-01. Retrieved 2012-01-14. 
  23. ^ "Mitsubishi Jeep Photos on The CJ3B Page". Film.queensu.ca. 2002-08-29. Retrieved 2009-09-23. 
  24. ^ Mann, Jim (1997). Beijing Jeep: A Case Study of Western Business in China. Perseus. ISBN 978-0-8133-3327-4. 
  25. ^ Dunne, Timothy (2007-11-02). "Can Chrysler Rebound in China?". Business Week. Retrieved 2010-10-26. 
  26. ^ "Toledo-built Jeeps' sales results abroad mirror those in North American market". News.top100.biz. 2007-11-13. Retrieved 2010-07-04. 
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  29. ^ "Jeepster yellow rear". americanjeepsterclub.org. Archived from the original on 24 February 2013. Retrieved 2014-01-23. 
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General
  • Allen, Jim (2004). Jeep. MBI Publishing. ISBN 978-0-7603-1979-6. 
  • Foster, Patrick R. (2003). Standard Catalog of Jeep 1940–2003. Krause Publications. ISBN 978-0-87349-522-6. 
  • Ludel, Moses (1992). Jeep Owner's Bible: A Hands-On Guide to Getting the Most from Your Jeep. Robert Bentley. ISBN 978-0-8376-0154-0. 
  • Hartwell, Dickson (December 1960). "The Mighty Jeep". American Heritage Magazine 12 (1). 

External links[edit]