Jeffrey L. Bada

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Jeffrey L. Bada
Born (1942-09-10)10 September 1942
San Diego
Residence La Jolla
Citizenship US
Nationality American
Fields Chemistry
Astrobiology
Institutions University of California, San Diego
Alma mater San Diego State University (BS)
University of California, San Diego (PhD)
Doctoral advisor Stanley Miller
Known for Origin of life
Website
Homepage at SCRIPPS

Jeffrey L. Bada (born 10 September 1942)[1] is an American chemist well known for his works in the study of the origin of life. He is Distinguished Research Professor of Marine Chemistry and former Director of the NASA Specialized Center of Research and Training (NSCORT) in Exobiology at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California at San Diego. Bada has played a pioneering role in the development of the Mars Organic Detector (MOD) instrument package that is designed to search for amino acids and other organic compounds directly on the surface of Mars during future ESA and NASA missions.[2]

Education and career[edit]

Jeffrey Bada studied at the San Diego State University and obtained BS in chemistry in 1965. He wanted to become a theoretical chemist, applying quantum mechanics to chemistry and had no prior interest in prebiotic chemistry. Then he met Stanley Miller at the University of California at San Diego (UCSD) who inspired him to take up the spark discharge experiment a step forward by studying amino acid stability. Bada completed PhD in Chemistry in 1968 under Miller's supervision.[3] He worked as Research Fellow at the Hoffman Labs of the Department of Geological Science at Harvard University for one year.[1] In 1969 he joined the UCSD Department of Chemistry as Instructor, and became Assistant Professor of Marine Chemistry in 1964. He became Associate Professor in 1974 and full professor in 1980. Between 1980 and 2009 he was Director of NASA Specialized Center of Research and Training (NSCORT) in Exobiology. In 2009 he was promoted to Distinguished Professor, and in 2010 to Distinguished Research Professor. He has more than 200 technical publications.[2]

Professional achievements[edit]

Geochemistry[edit]

As a marine geochemist, Jeffrey Bada made significant research in geochronology. During the 1970s and 1980s he developed an important technique of marine sediment dating through the measurement of the racemisation rates of amino acids. This method is useful for dating a large span in geological time scale. This is useful in marine biology, palaeontology and archaeology for dating millions of years old organic materials based on their amino acid content.[1][4]

Exobiology[edit]

Jeffrey Bada is a leading scientist in the study of organic compounds outside of the Earth. Among the most interesting works was his analysis of the Martian meteorite Nakhla, which fell in Egypt in 1911. His team found aspartic acid, glutamic acids, glycine, alanine, beta-alanine, and gamma-aminobutyric acid as the most abundant amino acids in the meteorite.[5] This a supports the notion that the organic building blocks of life could be naturally synthesized and were present in the making of the solar system. He and his team also developed a Mars Organic Analyzer (MOA), which is a microfabricated capillary electrophoresis (CE) instrument for sensitive amino acid biomarker analysis.[6] The device is useful in planetary exploration such as for the analysis of even trace amounts of amino acids, mono- and diaminoalkanes, amino sugars, nucleobases, and nucleobase degradation products from living and non-living materials.[7]

Prebiotic chemistry[edit]

Jeffrey Bada is most familiar with his research on the origin of life, following his mentor Miller, whose laboratory he inherited. In fact his most famous works, perhaps, are his reassessment and validation of the original Miller's experiments.[8][9] In 1999, Miller had a stroke and on thinking of his medical condition, he donated everything in his office to Bada's laboratory.[3] Just before Miller's death in 2007, several cardboard boxes containing vials of dried residues were found in his laboratory at UCSD. The labels indicated that some were from Miller's original 1952-1954 experiments, produced by using three different apparatuses, and one from 1958, which included H2S in the gaseous mixture for the first time and the result never published. In 2008 Bada and his team reported a re-analysis of the 1952 samples using more sensitive techniques, such as high-performance liquid chromatography and liquid chromatography–time of flight mass spectrometry. Their result showed the synthesis of 22 amino acids and 5 amines, revealing that the original Miller experiment produced much more compounds that actually known.[10] Miller's report of 1953 mentioned synthesis of only glycine, α- and β-alanine, with uncertain aspartic acid and GABA.[11] In addition Bada also analysed the unreported 1958 samples in 2011, from which 23 amino acids and 4 amines, including 7 organosulfur compounds, were detected.[12][13][14][15]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Linda Ellis (2000). Archaeological Method and Theory: An Encyclopedia. Taylor & Francis. p. 67. ISBN 9780203801567. 
  2. ^ a b "Curriculum Vitae: Jeffrey L. Bada". Scripps Institution of Oceanography, UC San Diego. 2013. Retrieved 9 September 2013. 
  3. ^ a b Claudia Dreifus (17 May 2010). "A Marine Chemist Studies How Life Began". The New York Times. The New York Times Company. Retrieved 10 September 2013. 
  4. ^ Bada JL (1970). "Marine sediments: dating by the racemization of amino acids". Science 170 (3959): 730–732. doi:10.1126/science.170.3959.730. PMID 5479627. 
  5. ^ Glavin DP, Bada JL, Brinton KL, McDonald GD (1999). "Amino acids in the Martian meteorite Nakhla". Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 36 (16): 8835–8839. doi:10.1073/pnas.96.16.8835. PMC 17693. PMID 10430856. 
  6. ^ Skelley AM, Scherer JR, Aubrey AD, Grover WH, Ivester RH, Ehrenfreund P, Grunthaner FJ, Bada JL, Mathies RA (2005). "Development and evaluation of a microdevice for amino acid biomarker detection and analysis on Mars". Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102 (4): 1041–1046. doi:10.1073/pnas.0406798102. PMID 15657130. 
  7. ^ Skelley AM, Cleaves HJ, Jayarajah CN, Bada JL, Mathies RA (2006). "Application of the Mars Organic Analyzer to nucleobase and amine biomarker detection". Astrobiology 6 (6): 824–837. doi:10.1089/ast.2006.6.824. PMID 17155883. 
  8. ^ Douglas Fox (28 March 2007). "Primordial Soup's On: Scientists Repeat Evolution's Most Famous Experiment". Scientific American. Scientific American, a Division of Nature America, Inc. Retrieved 10 September 2013. 
  9. ^ Amina Khan (26 March 2011). "New data mined from historic 'primordial soup' study". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 10 September 2013. 
  10. ^ Johnson AP, Cleaves HJ, Dworkin JP, Glavin DP, Lazcano A, Bada JL (2008). "The Miller volcanic spark discharge experiment". Science 322 (5900): 404. doi:10.1126/science.1161527. PMID 18927386. 
  11. ^ Miller SL (1953). "Production of amino acids under possible primitive earth conditions". Science 117 (3046): 528–529. doi:10.1126/science.117.3046.528. PMID 13056598. 
  12. ^ Bada JL (2013). "New insights into prebiotic chemistry from Stanley Miller's spark discharge experiments". Chem Soc Rev 42 (5): 2186–2196. doi:10.1039/c3cs35433d. PMID 23340907. 
  13. ^ Parker ET, Cleaves HJ, Dworkin JP, Glavin DP, Callahan M, Aubrey A, Lazcano A, Bada, JL (2011). "Primordial synthesis of amines and amino acids in a 1958 Miller H2S-rich spark discharge experiment". Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 108 (12): 5526–5531. doi:10.1073/pnas.1019191108. PMC 3078417. PMID 21422282. 
  14. ^ Keim, Brandon (October 16, 2008). "Forgotten Experiment May Explain Origins of Life". Wired Magazine. Retrieved March 22, 2011. 
  15. ^ Steigerwald, Bill (October 16, 2008). "Volcanoes May Have Provided Sparks and Chemistry for First Life". NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. Retrieved March 22, 2011. 

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