Jehoiakim

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For other people of the same name, see Joachim (given name).

Jehoiakim (pronounced /ɨˈhɔɪ.əkɪm/; Hebrew יְהוֹיָקִים "he whom Yahweh has set up", also sometimes spelled Jehoikim (Greek: Ιωακιμ; Latin: Joakim), c. 635–598 BCE, was a king of Judah from 608 to 598 BCE. He was the eldest son of king Josiah by Zebidah, the daughter of Pedaiah of Rumah.[1] His birth name was Eliakim (אֶלְיָקִים Greek: Ελιακιμ; Latin: Eliakim).

Background[edit]

After Josiah's death, Jehoiakim's younger brother Jehoahaz (also known as Shallum) was proclaimed king, but after three months pharaoh Necho II deposed him, making Eliakim king in his place. When placed on the throne, his name was changed to "Jehoiakim".[1]

Jehoiakim reigned for eleven years, until 598 BCE[2] and was succeeded by his son Jeconiah, (also known as Jehoiachin), who reigned for only three months.[3]

Reign[edit]

Jehoiakim was appointed king by Necho II, king of Egypt, in 608 BCE, after Necho's return from the battle in Haran, three months after he had killed King Josiah at Megiddo.[4] Necho deposed Jeoiakim's younger brother Jehoahaz after a reign of only three months and took him to Egypt, where he died. Jehoiakim ruled originally as a vassal of the Egyptians, paying a heavy tribute. To raise the money he "taxed the land and exacted the silver and gold from the people of the land according to their assessments."[5]

However, after the Egyptians were defeated by the Babylonians at the battle of Carchemish in 605 BCE, Nebuchadnezzar II besieged Jerusalem, and Jehoiakim changed allegiances to avoid the destruction of Jerusalem. He paid tribute from the treasury in Jerusalem, some temple artifacts, and some of the royal family and nobility as hostages.[4]

Rabbinical literature describes Jehoiakim as a godless tyrant who committed atrocious sins and crimes. He is portrayed as living in incestuous relations with his mother, daughter-in-law, and stepmother, and was in the habit of murdering men, whose wives he then violated and whose property he seized. He also had tattooed his body.[1]

Jeremiah criticised the king's policies, insisting on repentance and strict adherence to the law.[6] Another prophet, Uriah ben Shemaiah, proclaimed a similar message and Jehoiakim ordered his execution.[7]

Jehoiakim continued for three years as a vassal to the Babylonians, until the failure of an invasion of Egypt in 601 BCE undermined their control of the area. Jehoiakim switched allegiance back to the Egyptians.[4] In late 598 BCE, the Babylonian king Nebuchadnezzar II invaded Judah and again laid siege to Jerusalem, which lasted three months. Jehoiakim died before the siege ended[2] and his body was thrown outside the city walls.[8] He was succeeded by his son Jeconiah (also known as Jehoiachin).[3] Nebuchadnezzar deposed Jeconiah and installed Zedekiah, Jehoiakim's younger brother, as king in his place. Jeconiah, his household, and much of Judah's population were exiled to Babylon.[9]

According to the Babylonian Chronicles,[10] Jerusalem fell on 2 Adar (16 March) 597 BCE. The Chronicles state:

The seventh year (of Nebuchadnezzar-599 BC.) in the month Chislev (Nov/Dec) the king of Babylon assembled his army, and after he had invaded the land of Hatti (Syria/Palestine) he laid siege to the city of Judah. On the second day of the month of Adar (16 March) he conquered the city and took the king (Jeconiah) prisoner. He installed in his place a king (Zedekiah) of his own choice, and after he had received rich tribute, he sent (them) forth to Babylon.[11]

Jehoiakim
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Jehoahaz
King of Judah
609–598 BCE
Succeeded by
Jeconiah

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c "Jehoiakim", Jewish Encyclopedia
  2. ^ a b Dan Cohn-Sherbok, The Hebrew Bible, Continuum International, 1996, page x. ISBN 0-304-33703-X
  3. ^ a b King p.23.
  4. ^ a b c Lipshits, Oded. "Jehoiakim Slept with his Fathers…”, The Department of Jewish History, Tel-Aviv University
  5. ^ 2 Kings 23:35
  6. ^ Jeremiah 36:1-32
  7. ^ James Maxwell Miller, John Haralson Hayes, A History of Ancient Israel and Judah (Westminster John Knox Press, 1986) page 404-405.
  8. ^ Jeremiah 22:19
  9. ^ King p.21.
  10. ^ Geoffrey Wigoder, The Illustrated Dictionary & Concordance of the Bible Pub. by Sterling Publishing Company, Inc. (2006)
  11. ^ No 24 WA21946, The Babylonian Chronicles, The British Museum

Sources[edit]

  • King, Philip J., Jeremiah: An Archaeological Companion (Westminster John Knox Press, 1993)