Jeffrey M. Bradshaw

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Jeffrey M. Bradshaw
Jeffrey Bradshaw.jpg
Born 1956 (age 57–58)
Salt Lake City, Utah
Residence USA
Citizenship USA
Fields Cognitive Science, Computer Science
Institutions Florida Institute for Human and Machine Cognition
Alma mater University of Utah
Brigham Young University
University of Washington
Doctoral advisor Earl B. Hunt

Jeffrey M. Bradshaw (PhD in Cognitive Science, University of Washington) is a Senior Research Scientist at the Florida Institute for Human and Machine Cognition (IHMC), where he leads the research group developing the KAoS policy and domain services framework for network management and coordination of human-agent-robot teamwork.[1][2] He also co-leads the development of the Luna Agent Framework and the Sol Cyber Framework.[3][4]

He currently serves as a member of the Board on Global Science and Technology for the National Academies of Science[5] and as an external advisory board member of the Cognitive Science and Applications Program[6] at Sandia National Laboratories. He is an Honorary Visiting Researcher at the Center for Intelligent Systems and their Applications and AIAI at the University of Edinburgh in Scotland,[7] a member of the Graduate Faculty at the Human-Centered Design Institute of the Florida Institute of Technology,[8] a faculty associate at the University of West Florida,[9] and a member of the Technical Committee for IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics.[10] In 2011, he received the Web Intelligence Consortium Outstanding Contributions Award.[11] Previously, Bradshaw has been a visiting professor at the Institut de Cognitique at the University of Bordeaux;[12][13] is former chair of ACM SIGART;[14] and former chair of the RIACS Science Council for NASA Ames Research Center. He served as a member of the National Research Council (NRC) Committee on Emerging Cognitive Neuroscience Research in the Next Two Decades,[15] was an advisor to the HCI and Visualization program at the German Research Center for Artificial Intelligence (DFKI),[16] and was a scientific advisor to the Japanese NEC Technology Paradigm Shifts initiative.

Bradshaw is on the editorial board of Schedae Informaticae[17] and the Web Intelligence Journal,[18] and was formerly on the board of the Journal of Web Semantics, the Journal of Autonomous Agents and Multi-Agent Systems, the Knowledge Acquisition Journal, and the International Journal of Human-Computer Studies.[19] With Robert Hoffman and Ken Ford, he serves as co-editor of the Human-Centered Computing Department for IEEE Intelligent Systems and is a co-editor of Collected Essays on Human-Centered Computing, 2001-2011.[20]

Professional Background[edit]


Bradshaw did his undergraduate work in psychology at the University of Utah. After a year as a research assistant to Bruce L. Brown (cognitive psychology) and Allen E. Bergin (clinical psychology) at Brigham Young University, he entered the clinical psychology program at the University of Washington, under the supervision of Irwin G. Sarason.

As Bradshaw began work on his dissertation, he became aware of the work of John H. Boose, inventor of the automated knowledge acquisition tool, ETS[21] at the recently formed Artficial Intelligence Center at The Boeing Company. Given their mutual interest in the work of American psychologist George Kelly, he was invited by John to join the newly created organization. Within the knowledge acquisition community, he collaborated with colleagues that would be influential throughout his subsequent professional life, including Guy André Boy, William Clancey, Paul J. Feltovich, Kenneth M. Ford, Brian R. Gaines, Tom Gruber, Robert H. Hoffman, Enrico Motta, Mark Musen, Nigel Shadbolt, Mildred Shaw, Bob Wielinga, among many others.[22] In harmony with his new professional direction, he switched his emphasis at the University of Washington [23] and ultimately received his Ph.D. in cognitive science, with Earl B. Hunt as chair of his committee.

1985-2000: Boeing and the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center[edit]

From 1985 to 2000, Bradshaw led various research groups at The Boeing Company.[24] Though his earliest publications were focused on memory and language, his research focus soon turned to a wide variety of topics relating human and machine intelligence. With Ken Ford he edited Knowledge Acquisition as a Modeling Activity[25] and became well known for his role in helping develop a suite of successful methodologies and tools for automated knowledge acquisition and for the simplification of complex modeling tasks (Aquinas, Axotl, Canard, DDUCKS). He led the development of eQuality, an interactive visual framework with an underlying ontology-based model for streamlining strategic corporate business processes that was used as the principal enterprise modeling tool for the Boeing 777 airplane program.[26]

Bradshaw has had a continuing interest in improving health care. For eight years he co-led a group at the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, and was co-principal investigator for an Agency for Health Care Policy and Research (AHCPR) computerized decision support systems (CDSS) grant to develop knowledge-based technology to provide better long-term post-transplant care of bone marrow transplantation patients scattered throughout the world.[27]

Learning technologies has been another area of focus for Bradshaw. He co-chaired The Fourth International Workshop on Human and Machine Cognition, “Education and Smart Machines.”[28] As co-chair of the Emerging Technologies subcommittee of the Aviation Industry Computer-Based Training Committee (AICC) for several years, he coordinated cooperative research efforts by airlines, airframe manufacturers, and the computer industry to increase interoperability of advanced training and agent-based performance support tools.[29]

In 1993, Bradshaw was selected as a Fulbright Senior Scholar. His project brought him to the European Institute for Cognitive Sciences and Engineering (EURISCO) in Toulouse, France.[30][31] During his year in France, he drafted the manuscript of a book entitled Software Agents,[32] which became a classic in the field and a best-seller for The MIT Press. Bradshaw saw this new direction as a natural evolution from his early work on knowledge acquisition.[22]

2000-Present: Florida Institute for Human and Machine Cognition (IHMC)[edit]

In 1997, Bradshaw took a year-long leave-of-absence from Boeing to pursue research at the Florida Institute for Human and Machine Cognition (IHMC), which was directed by his long-time colleague Ken Ford. In 2000, he joined IHMC full-time.

Bradshaw continued to pioneer the research areas of multi-agent systems. He led the DARPA- and NASA-funded ITAC study team, Software Agents for the Warfighter.[33] He served for over a decade on the Board of Directors of the International Foundation for Autonomous Agents and Multiagent Systems.[34] In addition to his participation as an organizer in many agent-related conferences, he served as co-program chair for the IEEE / WIC / ACM International Conference on Intelligent Agent Technology (WI-IAT 2011)[35] and was a co-program chair of the Third International Conference on Autonomous Agents (1999).[36] He served as co-program chair for Intelligent User Interfaces (IUI 2008),[37] as program vice chair of the 2008 IEEE International Conference on Distributed Human-Machine Systems (DHMS 2008),[38] and as co-general chair of the 2009 International Conference on Active Media Technologies (AMT).[39] Current work on the Luna Software Agent Framework (ref) leverages IHMC's extensive experience in the design of agent systems.[40] He is also well known for his work on KAoS, a policy and domain services framework based on W3C’s OWL ontology standard.

Bradshaw’s work on the Sol Cyber Framework was sponsored by the United States Department of Defense to address the demanding requirements of distributed network operations centers. Specifically, Luna software agents, KAoS security and teamwork policies, and visualizations based on an understanding of human perception and cognition are used to enable distributed sensemaking, rapid detection of threats, effective protection of critical resources, and resilient mission assurance. He collaborates with Sandia National Laboratories on the "Human Dimensions of Cyber Operations" initiative. In August 2012, he was an invited speaker at the Second Experimental Security Panoramas for Critical System Protection Workshop.

Human-Agent-Robot Teamwork has been one of Bradshaw's central interests for many years. From 2002-2006, IHMC's KAoS framework was used as part of a NASA series of annual two-week field tests of human-robot teams led by William Clancey and Maarten Sierhuis, performing simulated planetary surface exploration at the Mars Desert Research Station in the Utah desert.[41] Bradshaw and Jerry Pratt were sponsored by DHS to undertake detailed simulation studies of the use of human-robot teams to secure facilities at Port Everglades. He also co-led the ONR-sponsored NAIMT and Coordinated Operations projects, where a team of humans and heterogeneous robots performed field exercises at the Naval Air Station in Pensacola, aimed at port reconnaissance, and robot-assisted detection and apprehension of intruders.[42] He and Sierhuis co-founded and, with the help of Catholijn Jonker and Virginia Dignum, organized the Human-Agent-Robot Teamwork Workshop series (HART), whose most recent meetings were held at the Lorentz Center in Leiden, The Netherlands,[43] and at the 2012 Human-Robot Interaction conference in Boston.[44] He recently served as lead editor for a special issue of IEEE Intelligent Systems on HART (April–May 2012).[45] In June 2012, he led an international workshop for the National Academies of Science on Intelligent Human-Machine Collaboration.[46] In collaboration with Paul Feltovich, Matt Johnson, Robert Hoffman, David Woods, and others, Jeff has co-authored a series of influential articles relating to the inadequacies of the supervisory control model,[47] the "myths of autonomy,"[48] and the virtues of what Johnson has termed, developed, and championed as "coactive design" – an approach to human-machine interaction that contributed to IHMC's leading performance within the DARPA Robotic Challenge program.[49]

Bradshaw chairs the Scientific Advisory Council for the Nissan Research Center Silicon Valley (NRC-SV),[50][51] which has the development of autonomous vehicles as a major focus.[52]

In partnership with the Autodesk Research Digital Environment program,[53] Bradshaw leads IHMC participation in the Advanced Technologies for Life-Cycle Management of Sustainable Building Performance initiative and is a member of the Parametric Human Consortium.[54] He has participated in NASA Blue Sky Study Groups for the “Human-Centered Vision of Mars Exploration” and for the “Small Pressurized Rover,”[55] (later called the "Lunar Electric Rover"[56]) as well as the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) Blue Sky study on “Improving Understanding of Complex Information.”

Personal background[edit]

Bradshaw and his wife Kathleen are the parents of four children.[23] He is an active member of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church).[23] He was a missionary in France and Belgium from 1975–1977, and has since returned with his family twice to live in France: once from 1993-1994 as part of a Fulbright fellowship,[29][30] and a second time from 2005-2006 as a sabbatical in the aftermath of Hurricane Ivan. Among other publications on LDS temples and the ancient Near East, he published two highly acclaimed commentaries on the Book of Moses: Image and Likeness 1: Creation, Fall, and the Story of Adam and Eve (2009), which covers Moses 1-6:12, and In God's Image and Likeness 2: Enoch, Noah, and the Tower of Babel (2014), which covers the story of Enoch, Noah, and the tower of Babel as recounted in Moses 6:13-8:30.[57] He is a regular contributor to Meridian Magazine and currently maintains a blog entitled "Temple Themes in the Scriptures".[23] He is a vice president for The Interpreter Foundation[58] and a member of the Advisory Board for the Academy for Temple Studies.[59]

Bradshaw has served twice as a bishop in The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints,[60] and currently serves as a counselor in the stake presidency of the Pensacola Florida Stake.[61]


  1. ^ IHMC Ontology and Policy Management: Published Articles
  2. ^ MILCOM 2011 - Unclassified Program Schedule
  3. ^ Sol: An Agent-Based Framework for Cyber Situation Awareness - Springer
  4. ^ Bunch, L., J.M. Bradshaw, M. Carvalho, T. Eskridge, P. Feltovich, J. Lott and A. Uszok. Human-Agent Teamwork in Cyber Operations: Supporting Co-Evolution of Tasks and Artifacts with Luna. Invited Paper in Ingo J. Timm and Christian Guttmann (eds.), Multiagent System Technologies: Proceedings of the Tenth German Conference on Multiagent System Technologies (MATES 2012), Trier, Germany, 10–12 October 2012. Berlin, Germany: Springer, LNAI 7598, pp. 53-67
  5. ^
  6. ^ Sandia National Laboratories: Cognitive Science and Applications
  7. ^ AIAI People
  8. ^ Human-Centered Design Institute
  9. ^ Resea3.indd
  10. ^ SMC
  11. ^ WIC Annual
  12. ^ SAC 2008 - Keynotes Page
  13. ^
  14. ^ Special Interest Group on Artificial Intelligence
  15. ^ Emerging Cognitive Neuroscience and Related Technologies
  16. ^ Unbenanntes Dokument
  17. ^ Schedae Informaticae
  18. ^ WIC Journal
  19. ^ International Journal of Human-Computer Studies - Elsevier
  20. ^ Collected Essays on Human-Centered Computing, 2001-2011: Robert R. Hoffman, Pat Hayes, Kenneth M. Ford, Jeffrey M. Bradshaw: 9780769547152: Books
  21. ^ Expertise transfer for expert system design - John H. Boose - Google Boeken
  22. ^ a b - International Journal of Human-Computer Studies - From knowledge science to symbiosis science
  23. ^ a b c d Mormon Scholars Testify » Blog Archive » Jeffrey M. Bradshaw
  24. ^
  25. ^ Knowledge Acquisition As Modeling
  26. ^ eQuality
  27. ^ Distributed Reuse of Knowledge in a Computerized Decision Support System for Bone-Marrow Post-Transplant Care Over the World Wide Web
  28. ^ Smart Machines in Education: Kenneth D. Forbus, Paul J. Feltovich: 9780262561419: Books
  29. ^ a b
  30. ^ a b KAoS: A Knowledge Agent-Oriented System
  31. ^
  32. ^ Software Agents
  33. ^ Three architectures for semantic integration of agents
  34. ^
  35. ^ Web Intelligence Consortium
  36. ^ Proceedings of the third annual conference on Autonomous Agents
  37. ^ Intelligent User Interfaces
  38. ^ 2008 IEEE International Conference on Distributed Human-Machine Systems
  39. ^ AMT-BI 2009
  40. ^ Invited Talk Human-Agent Teamwork in Cyber Defense - Springer
  41. ^
  42. ^
  43. ^ Lorentz Center - HART - Human-Agent-Robot Teamwork from 13 Dec 2010 through 17 Dec 2010
  44. ^ Workshops & Tutorials | HRI 2012
  45. ^ Human-agent-robot teamwork
  46. ^ Intelligent Human-Machine Collaboration: Summary of a Workshop
  47. ^
  48. ^ Bradshaw, J.M, Robert R. Hoffman, Matthew Johnson, and David D. Woods. The Seven Deadly Myths of "Autonomous Systems". IEEE Intelligent Systems, May/June 2013 (vol. 28 iss. 3), pp. 54-61.
  49. ^ Johnson, M., J.M. Bradshaw, P. J. Feltovich, C. M. Jonker, M. B. van Riemsdijk, and M. Sierhuis. Coactive design: Designing support for interdependence in joint activity. Journal of Human-Robot Interaction, Vol. 3, No. 1, 2014, pp. 43-69.
  50. ^
  51. ^
  52. ^
  53. ^ Digital Environment - Projects - Autodesk Research
  54. ^
  55. ^
  56. ^ Human Exploration of the Solar System Lunar Rover, How the Lunar Electric Rover will work
  57. ^
  58. ^
  59. ^
  60. ^ LDS scientist learns by study and by faith | Deseret News
  61. ^ "New stake presidents", Church News, 2011-05-28.

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