Jeffrey Archer

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For other people named Jeffrey Archer, see Geoffrey Archer (disambiguation).
The Right Honourable
The Lord Archer
of Weston-super-Mare
Jeffrey Archer.jpg
Archer in March 1998
Member of Parliament
for Louth (Lincolnshire)
In office
8 December 1969 – 10 October 1974
Preceded by Cyril Osborne
Succeeded by Michael Brotherton
Personal details
Born (1940-04-15) 15 April 1940 (age 74)
London, England, UK
Nationality British
Political party Conservative
Spouse(s) Mary Doreen Weeden
Children The Hon. William Harold (b. 1972)
The Hon. James Howard Archer (b. 1974)
Occupation Politician, life peer, published author
Religion Church of England[1]
Website www.jeffreyarcher.co.uk
Jeffrey Archer
Occupation Novelist, short story writer, playwright
Period 1976–present
Genres Thriller, drama

www.jeffreyarcher.co.uk

Jeffrey Howard Archer, Baron Archer of Weston-super-Mare (born 15 April 1940) is an English author and former politician. Before becoming an author, Archer was a Member of Parliament (1969–74), but resigned over a financial scandal which left him almost bankrupt.[2] Later, after a reversal in his fortunes from the royalties of his best-selling novels, he became deputy chairman of the Conservative Party (1985–86) before resigning after another scandal, which would lead to the end of his career in elected office.[3] He was made a life peer in 1992. His political career ended with his conviction and subsequent imprisonment (2001–03) for perjury and perverting the course of justice, which followed his second resignation. His books have sold at least 250 million copies worldwide.[4][5][6]

Life and career to 1990[edit]

Background[edit]

Jeffrey Howard Archer was born in the City of London Maternity Hospital. He was two weeks old when his family moved to the seaside town of Weston-super-Mare, Somerset, where he spent most of his early life. His father, William (died 1956),[7] was sixty-four when Archer was born. Early in his career, Archer gave conflicting accounts to the press of his father's supposed, but non-existent, military career.[8] As a boy Archer dreamt about being Bristol Rovers Football Club's captain, and still remains a fan of the club.[9]

In 1951, he won a scholarship to Wellington School, in Somerset, not Wellington College in Berkshire, as he was inclined to claim in the past.[10] At this time his mother, Lola, contributed a column "Over the teacups" to the local press in Weston-super-Mare and wrote about the adventures of her son 'Tuppence'; this caused Archer to be the victim of bullying while at Wellington School.[3]

After Archer left school passing O-levels in English Literature, Art, and History, he worked for a few months in a number of jobs, including training with the army and for the police. Afterwards he worked as a Physical Education teacher: first at Vicar's Hill, a Prep School in Hampshire where he taught fencing amongst other sports, and later at the independent school Dover College in Kent.

Oxford[edit]

Archer studied for three years, gaining an academic qualification in teaching awarded by the Oxford University Department for Continuing Education. The course was based at Brasenose College, Oxford, although Archer was never registered as an undergraduate student of the College. There have been claims that Archer provided false evidence of his academic qualifications, for instance the apparent citing of an American institution which was actually a bodybuilding club, in gaining admission to the course.[3][11] It was alleged Archer provided false statements about three non-existent A-level passes and a U.S. university degree.[12] His website includes references to his Oxford 'Principal', yet omits that he was not a full undergraduate at Oxford.[12]

At Oxford he was successful in athletics, competing in sprinting and hurdling. It is unclear whether he was in fact eligible to compete in Varsity matches, not being a member of the College.[12] Television coverage survives of him making false starts in a 1964 sprint race, but despite the rules Archer was not disqualified. He gained a blue in athletics and went on to run for England once and also competed for Great Britain once and was successful.

Even as a student Jeffrey Archer was plagued with rumours of financial wrongdoing – fellow undergraduates were amazed that he owned houses and cars with personalised number plates while working part time as an Oxfam fund raiser.[13]

He raised money for the charity Oxfam, obtaining the support of The Beatles in a charity fundraising drive. The band accepted his invitation to visit the senior common room of Brasenose College, where they were photographed with Archer and dons of the college, although they did not play there. The critic Sheridan Morley, then a student at Merton, was present and recalled the occasion:

At the interval I went to the toilet, and there beside me was Ringo Starr. He asked if I knew this Jeffrey Archer bloke. I said everyone in Oxford was trying to work out who he was. Ringo said: 'He strikes me as a nice enough fella, but he's the kind of bloke who would bottle your piss and sell it.'[14]

During this period Archer met his future wife, Mary Doreen Weeden, who was studying chemistry at St Anne's College, Oxford. They married in July 1966. She went on to specialise in solar power.

Charity fundraising[edit]

After leaving Oxford, he continued as a charity fundraiser, working for the National Birthday Trust, a medical charity. He also began a career in politics, serving as a Conservative councillor on the Greater London Council during 1967–70.

One organisation Archer worked for, the United Nations Association, alleged discrepancies in his claims for expenses,[15] and details appeared in the press in a scrambled form. Archer brought a defamation action against the former Conservative member of parliament Humphry Berkeley, chairman of the UNA, as the source of the allegations. The case was settled out of court after three years. Berkeley tried to persuade Conservative Central Office that Archer was unsuitable as a parliamentary candidate, but a selection meeting at Louth disregarded any doubts.[3]

Archer set up his own fundraising and PR company, Arrow Enterprises, in 1969.[16] That same year, he opened an art gallery, the Archer Gallery, in Mayfair. The gallery specialised in modern art, including pieces by the sculptor and painter Leon Underwood. The gallery ultimately lost money, however, and Archer sold it two years later.[17]

Member of Parliament[edit]

At 29, he was elected Member of Parliament (MP) for the Lincolnshire constituency of Louth, holding the seat for the Conservative Party in a by-election on 4 December 1969. Archer beat Ian Gow to the selection after winning over a substantial proportion of younger members at the selection meeting. The national party had concerns about Archer's selection, but these were dismissed by the local Conservative association after representatives made a journey to party headquarters to discuss the matter.

Louth constituency had three key areas: Louth, Cleethorpes, and Immingham. During his time as a Member of Parliament, Archer was a regular at the Immingham Conservative Club in the most working-class part of the constituency. He took part in the "Kennedy Memorial Test" in 1970, a 50-mile running/walking race from Louth to Skegness and back.

In Parliament, Archer was on the left of the Conservative Party, rebelling against some of his party's policies. He urged free TV licences for the elderly and was against museum charges.[18] Archer voted against restoring capital punishment, saying it was barbaric and obscene. In 1971, he employed David Mellor, then needing money for his bar finals, to deal with his correspondence. He tipped Mellor to reach the cabinet. In an interview Archer said, "I hope we don't return to extremes. I'm what you might call centre-right but I've always disliked the right wing as much as I've disliked the left wing."[19]

In 1974, he was a casualty of a fraudulent investment scheme involving Aquablast, a Canadian company, a debacle which lost Archer his first fortune.[3] Fearing imminent bankruptcy, he stood down as an MP at the October 1974 general election. By this time the Archers were living in a large five-bedroom house in The Boltons, an exclusive street in South Kensington. As a result of the Aquablast affair, they were forced to sell the house and move into more modest accommodation for a while.[20]

While he was a witness in the Aquablast case in Toronto in 1975, Archer was accused of taking three suits from a department store.[21] Archer denied the accusation for many years. but in the late 1990s, he finally acknowledged that he had indeed taken the suits, although he claimed that at the time he had not realised he had left the shop.[3] No charges were brought.

Early writing career[edit]

His first book, Not a Penny More, Not a Penny Less, was picked up by the literary agent Deborah Owen and published first in the US, then eventually in Britain in the autumn of 1976. The book was a success and Archer avoided bankruptcy. A BBC Television adaptation of the book was broadcast in 1990, and a radio adaptation was aired on BBC Radio 4 in the early 1980s.[22]

Kane and Abel proved to be his best-selling work, reaching number one on The New York Times bestsellers list. It was made into a television mini-series by CBS in 1985, starring Peter Strauss and Sam Neill. The following year, Granada TV screened a ten-part adaptation of another Archer bestseller, First Among Equals, which told the story of four men and their quest to become Prime Minister.[23] In 1979, Archer purchased the Old Vicarage, Grantchester, a house associated with the poet Rupert Brooke. By now Archer was back in a comfortable financial position and began to hold shepherd's pie and Krug parties for prominent people at his London apartment, which overlooks the Houses of Parliament.[3]

Return to politics: Deputy party chairman[edit]

Archer's political career revived once he became known for his novels and as a popular speaker among the Conservative grassroots. He was made deputy chairman of the Conservative Party by Margaret Thatcher in September 1985. Norman Tebbit, party chairman, had misgivings over the appointment, as did other prominent members of the party, including William Whitelaw and Ted Heath. During his tenure as deputy chairman, Archer was responsible for a number of embarrassing moments, including his statement, made during a live radio interview, that many young, unemployed people were simply unwilling to find work. At the time of Archer's comment, unemployment in the UK stood at a record 3.4 million. Archer was later forced to apologise for the remark, saying that his words had been "taken out of context". Archer resigned in October 1986 due to a scandal caused by an article in The News of the World, which led on the story "Tory boss Archer pays vice-girl" and claimed Archer had paid Monica Coghlan, a prostitute, £2,000 through an intermediary at Victoria Station to go abroad.[3]

Daily Star libel case[edit]

The Daily Star alleged that Archer had paid for sex with Coghlan.[3] Archer responded by suing the Daily Star. The case came to court in July 1987. Explaining the payment to Coghlan as the action of a philanthropist rather than that of a guilty man, Archer won the case and was awarded £500,000 damages. Archer stated he would donate the money to charity. This case would ultimately result in Archer's final exit from front-line politics some years later. The description the judge (Mr Justice Caulfield) gave of Mrs Archer in his jury instructions included: "Remember Mary Archer in the witness-box. Your vision of her probably will never disappear. Has she elegance? Has she fragrance? Would she have, without the strain of this trial, radiance? How would she appeal? Has she had a happy married life? Has she been able to enjoy, rather than endure, her husband Jeffrey?" The judge then went on to say of Jeffrey Archer, "Is he in need of cold, unloving, rubber-insulated sex in a seedy hotel round about quarter to one on a Tuesday morning after an evening at the Caprice?"[24]

By this time, according to the journalist Adam Raphael, Jeffrey and Mary Archer were living largely separate lives. The editor of the Daily Star, Lloyd Turner, was sacked six weeks after the trial by the paper's owner Lord Stevens of Ludgate.[25] Adam Raphael soon afterwards found proof that Archer had perjured himself at the trial, but his superiors were unwilling to take the risk of a potentially costly libel case.[26]

From 1990 to 2004[edit]

Novels during the John Major years[edit]

Archer has stated that he spends considerable time writing and re-writing each book. He goes abroad to write the first draft, working in blocks of two hours at a time, then writes anything up to seventeen drafts in total.[27] It has been rumoured that his books require extensive editing by others to make them readable,[12][14][28][29] although journalist Hugo Barnacle, writing for The Independent about The Fourth Estate (1996), thought the novel, while demonstrating that "the editors don't seem to have done any work", was "not wholly unsatisfactory".[28]

Kurdish charity and peerage[edit]

When Saddam Hussein suppressed Kurdish uprisings in 1991, Archer, with the Red Cross, set up the charity Simple Truth, a fundraising campaign on behalf of the Kurds.[30] In May 1991, Archer organised a charity pop concert, starring Rod Stewart, Paul Simon, Sting and Gloria Estefan, who all performed free. Archer claimed that his charity had raised £57,042,000, though it was later revealed that only £3 million came from the Simple Truth concert and appeal, the rest from aid projects sponsored by the British and other governments, with significant amounts pledged before the concert.[30] The charity would later result in further controversy. Having been previously rejected,[30] Archer was made a life peer in 1992 as Baron Archer of Weston-super-Mare, of Mark in the County of Somerset. Prime Minister John Major recommended him largely because of Archer's role in aid to the Kurds.[30]

Political statements in 1990s[edit]

In a speech at the 1993 Conservative conference, Archer urged then Home Secretary Michael Howard, to "Stand and deliver," saying: "Michael, I am sick and tired of being told by old people that they are frightened to open the door, they're frightened to go out at night, frightened to use the parks and byways where their parents and grandparents walked with freedom ... We say to you: stand and deliver!". He then attacked violent films and urged tougher prison conditions to prevent criminals from re-offending. He criticised the role of "do-gooders" and finished off the speech by denouncing the opposition party's law and order policies.[31]

On Question Time on 20 January 1994,[32] Archer stated that 18 should be the age of consent for homosexuality, as opposed to 21, which it was at the time.[33] Archer though was opposed to the age of consent for gay men being 16.[34] Historian David Starkey was on the same edition, and said of Archer: "Englishmen like you enjoy sitting on the fence so much because you enjoy the sensation."[33][34] Archer has also consistently been an opponent of a return to capital punishment.[35]

Allegations of insider dealings[edit]

In January 1994, Mary Archer, then a director of Anglia Television, attended a directors' meeting at which an impending takeover of Anglia Television by MAI, which owned Meridian Broadcasting, was discussed.[36] The following day, Jeffrey Archer bought 50,000 shares in Anglia Television, acting on behalf of a friend, Broosk Saib.[37] Shortly after this, it was announced publicly that Anglia Television would be taken over by MAI. As a result the shares jumped in value, whereupon Archer sold them on behalf of his friend for a profit of £77,219.[36] The arrangements he made with the stockbrokers meant he did not have to pay at the time of buying the shares.[25]

An inquiry was launched by the Stock Exchange into possible insider trading. The Department of Trade and Industry, headed by Michael Heseltine, announced that Archer would not be prosecuted due to insufficient evidence.[36] His solicitors admitted that he had made a mistake,[29] but Archer later said that he had been exonerated.

London mayoral candidacy and perjury trial[edit]

In 1999, Archer had been selected by the Conservative Party as candidate for the London mayoral election of 2000, with the support of two former Prime Ministers, Lady Thatcher and John Major.[38] Eight Conservative ex-Cabinet Ministers who had been in office during the Thatcher and Major governments wrote to The Daily Telegraph in support of Archer's candidacy.[38] On 21 November, though, the News of the World published allegations that he had committed perjury in his 1987 libel case. Archer withdrew his candidacy the following day.[39]

The basis of the allegations originated with Ted Francis, who claimed his former friend, Archer, owed him money, and with Angela Peppiatt, Archer's former personal assistant. Francis and Peppiatt claimed Archer had fabricated an alibi in the 1987 trial and were concerned that Archer was unsuitable to stand as Mayor of London. Peppiatt had kept a diary of Archer's movements, which contradicted evidence given during the 1987 trial.[40] After the allegations, Archer was disowned by his party. Conservative leader William Hague explained: "This is the end of politics for Jeffrey Archer. I will not tolerate such behaviour in my party."[41] On 4 February 2000, Archer was expelled from the party for five years.[39]

Trial[edit]

On 26 September 2000, Archer was charged with perjury and perverting the course of justice during the 1987 libel trial, and Ted Francis charged with perverting the course of justice.[39] Simultaneously, Archer starred in a production of his own courtroom play The Accused, staged at London's Theatre Royal Haymarket. The play concerned the court trial of an alleged murderer and assigned the role of jury to the audience, which would vote on the guilt of Archer's character at the end of each performance.[42]

The perjury trial began on 30 May 2001, a month after Monica Coghlan's death. Archer never spoke during the trial, though his wife Mary again gave evidence as she had done during the 1987 trial. When Archer's mother died on 11 July, aged 87, he was released for the day to attend the funeral.[43] On 19 July 2001, Archer was found guilty of perjury and perverting the course of justice at the 1987 trial. He was sentenced to four years' imprisonment by Mr Justice Potts. Francis was found not guilty. Prominent journalists admitted to having accepted Archer's hospitality after he was convicted.[44][45][46]

Prison[edit]

Archer was sent to Belmarsh Prison, a Category "A" prison, but was moved to Wayland Prison, a Category "C" prison in Norfolk, on 9 August 2001. Despite automatically qualifying as a category "D" prisoner given it was a first conviction and he did not pose serious risk of harm to the public, his status as such was suspended pending a police investigation into allegations about his Kurdish charity. He was then transferred to HM Prison North Sea Camp, an open prison, in October 2001. From there he was let out to work at the Theatre Royal in Lincoln, and allowed occasional home visits. Media reports claimed he had been abusing this privilege by attending lunches with friends, including former Education Secretary Gillian Shephard. In September 2002 he was transferred to a Category "B" prison, Lincoln.[47] After three weeks, he was moved to the Category "D" HM Prison Hollesley Bay in Suffolk.[48]

During his imprisonment, Archer was visited by a number of high-profile friends, including the actor Donald Sinden[49] and the performer Barry Humphries.[50][51]

In October 2002, Archer repaid the Daily Star the £500,000 damages he had received in 1987, as well as legal costs and interest of £1.3 million.[52] That month, he was suspended from Marylebone Cricket Club for seven years.[53]

On 21 July 2003, Archer was released on licence, after serving half of his sentence, from Hollesley Bay.[54] Archer was allowed to keep his peerage as it is a life peerage rather than "an honour under the Crown". An Act of Parliament would be required to enable such a change to someone's peerage.[55] As he is no longer under the whip of the Conservative Party, Archer currently sits as a non-affiliated member in the House of Lords.

Kurdish aid controversy[edit]

In July 2001, shortly after Archer was jailed for perjury, Scotland Yard began investigating allegations that millions of pounds had disappeared from his Kurdish charity.[30][56] In 1991, Archer had claimed to have raised £57,042,000.[30] In 1992, the Kurdish Disaster Fund had written to Archer, complaining: "You must be concerned that the Kurdish refugees have seen hardly any of the huge sums raised in the west in their name." Kurdish groups claimed little more than £250,000 had been received by groups in Iraq.[30]

A British Red Cross-commissioned KPMG audit of the cash showed no donations were handled by Archer and any misappropriation was "unlikely", however KPMG also could find no evidence to support Archer's claims to have raised £31.5 million from overseas governments. The police said they would launch a "preliminary assessment of the facts" from the audit but were not investigating the Simple Truth fund.[57]

Since 2004[edit]

Subsequent incidents[edit]

In 2004, the government of Equatorial Guinea alleged that Archer was one of the financiers of the failed 2004 coup d'état attempt against them, citing bank details and telephone records as evidence.[58] In 2009, Archer said: “I am completely relaxed about it. Mr Mann [the English mercenary leader of the coup] has made clear that it's nothing to do with me.’’ In 2011, Simon Mann, jailed in Equatorial Guinea but released on humanitarian grounds later, for his role in leading the failed 2004 coup d'état told The Daily Telegraph that his forthcoming book, Cry Havoc, would reveal "the financial involvement of a controversial and internationally famous member of the British House of Lords in the plot, backed up by banking records." He claimed documents from the bank accounts in Guernsey of two companies Mann used as vehicles for organising the coup, showed a 'J H Archer' paying $135,000 into one of the firms.[59]

On 26 February 2006, on Andrew Marr's Sunday AM programme, Archer said he had no interest in returning to front-line politics and would pursue his writing instead.[60]

Later writing career[edit]

While in prison, Archer wrote the three-volume memoir A Prison Diary, with volumes fashioned after Dante's Divine Comedy and named after the first three prisons he was kept in.[61][62] His prison term also served as inspiration for nine of the twelve short stories in the collection, Cat O' Nine Tales.[63]

In 2011, Archer published the first of five books in The Clifton Chronicles, which follow the life of Harry Clifton from his birth in 1920, through to the finale in 2020. Only Time Will Tell tells the story of Harry from 1920 through to 1940 and was published in the UK on 12 May 2011. In March 2011 he visited New Zealand as part of a promotional tour. His stops included an interview in Auckland on Radio Live with hosts Willie Jackson and disgraced former New Zealand MP John Tamihere.[64]

Health scare[edit]

In late 2013, Archer was diagnosed with prostate cancer. He underwent a successful operation to remove the prostate in December 2013 at Addenbrooke’s Hospital, Cambridge, and subsequently made a full recovery. Three years previously, Mary Archer had been diagnosed with bladder cancer, from which she also made a full recovery.[65]

Archer in fiction[edit]

Archer was satirically portrayed as a misunderstood secret agent, saviour of Britain and mankind and "overall thoroughly good chap", by actor Damian Lewis in the BBC drama Jeffrey Archer: The Truth (2002),[66] which received strong reviews. Script writer Guy Jenkin explained that "my Jeffrey Archer is the man who has frequently saved Britain over the last 30 years. He's beloved of all women he comes across, all men, all dogs – he's a superhero."

List of works[edit]

Kane and Abel series[edit]

Prison diaries (non-fiction)[edit]

Other novels[edit]

Plays[edit]

Short stories/collections[edit]

For children[edit]

  • The First Miracle (1980)
  • By Royal Appointment (1980)
  • Willy Visits the Square World (1980)
  • Willy and the Killer Kipper (1981)

Clifton Chronicles[edit]

Ancestry[edit]

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
8. William Archer
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
4. George Henry Archer
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
9. Mary Sealy
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
2. William Robert Archer
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
10. William James Searle
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
5. Jean Searle
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
1. Jeffrey Howard Archer
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
12. William James Cook
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
6. Harold Howard Cook
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
13. Martha Bucknall
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
3. Lola Howard Cook
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
14. Robert Clibbett
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
7. Ellen Florence Clibbet
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

See also[edit]

  • Jonathan Aitken — Archer's contemporary, another Conservative politician imprisoned for perjury
  • Chris Huhne — Lib-Dem politician, imprisoned for perverting the course of justice

References[edit]

  1. ^ Jeffrey Archer "The Papal Visit", Official blog, 20 September 2010
  2. ^ Cristina Odone "Jeffrey Archer: 'Mary would run the NHS beautifully’", telegraph.co.uk, 21 March 2013
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i Caroline Davies (20 July 2001). "He lied his way to the top". Daily Telegraph (London). Retrieved 20 April 2007. 
  4. ^ Archer's agents, see Jeffrey Archer profile
  5. ^ "Jeffrey Archer has embarked on the biggest fictional challenge of his life", Sydney Morning Herald, 23 March 2001 goes with this figure.
  6. ^ Some sources have suggested Archer has sold up 400 million copies, while the novelist himself claims around 330 million; see Anthony Horowitz "Jeffrey Archer interview: the saga continues", telegraph.co.uk, 7 May 2013
  7. ^ Nigel Farndale "Jeffrey Archer: The next chapter", The Daily Telegraph, 2 March 2008
  8. ^ Ian Jack "Onwards, upwards, sometimes downwards", The Independent, 10 July 1994
  9. ^ "Lord Archer's tales charm audience", Bristol Post, 24 September 2011
  10. ^ Nigel Farndale "Jeffrey Archer: The next chapter", telegraph.co.uk, 2 March 2008
  11. ^ Jim Waley (22 July 2001). "Author of his own Demise". ninemsn. Retrieved 20 April 2007. 
  12. ^ a b c d Simon Jeffery (19 July 2001). "Rise and Fall of Jeffrey Archer". The Guardian (London). 
  13. ^ "Jeffrey Archer the extraordinary story of his downfall". Courtnewsuk.co.uk. Retrieved 2 October 2011. 
  14. ^ a b Paul Kelso (20 July 2001). "Mendacious, ambitious, generous and naive". The Guardian (London). 
  15. ^ Louise Jury "The best-selling novelist with a rare gift for inaccurate precis", The Independent on Sunday, 21 November 1999
  16. ^ Lashmar, Paul (27 September 2000). "The accused: Jeffrey Archer. The accusation: Perjury (and a highly suspicious coincidence)". The Independent. Retrieved 9 December 2013. 
  17. ^ "Famous Authors: Jeffrey Archer". www.famousauthors.org. Retrieved 9 December 2013. 
  18. ^ "Museum and Galleries (Admission Charges)", Hansard, HC Deb 21 June 1971, vol 819, cc993-1067, col.1031-4
  19. ^ "Lord Archer answers your questions". London: BBC News. 1 February 1999. Retrieved 14 June 2007. 
  20. ^ "Most men need a wife to pump up their ego. Jeffrey needed me to puncture his: A fascinating insight into a famously colourful marriage by MARY ARCHER". London: Daily Mail. 24 August 2013. Retrieved 28 September 2013. 
  21. ^ Paul Foot "Those suits", London Review of Books, 17:17, 7 September 1995
  22. ^ "Jeffrey Archer: Biography". www.jeffreyarcher.co.uk. Retrieved 9 December 2013. 
  23. ^ In the U.S. edition of the novel, the character of Andrew Fraser was eliminated, reducing the number of protagonists to three.
  24. ^ "Archer marriage under spotlight". London: BBC. 14 June 2001. Retrieved 1 December 2007. 
  25. ^ a b "Star demands £2.2m from Archer". London: BBC News. 19 July 2001. 
  26. ^ Adam Raphael. "His guilt was writ large", The Observer, 22 July 2001
  27. ^ John Darnton "At Lunch With: Jeffrey Archer; An Author's Sweet Revenge: Joining the House of Lords", New York Times, 18 August 1993
  28. ^ a b Hugo Barnacle "Maxwell vs Murdoch - the untold story", The Independent, 11 May 1996
  29. ^ a b "Lord Archer: A twist to every chapter", BBC News, 19 July 2001
  30. ^ a b c d e f g Tempest, Matthew (16 August 2001). "Archer fraud allegations: the simple truth". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 18 December 2007. 
  31. ^ The Times newspaper – Thursday 7 October 1993
  32. ^ Question Time, 20 January 1994, IMDb
  33. ^ a b "The guidelines: Question Time turns 30", The Guardian, 19 September 2009
  34. ^ a b Ben Summerskill The Way We Are Now: Gay and Lesbian Lives in the 21st Century, London: Continuum, 2006, p.99
  35. ^ "Only Time Will Tell (Archer) - Author Bio". Lit Lovers. Retrieved 2 July 2014. 
  36. ^ a b c Watt, Nicholas (30 October 1999). "Archer's share deal under scrutiny again". London: The Guardian. Retrieved 6 May 2010. 
  37. ^ "Archer in fury as DTI questions TV shares deal again". Evening Standard. 1 November 1999. 
  38. ^ a b "Lord Archer - A taste for fiction", The Economist, 19 July 2001
  39. ^ a b c "Timeline: Stranger than fiction". London: BBC. 8 October 2002. 
  40. ^ "Ted Francis: Archer whistleblower". London: BBC. 19 July 2001. 
  41. ^ White, Michael (23 November 1999). "Disgraced Archer jettisoned by Tories". London: The Guardian Unlimited. Retrieved 6 May 2010. 
  42. ^ "Review – The Accused". Curtain Up. 8 October 2002. 
  43. ^ "Archer jailed for perjury". London: BBC. 19 July 2001. 
  44. ^ Michael White "Political chancer with lots of fizz", The Guardian, 20 July 2001
  45. ^ Andrew Rawnsley "Shepherd's pie and shampagne, anyone?", The Observer, 22 July 2001
  46. ^ Simon Hoggart "Drink the Krug (but avoid the shepherd's pie)", The Guardian, 28 July 2001
  47. ^ "Archer moved from open prison", BBC News, 26 September 2002
  48. ^ "Archer's 'Holiday Bay' Prison Move", Sky.com, 17 October 2002
  49. ^ "New celeb jail visitor for Archer". Sunday Mirror. 16 February 2003. 
  50. ^ "How We Met: Barry Humprhies & Jeffrey Archer". London: Independent. 6 April 2008. Retrieved 6 May 2010. 
  51. ^ "So that's what he was up to when he wasn't out for lunch". London: Independent. 6 October 2002. 
  52. ^ Leonard, Tom (2 October 2002). "Archer settles £1.8m libel debt with newspaper". London: Telegraph. Retrieved 6 May 2010. 
  53. ^ Wilson, Jamie (28 October 2002). "MCC gives Archer out – for seven years". London: Guardian. Retrieved 6 May 2010. 
  54. ^ "Lord Archer freed from prison". London: BBC. 22 September 2003. 
  55. ^ "Disgraced Archer may lose peerage". London, UK: Guardian. 20 July 2001. 
  56. ^ "Archer faces 'missing aid' probe". BBC (London). 23 July 2001. Retrieved 18 December 2007. 
  57. ^ Boggan, Steve (24 November 2001). "http://news.independent.co.uk/uk/this_britain/article145624.ece". Independent (London). Retrieved 18 December 2007. 
  58. ^ Pallister, David (13 October 2004). "New Archer link to coup plot alleged". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 22 August 2007. 
  59. ^ Eden, Richard (28 August 2011). "Havoc as jailed mercenary Simon Mann provides "evidence" of peer's role in failed coup". Telegraph. Retrieved 2 October 2011. 
  60. ^ "Archer 'may vote in Lords again'". London: BBC. 26 February 2006. 
  61. ^ Christopher Howse "Cup-a-Soup for the soul", Daily Telegraph, 19 October 2002
  62. ^ Hannah Jane Parkinson "Why I won't be reading Vicky Pryce's prison memoir", theguardian.com, 14 May 2013
  63. ^ "Cat O' Nine Tales and Other Stories", Publishers Weekly, 16 April 2007
  64. ^ "Jeffrey Archer interview with Willie & JT, RadioLIVE". Auckland: RadioLIVE. 18 March 2011. Retrieved 23 March 2011. 
  65. ^ "How I beat prostate cancer". London: Mail Online. 7 June 2014. Retrieved 24 June 2014. 
  66. ^ "Jeffrey Archer: The Truth". BBC. Retrieved 1 December 2007. 

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]

Interviews[edit]

Parliament of the United Kingdom
Preceded by
Sir Cyril Osborne
Member of Parliament for Louth
19691974
Succeeded by
Michael Brotherton