Jeep Cherokee (XJ)
|Jeep Cherokee (XJ)|
1984–1996 Jeep Cherokee 2-door
|Also called||Jeep Wagoneer (1984-1990)
Beijing-Jeep BJ 2021 (4WD)
Beijing-Jeep BJ 7250 (2WD)
|Body and chassis|
|Layout||Front-engine, rear-wheel drive / Four-wheel drive|
|Wheelbase||101.4 in (2,576 mm)|
|Length||1987-1990: 165.3 in (4,199 mm)
1991-93: 168.8 in (4,288 mm)
1994-96: 166.9 in (4,239 mm)
1997-2001: 167.5 in (4,254 mm)
|Width||1987-1993: 70.5 in (1,791 mm)
1994-96: 67.7 in (1,720 mm)
1997-99: 67.9 in (1,725 mm)
2000-01: 69.4 in (1,763 mm)
|Height||1987-88 2WD: 63.4 in (1,610 mm)
1987–1993: 63.3 in (1,608 mm)
1994–99 2WD: 63.9 in (1,623 mm)
1994-2001 4WD: 64.0 in (1,626 mm)
2000–01 2WD: 63.8 in (1,621 mm)
|Curb weight||3,357 lb (1,523 kg) (approx.)|
|Successor||Jeep Liberty (KJ)|
The Jeep Cherokee (XJ) is a unibody (monocoque) compact SUV that was developed and produced by the Jeep division of American Motors, and continued to be built and marketed by Chrysler after 1987. It shared the name of the original full-size SJ model, but without a body-on-frame chassis, and set the stage for the modern sport utility vehicle (SUV). The XJ's innovative appearance and sales popularity spawned important imitators as other automakers began to notice that this model began replacing regular cars. It was built in Toledo, Ohio, in Beijing, China, in Ferreyra, Argentina, and in Valencia, Venezuela. The XJ provided the mechanical basis for the MJ-series Jeep Comanche pickup truck.
The XJ Jeep has been described as one of the 20 greatest cars of all time, and "possibly the best SUV shape of all time, it is the paradigmatic model to which other designers have since aspired".
- 1 Background
- 2 1984–1996
- 3 1997–2001
- 4 Trim levels
- 5 Available driveline components
- 6 XJ in Europe
- 7 XJ in China
- 8 Cherokee name revival in the U.S.
- 9 Footnotes
- 10 External links
Designs of the compact-size XJ Cherokee date back to 1978 when a team of American Motors (AMC) and Renault engineers drew several sketches. Clay models were based on the then current full-size SJ Cherokee. Early sketches of the XJ Cherokee had a European influence, and most of the styling cues were done by AMC engineers under the direction of Richard A. Teague, Vice President of Design.
Noticing that General Motors was developing a new two-door S-10-based Blazer, AMC decided to develop an entirely new four-door model in addition to a two-door version. American Motors' Vice President of Engineering, Roy Lunn, designed what is known as the Quadra-Link suspension that limited rollovers. Renault's François Castaing developed the drivetrain using a much smaller engine than normally found in 4WD vehicles and reduced the weight of the new model. It is described "as the first small crossover SUV in the U.S.," with "plenty of the Jeep toughness (and a straight-6 engine) built in."
Although the XJ models were just introduced, AMC quickly began development of its successor. To compete against its much larger rivals, the smallest U.S. automaker created a business process that is now known as product lifecycle management (PLM) to speed up its product development process. By 1985, development and engineering was based on computer-aided design (CAD) software systems while new systems stored all drawings and documents in a central database. The pioneering PLM was so effective that after Chrysler purchased AMC in 1987, it expanded the system throughout its own enterprise.
The compact Jeep was selected by Robert Cumberford of Automobile magazine as a "masterpiece" design and a paradigmatic model that was copied by other automakers. It became "a perfect blend of sport and utility in a four-wheel-drive vehicle."
The XJ Cherokee introduced for the 1984 model year was the first Jeep with a ladder-boxed chassis integrated into a single monocoque unit rather than the traditional separate body-on-frame construction. The design was rigid and sturdy, "yet wonderfully lightweight, [the] Uniframe permitted outstanding performance even with AMC's new 2.5-liter/150-cubic-inch four-cylinder engine."
Both two- and four-door versions of the XJ Cherokee were offered throughout its lifetime, each having exactly the same track and wheelbase measurements. Two-door models, however, received longer doors and front seats that could fold forward to assist in rear passenger entry and exit. This was in addition to extended-length rear windows that did not open, although an optional rear vent window was available on some models.
A variation on the Cherokee from 1984 to 1990 was the Jeep Wagoneer. These were unrelated to the similarly named full-sized Grand Wagoneer models that had carried the Wagoneer name before this point. The compact XJ Wagoneer was available in two trim levels: the "Wagoneer" and the "Wagoneer Limited". Both Wagoneers were distinguished from the Cherokee models in 1984 and 1985 by a slightly different grille and a smaller "Jeep" emblem offset to the driver's side. Starting in 1986, they changed to two vertically stacked low and high beam headights (a.k.a. "spider eyes") with front turn signals moved behind the grille. The Wagoneer Limited came with vinyl wood trim on the sides and leather seats embossed with "Limited".
This version was the first to be sold in Europe; it was launched in 1992 in some markets, 1993 for the United Kingdom. Early versions had the 4.0 l (240 cu in) inline six-cylinder engine only; the 2.5 l (150 cu in) engine did not arrive in Europe until 1995. The XJ firewall was notched to accommodate the longer 4.0 L engine.
In mid-1985, a two-wheel-drive version of the Cherokee was added to the lineup. This marked the first time any Jeep product was offered with two-wheel drive since 1967, and was done in the hopes of attracting a few more buyers who did not need (or want to pay for) four-wheel drive. When the XJ Cherokee-based Comanche (MJ) truck was introduced, it was also available in two- and four-wheel drive. The new two-wheel-drive models shared the front suspension with four-wheel-drive models. Jeep simply used a single axle tube from hub to hub with no differential between, resulting in an inexpensive front suspension.
For 1996, partially to comply with new U.S. OBD-II exhaust and evaporative emissions regulations, the engine management system was upgraded to Chrysler's then-new "JTEC" PCM. This added the side benefits of improving reliability and easing diagnostics.
American Motors's compact XJ Cherokee was to be replaced by a new and larger model known as the ZJ (later named the Jeep Grand Cherokee when introduced in 1993) that was under development by AMC. However, the smaller model's continuing popularity caused Chrysler executives to rethink this decision, and while the ZJ models were introduced in 1993, the XJ models were retained until 2001. The Jeep XJ has remained a popular choice by off-roading enthusiasts due to its potent off-roading capability in stock form. Its popularity has resulted in strong ongoing aftermarket support in the form of a wide variety of products.
In the early- to mid-1990s, the Jeep Cherokee started becoming popular for government and police use. The Cherokee AHB police package was introduced during the 1992 model year. In response, for 1996, Jeep released a special version of the XJ Cherokee SE for police and fleet use. It featured no interior rear door handles and a revised 190-hp High Output version of the 4.0 L "Power-Tech" inline six-cylinder engine. The new HO engine replaced the older 177-hp version of the 4.0 L engine in all installations.
The Cherokee was also made in right hand drive format initially for the United States Postal Service, the side effect of this was it allowed Jeep in later years to enter right hand drive markets — the Cherokee went on sale in both the United Kingdom and Ireland in 1993. It was also sold in Japan, and due to that country's strict shaken laws, many used Japanese-market Cherokees have found their way back to the United States for use by rural mail carriers.   
|2464 cc (150 CID)||I4, OHV||Gasoline||105 hp (78 kW) @ 5000 rpm||132 lb·ft (179 N·m) @ 2800 rpm||single-barrel carburetor||1984–1985|
|117 hp (87 kW) @ 5000 rpm||135 lb·ft (183 N·m) @ 3500 rpm||Renix TBI||1986|
|121 hp (90 kW) @ 5250 rpm||141 lb·ft (191 N·m) @ 3250 rpm||Renix TBI||1987–1990|
|130 hp (97 kW) @ 5250 rpm||149 lb·ft (202 N·m) @ 3250 rpm||Chrysler MPI||1991–1996|
|2.8L V6||2838 cc (173 CID)||V6, OHV||Gasoline||115 hp (86 kW) @ 4800 rpm||145 lb·ft (197 N·m) @ 2400 rpm||Chevrolet LR2||1984–1986|
|2068 cc (126 CID)||I4, SOHC||Diesel||85 hp (63 kW) @ 3750 rpm||132 lb·ft (179 N·m) @ 2750 rpm||Renault J8S||1985–1994
(1985–1987 in North America)
|3964 cc (242 CID)||I6, OHV||Gasoline||173 hp (129 kW) @ 4500 rpm||220 lb·ft (300 N·m) @ 2500 rpm||Renix MPI||1987|
|177 hp (132 kW) @ 4500 rpm||224 lb·ft (304 N·m) @ 2500 rpm||Renix MPI||1988–1990|
|190 hp (142 kW) @ 4750 rpm||225 lb·ft (305 N·m) @ 2400 rpm||Chrysler MPI, "High Output"||1991–1996|
|2499 cc (153 CID)||I4, OHV||Diesel||114 hp (85 kW) @ 3900 rpm||221 lb·ft (300 N·m) @ 2000 rpm||VM Motori 425 OHV||1994–2001|
After 13 years of production, 1997 saw the Cherokee receive updated exterior and interior styling. Both the two- and four-door bodies remained in production, receiving a steel liftgate (replacing the fiberglass one used previously), restyled taillights, additional plastic molding along the doors, as well as a new front header panel that featured more aerodynamic styling. The spare tire was moved from a rear exterior bumper mount to an interior location due to de-contenting the rear bumper. A new, unique spare tire carrier was invented by Peter Gruich while working for Jeep Special Programs that utilized the trailer hitch bar and a unique pivot bracket and although it was the only external spare tire carrier to pass the full Jeep durability test, it was not offered for sale.
The interior was similarly updated with an all-new design and instrument panel featuring the first blow molded symmetrical instrument panel retainer structure. This instrument panel featured a unique cluster/airbag bracket invented by Peter Gruich that allowed the interchange of the two components in order for the vehicle to be sold in the right hand and left hand drive markets with both driver and passenger airbags. A stiffer unibody frame brought improvements to noise, vibration, and harshness (NVH) measurements. Also contributing to NVH improvements were new door seals that reduced wind noise at higher speeds.
In the middle of the 1999 model year, vehicles with the 4.0 L engine received a revised intake manifold. This was done to help counteract smaller exhaust porting on the latest casting of cylinder heads, which was done to meet more stringent emissions control laws. Both the four- and six-cylinder engines were offered through the 2000 model year, though only the straight-six was available in 2001. For the 2000 and 2001 model years, all six-cylinder XJs received a distributorless ignition system using coil-on-plug ignition replacing the "traditional" system previously used; coupled with better exhaust porting and the newer intake manifolds, this gave a minor increase in power over the previous models. Transmission, axle, and transfer case choices were carried over from the previous models.
However, major changes were underway with a new executive, Wolfgang Bernhard, who was known as a "cost-slasher" nicknamed "whirlwind", who came from Mercedes-Benz to turn around Chrysler. "One of the first moves Bernhard made when he came to Chrysler in 2000 was to help kill the Jeep Cherokee, an aging, somewhat bland SUV." Thus, the (XJ) Cherokee line was replaced in 2002 by the Jeep Liberty (KJ), although it is retained the "Cherokee" nameplate in most foreign markets. The Cherokee (XJ) remains a popular vehicle among off-roading enthusiasts.
When (XJ) Cherokee production ended in mid-2001, the portion of the Toledo South Assembly Plant devoted to its production was torn down.
By 1997, the XJ Cherokee was still popular in police and government fleets. As expected, production of the Cherokee Special Service Package continued for the 1997 model year into the 2001 model year. It still had the same features as the 1996 Cherokee Special Service Package, but the engine now produced 195 hp (145 kW). In 2001, when the XJ Cherokee ceased production and was replaced by the Jeep Liberty, the Cherokee Special Service Package was discontinued. The Jeep Liberty never featured a Special Service Package, however, police, and government agencies still used the Liberty in their fleets, and continue to this day.
|2464 cc (150 CID)||I4, OHV||Gasoline||125 hp (93 kW) @ 5400 rpm||150 lb·ft (200 N·m) @ 3250 rpm||Chrysler MPI||1997–2000|
|3964 cc (242 CID)||I6, OHV||Gasoline||190 hp (142 kW) @ 4600 rpm||225 lb·ft (305 N·m) @ 3000 rpm||Chrysler MPI, "High Output"||1991–1999|
|193 hp (144 kW) @ 4600 rpm||231 lb·ft (313 N·m) @ 3000 rpm||Chrysler MPI, "High Output"||2000–2001|
|TurboDiesel||2499 cc (153 CID)||I4, OHV||Diesel||114 hp (85 kW) @ 3900 rpm||221 lb·ft (300 N·m) @ 2000 rpm||VM Motori 425 OHV||1997–2001|
- Base - 1984–1992 / SE - 1993-2001 Included: vinyl or cloth upholstery, full-faced steel wheels, and A/M radio with two speakers.
- Wagoneer - 1984–1990 Included: ribbed cloth upholstery with leather trim, faux maple-wood interior accents with wood laminate exterior decals, alloy wheels, A/M-F/M radio with cassette player and four speakers, infrared (single-button) remote keyless entry for 1990 model year, overhead console for 1990 model year, dual power seats, and an air conditioner.
- Briarwood - 1991–1992 (succeeded Wagoneer) Included: leather-and-vinyl upholstery, faux maple-wood interior accents with wood laminate exterior decals, lace-spoke wheels, A/M-F/M radio with cassette player and six Jensen AccuSound speakers, infrared (single-button) remote keyless entry, overhead console, dual power seats, and an air conditioner.
- Pioneer - 1984–1990 Included: cloth plaid-pattern upholstery, steel wheels and A/M radio with two speakers.
- Pioneer Olympic Edition - 1988 Included: cloth upholstery, A/M-F/M radio with two speakers, and an air conditioner.
- Chief - 1984–1990 Included: cloth plaid-pattern upholstery, and A/M-F/M radio with two speakers.
- Sport - 1988–2001 Included: cloth-and-vinyl upholstery, A/M-F/M radio with four speakers, full-faced steel or optional alloy wheels, optional infrared (single-button) (1988-1996) or radio frequency (dual-button) (1997-2001) keyless entry (if equipped with power locks), and an air conditioner.
- Country - 1993–1997 Included: two-tone paint similar to "Laredo" with upgraded color-keyed pinstripe and the option for "champagne" gold along with silver as accent options, the replacement of several interior, formerly chrome accents with flat black (Base and Sport models, as well, starting in 1993 model year), cloth-and-vinyl ("luggage fabric") upholstery with the option for leather (excluding 1993 model year), faux mahogany-wood interior accents, lace-spoke wheels, A/M-F/M radio with cassette player and four speakers with the option for six Jensen AccuSound speakers, optional overhead console (excluding 1993 model year), infrared (dual-button) (1993-1996) or radio frequency (dual-button) (1997) remote keyless entry (if equipped with power locks), optional dual power seats, and an air conditioner.
- Classic - 1996, 1998–2001 Included: monotone paint color, cloth upholstery, alloy wheels, A/M-F/M radio with cassette player with four speakers, infrared (dual-button) remote keyless entry, overhead console, and an air conditioner.
- Limited - 1987-1992, 1998–2001 Included: monotone paint, leather-and-vinyl upholstery, color-keyed lace-spoke wheels, A/M-F/M radio with cassette player and six Jensen AccuSound speakers, infrared (single-button) remote keyless entry, overhead console, dual power seats, and an air conditioner.
- Laredo - 1985–1992 Included: chrome accenting, cloth plaid-pattern (1985-1987) or "luggage fabric" (1988-1992) upholstery with the option of "Briarwood" style leather-and-vinyl seats for the 1992 model year only, five-spoke alloy wheels, A/M-F/M radio with four speakers and the option for six Jensen AccuSound speakers, infrared (single-button) remote keyless entry (if equipped with power locks) optional overhead console, optional dual power seats, and an air conditioner.
- 60th Anniversary - 2001 Included: special badges, monotone paint color, cloth upholstery, chrome-clad wheels, A/M-F/M radio with cassette and CD players and six Infinity Gold speakers, radio frequency remote keyless entry and an air conditioner.
Available driveline components
- 1984: Borg-Warner T-4 4-speed manual, used with 2.5 L I4 only, 21 spline output.
- 1984–1987: Aisin-Warner AX4 4-speed manual, used with 2.5 L I4 only, 21 spline output.
- 1984: Borg-Warner T-5 5-speed manual, used with 2.5 L I4 and 2.8 L V6, 21 spline output.
- 1984–2000: Aisin-Warner AX5 5-speed manual, used with 2.5 L I4, 2.1 L I4 diesel, and 2.8 L V6, 21 spline output.
- 1987–Mid-1989: Peugeot BA-10/5 5-speed manual used with 4.0 L I6, 21 spline output.
- Late 1989–1999: Aisin-Warner AX15 5-speed manual, used with 2.5 L I4 diesel, 4.0 L I6, 23 spline output.
- 2000–2001: New Venture Gear NV3550 5-speed manual, used with 2.5 L I4 diesel, 4.0 L I6, 23 spline output.
- 1984–1986: Chrysler A904 3-speed automatic, used with 2.5 L I4 and 2.8 L V6.
- 1987–2001: Aisin-Warner AW-4 4-speed automatic, used with 4.0 L I6.
- 1994–2000: Chrysler 30RH 3-speed automatic, used with 2.5 L I4.
All the transfer cases used on the Cherokee were chain driven with aluminium housings. Command-Trac was standard on XJ models built with 4WD.
- 1984–1987: New Process NP207 Command-Trac, part-time only, 2.61:1 ratio with low range
- 1984–1986: New Process NP228/229 Selec-Trac, full-time/part-time, 2.61:1 ratio with low range
NP228/229 has a vacuum switch for 2wd/4wd selection on the fly and a separate manual lever for low range
- 1987–2001: New Process NP231 Command-Trac, part-time only, 2.72:1 ratio with low range
NP231 has the following settings: 2HI, 4HI, N, 4LO
- 1987–2001: New Process NP242 Selec-Trac, full-time/part-time, 2.72:1 ratio with low range
NP242 has the following settings: 2HI, 4 full-time, 4 part-time, N, 4LO
The Jeep XJ utilizes front and rear solid (live) axles as opposed to independent front and/or rear axles. This configuration allows the XJ to have superior off-road capability and performance at the expense of some on-road comfort and driveability. Mid-1985 and later two-wheel drive models used the same basic suspension with a single tube connecting axle ends with no differential.
- 1984–1996: Dana 30, high pinion, reverse cut, 27-spline axleshafts (1989 – 1995 : with ABS used 5-297x universal joints, non-ABS had 5-260x universal joints. NP228/229 "Selec-Trac" equipped XJ models were also produced with constant-velocity joints instead of universal joints.)
- 1996–1999: Dana 30, high pinion, reverse cut, 297x/760 universal joint, 27-spline axleshafts.
- 2000–2001: Dana 30, low pinion, standard cut, 297x/760 universal joint, 27-spline axleshafts.
- 1985–2001: Straight non-driven front axle for two-wheel drive only.
- 1984–1989: Dana 35, non c-clip, with anti-lock braking system (ABS) or non-ABS.
- 1987–1991: Dana 44, models w/tow package only, 30-spline axleshafts, non-abs.
- 1990–1996: Dana 35, c-clip, ABS or non-ABS.
- 1997–2001: Dana 35, c-clip, ABS.
- 1991–1996: Chrysler 8.25", c-clip, non-ABS, 27-spline axleshafts.
- Late 1996–2001: Chrysler 8.25", c-clip, non-ABS, 29-spline axleshafts.
Axle gear ratios
Jeep XJs came in several standard gearing ratios:
- 3.07:1, manual transmission, I6 engine.
- 3.54:1, automatic transmission, I6 engine with Dana 44 rear differential.
- 3.54:1, manual transmission, I4 engine with Dana 35 rear differential.
- 3.55:1, automatic transmission, I6, V6 engines; manual transmission, I4 engine.
- 3.73:1, automatic transmission, I6, Tow Package, UpCountry Package, 2.5 VM diesel manual.
- 4.10:1, 2.5L I4 engine
- 4.56:1, automatic transmission, I4, offroad or tow package.
The Jeep XJ utilizes a coil spring front suspension with a leaf spring rear suspension.
The Quadra-Link front suspension design locates the axle with four leading control arms to control longitudinal movement and rotation about the lateral axis (drive and braking reaction), two above the axle and two below it. A panhard rod, also referred to as a track bar, is used to locate the axle laterally. Two coil springs are seated on top of the axle housing as well as two gas-charged shock absorbers. The suspension used on vehicles with the optional UpCountry Package provided one inch of lift over the standard suspension. A sway bar is utilized to reduce body roll in turns.
The XJ uses a leaf spring rear suspension. Each leaf pack contains four leaf springs with a fixed eye at the front of the spring and a compression-style shackle at the rear of the spring. Two gas-charged shock absorbers are also used, along with a mild anti-sway/anti-roll bar. The suspension used on vehicles with the optional UpCountry Package did not employ the rear anti-sway/anti-roll bar and provided one inch of lift over the standard suspension.
XJ in Europe
The XJ was introduced to left-hand drive European markets in 1985, one year after its American debut. However, right-hand drive European markets only began to officially receive them (in RHD form) in 1993. Models were offered in both markets until the XJ's discontinuation in 2001, at which point it was replaced by the Jeep Cherokee (KJ) which retained the Cherokee name for sale in Europe despite sharing little mechanical heritage with its predecessor.
A van version of the XJ was offered in addition to the standard passenger vehicles in some European markets. Available in both right- and left-hand-drive models, they were designed to comply with relaxed motor tax regulations in some EU member states governing vehicles intended for primarily commercial use. Both two- and four-door versions are known to have been sold, with the main differences from the standard models being metal panels in place of the rear side windows, no rear seats, and a completely flat cargo area. Two- and four-wheel-drive variants were available, powered by the VM Motori 2.5 L diesel engine mated to the Aisin AX-15 manual transmission. Photographs of this model can be found here.
XJ in China
American Motors established the first automobile manufacturing joint venture in the People's Republic of China to assemble the four-door Cherokee. Production continued after Chrysler's buyout of AMC. Chrysler executives were concerned over licit and illicit technology transfers when knock-offs of the Cherokee began appearing in the Chinese market. The Chinese market BJ 7250 and BJ 2021 (rear-wheel drive and four-wheel drive respectively) had a raised roof in the rear, as they were often meant to be chauffeur driven.
Production under Mercedes-Benz continued in the partnership that was renamed Beijing-Benz DaimlerChrysler Automotive. The most recent model with an updated grille, headlights, and other upgrades was known as the Jeep 2500 and was produced until 2005. It is notable that AMC's original Cherokee design continued to be built and sold after being virtually unchanged for over twenty years.
The design of the Chinese market Jeeps was similar to that of the U.S.-market Jeeps, with the exception of a new front grille and headlamps, as well as new tail lamps. The interior also got a new steering wheel and center console.
The four-cylinder model was named the BJ2500, signifying Beijing Jeep with the 2.5 L AMC straight-4 engine, while the six-cylinder model was named the BJ4000, signifying it had the 4.0 L AMC Straight-6 engine.
Cherokee name revival in the U.S.
- See also Jeep Cherokee (KL)
On February 22, 2013, Chrysler released press photos of the new replacement for the Liberty, and also announced that the new model would bring back the Cherokee name. The new Cherokee is loosely based on the Dodge Dart (2013), and features a nine-speed automatic, a choice of a 2.4L Tigershark I4 with Fiat's electro-hydraulic MultiAir 2 variable valve timing and variable valve lift or a 3.2L V6 based on the Pentastar 3.6L V6, and front & four-wheel drive (the latter courtesy of Jeep's Selec-Terrain system). The Jeep Liberty is sold outside of North America as the Jeep Cherokee (KK), allowing the new Cherokee to be easily marketed globally, when produced. Jeep also believes the name will attract previous Jeep owners, because of the name's heritage.
- "Beijing Jeep". Jumy.de. Retrieved 17 October 2012.
- "Beijing Automobile Works". Chinabaw.cn. Retrieved 17 October 2012.
- Bradsher, Keith (2002). High and Mighty: SUVs — the World's Most Dangerous Vehicles and How They Got That Way. PublicAffairs. p. 41. ISBN 978-1-58648-123-0.
- Cumberford, Robert (April 2009). "20 greatest cars". Automobile Magazine. Retrieved 29 April 2012. "Great designs never grow old, a truth no better confirmed than by designer Dick Teague's masterpiece, the Jeep Cherokee. Possibly the best SUV shape of all time, it is the paradigmatic model to which other designers have since aspired."
- Muhlbaum, David (October 2011). "10 Cars that Refuse to Die". Kiplinger. Retrieved 6 March 2013.
- Bradsher, p. 36.
- Bradsher, p. 37.
- Hill, Jr., Sidney (May 2003). "How To Be A Trendsetter: Dassault and IBM PLM Customers Swap Tales From The PLM Front". COE newsnet. Archived from the original on 13 February 2009. Retrieved 8 March 2013.
- Cunha, Luciano. "Making PLM and ERP work together". onwindows.com. p. 18. Retrieved 8 March 2013.
- "Cheap Used Cars — Best Cars for Less Than $6000". Popular Mechanics. Retrieved 6 March 2013.
- "Jeep". Automobile Quarterly 39 (3): 62. 1999. Retrieved 9 March 2012.
- Rothenberg, Al (1 March 1998). "Design Debate — Who's the father of the Jeep Grand Cherokee?". Ward's AutoWorld. Retrieved 29 April 2012.
- Ostle, Dorothee (November 27, 2000). "New COO is known as a problem solver". Automotive News.
- Krebs, Michelle (30 July 2007). "New Chrysler: Wolfgang Bernhard Reportedly to Return". Edmunds Auto Observer. Retrieved 29 April 2012.
- Kiley, David (May 23, 2008). "Chrysler's New Owner Has Serious Marketing Work To Do". Business Week. Retrieved 29 April 2012.
- "2000 Jeep Cherokee XJ Commercial Vans pictures, videos, and sounds". SuperMotors.net. Retrieved 29 April 2012.
- Mann, Jim (1997). Beijing Jeep: A Case Study of Western Business in China. Westview Press. ISBN 978-0-8133-3327-4.
- Smith, Charles R. (14 September 2004). "China's Economic War — Stealing Jobs and Technology From America". Newsmax. Retrieved 29 April 2012.
- Dunne, Timothy (2 November 2007). "Can Chrysler Rebound in China?". Business Week. Retrieved 29 April 2012.
- John W. (25 February 2009). "Jeep 2500 Update -China’s XJ". indy jeep. Archived from the original on 1 March 2010. Retrieved 17 October 2012.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Jeep XJ.|
- Jeep Cherokee Wikibook
- Jeep Cherokee Service Bulletins and other downloadable files
- Beijing Jeep: American Business in China - Booknotes interview with author Jim Mann (1990)
- Cherokee Forum - Jeep Cherokee discussion forum
- North American XJ Association - Jeep Cherokee discussion forum
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