|United States Senator
January 3, 2009
Serving with Ron Wyden
|Preceded by||Gordon Smith|
|64th Speaker of the Oregon House of Representatives|
January 3, 2007 – January 2, 2009
|Preceded by||Karen Minnis|
|Succeeded by||Dave Hunt|
|Member of the Oregon House of
Representatives from the 47th District
January 3, 1999 – January 2, 2009
|Preceded by||Frank Shields|
|Succeeded by||Jefferson Smith|
|Born||Jeffrey Alan Merkley
October 24, 1956
Myrtle Creek, Oregon
|Alma mater||Stanford University (B.A.)
Princeton University (M.P.P.)
|Profession||Budget and Policy Analyst, Congressional Budget Office|
|Religion||Lutheran – ELCA|
Jeffrey Alan "Jeff" Merkley (born October 24, 1956) is the junior United States Senator from Oregon. A member of the Democratic Party, Merkley was a five-term member of the Oregon Legislative Assembly representing House District 47, located in eastern Multnomah County within the Portland city limits. He also served as Speaker of the Oregon House of Representatives.
- 1 Early life, education, and early political career
- 2 Oregon legislature
- 3 U.S. Senate
- 4 Political positions
- 5 Personal life
- 6 References
- 7 External links
Early life, education, and early political career
Merkley was born in Myrtle Creek, Oregon, the son of Betty L. and Darrell Philip Merkley. His paternal grandmother was born in Calliope, Queensland, Australia. He attended first grade in Roseburg before moving to Portland with his family. He graduated from David Douglas High School, obtained a bachelor of arts degree in International Relations from Stanford University in 1979, and earned a Master of Public Policy degree from the Woodrow Wilson School at Princeton University in 1982.
After completing his master's in 1982, Merkley was selected as a Presidential Management Fellow, working at the Office of the Secretary of Defense on the security of American military technology. After his fellowship, he worked in the Congressional Budget Office, analyzing nuclear weapons policies and programs.
Merkley returned to Portland in 1991 to serve as executive director of Portland Habitat for Humanity until 1994. He also started the Walk for Humanity, initiated the Journey for Mankind, launched development of the Habitat Home Building Center, and initiated a pilot project for “YouthBuild” in which gang-affected youth built homes in their own neighborhoods. He served as Director of Housing Development at Human Solutions, where he worked to make available affordable housing complexes and launching Oregon’s first Individual Development Account (IDA) program that helps low-income families save money to buy homes, attend college, or start businesses. Jeff Merkley was President of the World Affairs Council of Oregon for seven years and continues to serve on the Board of Trustees.
In 1998, Merkley was elected as a Democrat to the Oregon House of Representatives from a district in east Portland (now District 47). He succeeded Frank Shields, who moved from the House to the Oregon State Senate due to term limits. In its endorsement, The Oregonian predicted that Merkley was the most likely of several Democrats to "accomplish something positive in the Legislature." Following the 2003 session, he was elected Democratic leader, and after Democrats gained a majority in the Oregon House in the 2006 Oregon statewide elections, he was chosen (in a unanimous vote of the 31 incoming Democrats) to serve as Speaker of the House in the 74th Oregon Legislative Assembly.
During Merkley's tenure as Speaker, the Oregon House passed several pieces of legislation: it created a state "rainy day fund" (a savings account to protect public schools against an unstable economy); increased funding in Oregon public schools by 14 percent ($1 billion) and by 18 percent ($1.4 billion) in state universities; banned junk food in schools (effective 2009); expanded the Oregon indoor smoking ban; revised the Oregon Bottle Bill; outlawed discrimination by sexual orientation and gender identity in housing and in the workplace; and gave same-sex couples state-granted rights, immunities, and benefits.
On August 13, 2007, Merkley received the endorsements of Democratic Governor Ted Kulongoski and former Democratic Governor Barbara Roberts. He was endorsed in December 2007 by the Oregon AFL-CIO, the state's largest labor federation. The union's leaders cited Merkley's 97% record of voting in the interests of working families, and his electability in a general election against the incumbent senator Gordon Smith. Merkley was the first federal candidate to be cross-nominated by the Independent Party of Oregon.
Merkley won the Democratic nomination to challenge Smith in 2008, narrowly defeating activist Steve Novick and four others in the Democratic primary. Given the difficulty of running against an incumbent senator, Merkley was initially thought to have only a moderate chance of unseating Smith. But in July 2008, a Rasmussen poll showed Merkley with a lead over Smith, albeit within the margin of error. By August, after strongly negative campaigning on both sides, Rasmussen reported that Merkley's support had deteriorated, with Smith taking a strong lead in the polls. Merkley's favorable rating was at 42%, while his unfavorable rating had risen to 45%.
Polls taken shortly before the election indicated that Merkley's standing had once again improved, with Merkley's 12-point deficit turning into a slight lead.
On election night, the Merkley-Smith race was too close to call, but media outlets including The Oregonian called the race for Merkley on the morning of November 6, and Smith conceded later that morning. Ultimately, Merkley defeated Smith by three percentage points, 49% to 46%. While Merkley only carried six counties, one of them was his home county of Multnomah County, which he won by a staggering 142,000-vote margin--a deficit which proved too much for Smith to overcome. Merkley thus became the first person to unseat an incumbent Oregon senator since Bob Packwood's defeat of Wayne Morse in 1968.
Merkley formally resigned his seat in the Oregon House in a letter to Secretary of State Bill Bradbury on January 2, 2009. He was sworn as a Senator on January 6, 2009. Upon his swearing-in, Oregon was represented in the Senate by two Democrats for the first time since Maurine Brown Neuberger served alongside Morse from 1960 to 1967.
||This section's use of external links may not follow Wikipedia's policies or guidelines. (January 2013)|
Merkley has accumulated a progressive record during his Senate career to date. Merkley became the first Democratic member of the Senate to announce that he'd vote against the confirmation of Federal Reserve Chairman Ben Bernanke, citing Bernanke's failure to "recognize or remedy the factors that paved the road to this dark and difficult recession." As a member of the Senate Banking Committee, Merkley became a leading force in the effort to pass the Wall Street reform bill. Merkley championed an amendment known as "Merkley-Levin" or the "Volcker rule" which banned high-risk trading inside commercial banking and lending institutions. In 2010, Merkley successfully included the Merkley-Levin amendment in the Dodd-Frank Wall Street reform bill during conference committee. Merkley also championed an amendment that banned liar loans, a predatory mortgage practice that played a role in the housing bubble and subsequent financial collapse.
He was a founding signatory of a mid-February 2010 petition to use reconciliation to pass legislation providing for a government-run health insurance program in the Senate. Merkley also championed legislation that provides new mothers with a private space and flexible break times to pump breast milk once they return to work. Merkley's breastfeeding amendment was included in the health care reform law and signed into law by President Obama in 2010.
In late February 2010, Merkley again made headlines when he unsuccessfully tried to persuade Republican colleague Jim Bunning of Kentucky to drop his objection to passing a 30-day extension of unemployment benefits for jobless Americans. Bunning replied, "Tough shit." A spokesman for Merkley claimed that the Oregon senator did not hear Bunning's remark at the time.
In late 2010, Merkley began circulating a proposal to his fellow Senate colleagues about the need to force Senators to filibuster in order to block legislation. In 2011, Merkley introduced a bill to reform the filibuster and help end gridlock in the Senate. He was joined by Senator Tom Udall of New Mexico and Senator Tom Harkin of Iowa.
- Committee on Appropriations
- Subcommittee on Agriculture, Rural Development, Food and Drug Administration, and Related Agencies
- Subcommittee on Commerce, Justice, Science, and Related Agencies
- Subcommittee on Interior, Environment, and Related Agencies
- Subcommittee on Labor, Health and Human Services, Education, and Related Agencies
- Subcommittee on Legislative Branch
- Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs
- Committee on the Budget
- Committee on Environment and Public Works
Defense and foreign policy
Merkley led an effort in November 2011 to urge President Barack Obama to expedite transition of responsibility for military and security operations to the government of Afghanistan. The Senate passed an amendment to the defense authorization bill by voice vote that required the President to deliver to Congress a timeline for an accelerated transition of all military and security operations to the Government of Afghanistan within 90 days of the law’s enactment. The measure had bipartisan support. Co-sponsors included Republicans Mike Lee of Utah and Rand Paul of Kentucky.
- Iraq war
- Removing all combat troops starting right away and completing the redeployment in six to 12 months
- Eliminating permanent U.S. military bases in Iraq
- Engaging Iraq’s neighbors in a diplomatic effort to secure the peace, particularly Turkey, Iran and Syria
- Removing all American contractors from the country and replacing them with Iraqi contractors, and
- Directing our attention toward stronger engagement with the Iraqi Parliament and Courts
Merkley has focused on Wall Street reform in his position on the Senate Banking Committee. Merkley and Carl Levin have led an effort to crack down on proprietary trading at depository banks and other critical financial firms. The Dodd-Frank Act included the Merkley-Levin amendment to implement the Volcker Rule. The rule is premised on the notion that banks should not make risky, speculative bets while enjoying government deposit insurance. It is intended to prevent high-risk trading that jeopardizes the banking system. A $2 billion trading loss at JPMorgan Chase & Co. in May 2012 prompted Merkley and Levin to push regulators to stiffen their draft language on the Volcker Rule provisions.
Merkley voted yes on the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. He was a founding signatory of a mid-February 2010 petition to use reconciliation to pass legislation providing for a government-run health insurance program in the Senate. Merkley also championed legislation that provides nursing mothers with flexible break times and private space to pump breast milk at work. Merkley's breastfeeding amendment was included in the health care reform law and signed into law by President Obama in 2010.
As a member of the United States Senate Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs, Merkley has contributed legislation towards fixing the subprime mortgage crisis. The Dodd–Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act contained an amendment by Merkley and Senator Amy Klobuchar protecting consumers from deceptive mortgage lending practices. The amendment prohibits mortgage lenders from receiving hidden payments when they sell high-cost loans and prohibits brokers from receiving higher pay for selling riskier or higher-fee loans. The amendment also bolsters underwriting standards.
To speed the recovery of the housing market, Senator Merkley supports aggressive efforts to create refinancing alternatives to costly and time-consuming foreclosures, including allowing federal bankruptcy judges to modify existing mortgages so they can keep their home under new terms.  In July 2012, Merkley proposed a broad new refinancing plan for homeowners who owe more than their houses are worth and therefore cannot refinance. Under Merkley’s plan, any homeowner who is current on his or her mortgage could refinance into a 4% mortgage for 15 years or a 5% mortgage for 30 years.
Merkley has consistently supported policies that promote American energy independence and investment in alternative energy sources. In 2010, Merkley and Senators Tom Carper, Tom Udall, and Michael Bennet introduced the Oil Independence for a Stronger America Act, which set a goal for achieving complete independence from overseas oil by 2030. A similar piece of legislation was put forward by the same senators again in 2011. Merkley supports increasing national fuel economy standards, and advocates for a 6 to 7 percent annual improvement for vehicles over current mileage standards. Merkley has also been a strong supporter of electric vehicles. In 2011, Merkley and Senator Lamar Alexander introduced the Promoting Electric Vehicles Act. The bill was designed to provide short-term incentives for the rapid development and production of electric vehicles.
Merkley supports increased transparency in campaign financing and limits on independent political spending by corporations. Merkley has been critical of both the 2010 Supreme Court case Citizens United v. Federal Election Commission, and of the court’s decision in 2012 not to revisit this case. Merkley called the 2012 decision “disturbing and damaging." In response to the Supreme Court decision, in July 2012 Merkley and six other senators sponsored the Disclose Act. Among other provisions, the legislation would require public disclosure of political donors that give $10,000 or more.
Merkley has been a leader in trying to reform the rules of the Senate itself, including those concerning the filibuster. On January 5, 2011, Merkley and Senators Tom Udall and Tom Harkin introduced a resolution intended to increase genuine debate and accountability in the Senate. The resolution proposed to eliminate the filibuster on motions to proceed, eliminate secret holds, guarantee consideration of amendments for both majority and minority, require a “talking filibuster” in which senators opposed to holding a straight up-or-down vote must continuously debate on the Senate floor, and expedite the nominations process. Upon introducing the resolution, Merkley stated: “The Senate is broken. We are failing to fulfill our legislative responsibilities.” On January 27, Merkley’s “talking filibuster” proposal received 46 votes in the Senate.
During the Postal Reform Act debate in the Senate in April 2012, Merkley led the effort to pass an amendment that would impose a one-year moratorium on the closure of most rural post offices. After that, the bill would prohibit the closure of post offices more than 10 miles from another post office and impose conditions limiting the closure of others. Twenty rural post offices in Oregon face closure because of the postal service’s financial problems.
Merkley has publicly announced support for same-sex marriage and introduced the Employment Non-Discrimination Act (ENDA) in the Senate during the 111th United States Congress as S. 1584. BlueOregon, a progressive Oregon blog, commented on the suitability of Sen. Merkley to be lead sponsor of ENDA, noting that as Speaker of the Oregon House of Representatives Merkley had successfully guided Oregon's state version of ENDA, the Oregon Equality Act, to become law.
In 2010, Merkley cosponsored legislation to repeal Don't Ask Don't Tell (DADT), and allow gay Americans to serve in the military openly. In March 2011, Merkley cosponsored the Respect for Marriage Act (RFMA) to repeal the Defense of Marriage Act (DOMA), legislation that bars the federal government from recognizing same-sex marriages. With eleven other RFMA cosponsors, including fellow Oregon Sentor Ron Wyden, Senator Merkley released a video as part of the It Gets Better Project, the antibullying initiative aimed at inspiring at-risk LGBT youth.
Merkley and his wife, Mary, have two children, Jonathan and Brynne. Brynne appeared with Merkley in several campaign ads in the 2008 campaign.
- Roots Web http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~battle/senators/merkley.htm
|url=missing title (help). Retrieved February 5, 2009.
- Sowell, John (December 19, 2006). "Morgan, Hanna will remain on Ways & Means Committee". The News-Review (Roseburg). Retrieved July 26, 2007.
- Har, Janie (November 13, 2006). "With long hours and teamwork, the brainy guy can win the day". The Oregonian. Archived from the original on November 15, 2006. Retrieved February 23, 2007.
- "Representative Jeff Merkley". New Jersey Citizen Action. Retrieved July 26, 2007.
- Jeff Merkley for Oregon. "Meet Jeff Merkley". jeffmerkley.com. Archived from the original on January 21, 2008. Retrieved January 27, 2008.
- McNichol, Bethayne (November 7, 1993). "First 'Adopt-a-Home' gets joyous sendoff". The Oregonian.
- "Jeff Merkley biography". Oregon House of Representatives. Archived from the original on September 27, 2006. Retrieved December 21, 2008.
- Spicer, Oskar (November 3, 1995). "Housing advocates fear budget cuts doom low-income projects". The Oregonian.
- Nkrumah, Wade (December 28, 1995). "Whose fund for housing should it be?". The Oregonian.
- "Nominate Merkley, Hansen". The Oregonian. April 13, 1998. Retrieved January 29, 2008.
- "Board of Trustees". Retrieved October 24, 2008.
- Stern, Henry (February 25, 1998). "Term limits spur candidacy musical chairs". The Oregonian.
- Staff, Oregonian (June 27, 2007). "Major Actions by 2007 Oregon Legislature". OregonLive.com. Retrieved January 23, 2008.
- Kulongoski, Roberts to Co-Chair Merkley for Senate Campaign – Jeff Merkley for U.S. Senate, Oregon
- Steves, David (December 12, 2007). "Rep. Merkley gets backing of AFL-CIO". The Register-Guard. Retrieved January 24, 2008.
- Walsh, Edward (May 21, 2008). "Merkley scores chance to take on Smith". The Oregonian. Retrieved May 21, 2008.
- Rasmussen Reports, July 16, 2008, Oregon Senate: Merkley tops Smith for the first time 43% to 41%
- Rasmussen Reports, August 7, 2008, Oregon Senate: Incumbent Smith Regains Lead, Still Receives Under 50% Support
- SurveyUSA, September 24, 2008, Results of SurveyUSA Election Poll #14432
- Esteve, Harry; Noelle Crombie (November 6, 2008). "Jeff Merkley plunges into his new job in the U.S. Senate". The Oregonian. Retrieved November 6, 2008.
- Pope, Charles (January 2, 2009). "Merkley steps down as Speaker; next stop, Capitol Hill" (Article). Politics (The Oregonian). Retrieved January 2, 2009.
- Chisholm, Kari (February 17, 2010). "Merkley calls on Reid to push public option via reconciliation". BlueOregon.
- Barrett, Ted (February 27, 2010). "Lone senator blocks unemployment benefit extensions". CNN International.
- Charles Pope (30 November 2011). "Sen. Jeff Merkley's amendment calling for faster withdrawal from Afghanistan approved by Senate". The Oregonian. Retrieved 3 September 2012.
- "Leaving Afghanistan: The Senate OKs a bill calling for expedited withdrawal". The Register-Guard. 2 December 2011. Retrieved 3 September 2012.
- Amanda Terkel (17 November 2011). "Afghanistan War Withdrawal Backed By Bipartisan Group Of Senators". The Huffington Post. Retrieved 3 September 2012.
- Steven Nelson (17 November 2011). "Tea party and progressive senators unite, introduce legislation to hasten withdrawal from Afghanistan". The Daily Caller. Retrieved 3 September 2012.
- Jeff Merkley for Oregon (November 13, 2007). "Ending the Iraq War". JeffMerkley.com. Archived from the original on November 23, 2007. Retrieved January 23, 2008.
- Jeff Merkley (18 March 2008). "Why I Support the Responsible Plan to End the War". The Huffington Post. Retrieved 14 September 2012.
- John Cassidy (26 June 2010). "The Volcker Rule". The New Yorker. Retrieved 22 August 2012.
- Dennis, Brady (20 May 2010). "Two controversial amendments await Senate vote". Washington Post. Retrieved 22 August 12012.
- Ben Protess (26 April 2012). "Lawmakers Push for a Final Volcker Rule by the Summer". New York Times. Retrieved 22 August 12012.
- Merkley, Jeff (2 February 2012). "We Need a Strong Volcker Rule". The Huffington Post. Retrieved 3 September 2012.
- Steven T. Dennis (11 May 2012). "Major Loss at JPMorgan Fuels Volcker Rule Push". Roll Call. Retrieved 22 August 2012.
- Jeff Merkley (24 December 2009). "Nursing mothers get a break at work, thanks to health reform". The Huffington Post. Retrieved 3 September 2012.
- Rita Rubin (28 July 2010). "Nursing mothers get a break at work, thanks to health reform". USA TODAY. Retrieved 3 September 2012.
- Annie Lowrey (12 May 2010). "Merkley, Klobuchar Amendment Banning Liar Loans Approved". The Washington Independent. Retrieved 3 September 2012.
- Janet Reilley Hewitt (September 2010). "Senator Jeff Merkley Q&A: playing a key role in shaping new limits on mortgage originator compensation, Sen. Jeff Merkley (D-Oregon) shares his thoughts on the new Dodd-Frank Act". Mortgage Banking 70 (12). Retrieved 3 September 2012.
- Jeff Mapes (13 May 2010). "Oregon's Merkley gets populist points on mortgage amendment". The Oregonian. Retrieved 3 September 2012.
- "Protecting Consumers: Restoring Rules of the Road to Wall Street". Office of Senator Jeff Merkley. Retrieved 3 September 2012.
- Matthew Yglesias (25 July 2012). "Jeff Merkley's Plan For Underwater Homeowners". Slate. Retrieved 3 September 2012.
- Alan Zibel (25 July 2012). "Sen. Merkley: Time for a ‘Bolder Strategy’ on Housing". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 3 September 2012.
- "Election Results 2008". The New York Times. 9 December 2008. Retrieved 9 September 2012. "As speaker of Oregon’s state house [...] Merkley was able to [...] approve some of the nation’s most aggressive policies to encourage development of renewable sources of energy.'"
- "Factbox: Senate energy legislation". Reuters. 27 July 2010. Retrieved 9 September 2012.
- National Commission on the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and Offshore Drilling (2011). DEEP WATER: The Gulf Oil Disaster and the Future of Offshore Drilling. Perseus Distribution Digital. pp. 135–136. ISBN 9780786755103.
- Charles Pope (29 June 2011). "Sen. Jeff Merkley offers plan to cut foreign oil imports". The Oregonian. Retrieved 9 September 2012.
- Darren Goode (19 July 2010). "Factbox: Senate energy legislation". The Hill. Retrieved 9 September 2012.
- Charles Pope (26 May 2011). "Sen. Jeff Merkley's effort on electric vehicles gets a jolt of energy". The Oregonian. Retrieved 9 September 2012.
- Christina Williams (11 May 2011). "Merkley, Alexander introduce EV bill". Sustainable Business Oregon. Retrieved 9 September 2012.
- Office of Jeff Merkley (21 March 2012). "Merkley, Senate Colleagues Announce New Legislation to Shine Light on Anonymous Super PAC Spending" (Press release). Retrieved 14 September 2012.
- Sarah Wheaton (12 June 2012). "Axelrod Floats Amendment to Stem Campaign Spending". The New York Times. Retrieved 14 September 2012.
- Office of Jeff Merkley (20 January 2012). "Merkley Statement on Second Anniversary of Citizens United" (Press release). Retrieved 14 September 2012.
- Office of Jeff Merkley (25 June 2012). "Merkley: Supreme Court Doubles Down on Citizens United" (Press release). Retrieved 14 September 2012.
- Charles Pope (12 July 2011). "Jeff Merkley, Senate Democrats demand disclosure of anonymous political contributions". The Oregonian. Retrieved 9 September 2012.
- April Baker (26 January 2012). "Wyden, Merkley Speak Out Against Citizens United Decision". Oregon Public Broadcasting. Retrieved 14 September 2012.
- Manu Raju (28 January 2011). "Filibuster reform goes bust". Politico. Retrieved 14 September 2012.
- Manu Raju (10 May 2012). "Frustrated Harry Reid: Reform the filibuster". Politico. Retrieved 14 September 2012.
- Office of Jeff Merkley (27 January 2011). "Merkley: We Have Just Begun the Fight for Filibuster Reform" (Press release). Retrieved 14 September 2012.
- Andrew Clevenger (28 March 2012). "Merkley fights for rural post offices". The Bend Bulletin. Retrieved 3 September 2012.
- Charles Pope (25 April 2012). "Senate votes to keep all post offices open until after Election Day and limit distance between facilities that remain open". The Oregonian. Retrieved 3 September 2012.
- Pope, Charles (June 26, 2008). "Some gay-rights advocates question Oregon senator's commitment". The Oregonian. Retrieved November 21, 2010. "Merkley supports gay marriage."
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Jeff Merkley.|
- Senator Jeff Merkley official U.S. Senate site
- Jeff Merkley for Senate
- Biography at the Biographical Directory of the United States Congress
- Biography at Ballotpedia
- Biography at NNDB
- Biography, voting record, and interest group ratings at Project Vote Smart
- Congressional profile at GovTrack
- Congressional profile at OpenCongress
- Congressional profile at Roll Call
- Fact-checking at PolitiFact.com
- Financial information (federal office) at the Federal Election Commission
- Financial information (federal office) at OpenSecrets.org
- Financial investments (personal) at The Washington Post
- Financial information (state office) at the National Institute for Money in State Politics
- Issue positions and quotes at On the Issues
- Legislation sponsored at The Library of Congress
- Voting record at The Washington Post
- Works by or about Jeff Merkley in libraries (WorldCat catalog)
- Appearances on C-SPAN programs
- Appearances at the Internet Movie Database
- Collected news and commentary at Bloomberg News
- Collected news and commentary at The New York Times
- Collected news and commentary at The Washington Post
|Oregon House of Representatives|
|Member of the Oregon House of Representatives from the 47th District
|Speaker of the Oregon House of Representatives
|Party political offices|
|Minority Leader of the Oregon House of Representatives
|Democratic nominee for U.S. Senator from Oregon
|United States Senate|
|United States Senator (Class 2) from Oregon
Served alongside: Ron Wyden
|United States order of precedence (ceremonial)|
|United States Senators by seniority
|Representatives to the 111th–113th United States Congresses from Oregon (ordered by seniority)|
|111th||Senate: R. Wyden | J. Merkley||House: P. DeFazio | E. Blumenauer | G. Walden | D. Wu | K. Schrader|
|112th||Senate: R. Wyden | J. Merkley||House: P. DeFazio | E. Blumenauer | G. Walden | D. Wu | K. Schrader|
|113th||Senate: R. Wyden | J. Merkley||House: P. DeFazio | E. Blumenauer | G. Walden | K. Schrader | S. Bonamici|