Jeju Province

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Jeju Province
제주도
Special Autonomous Province
Korean transcription(s)
 • Hangul
 • Hanja
 • McCune‑Reischauer Cheju T'ŭkpyŏl Chach'ido
 • Revised Romanization Jeju Teukbyeoljachi-do
Official logo of Jeju Province
Logo
Location of Jeju Province
Country South Korea
Region Jeju
Capital Jeju City
Subdivisions 2 cities; 0 counties
Government
 • Governor Won Hui-ryong
Area
 • Total 1,849 km2 (714 sq mi)
Area rank 9th
Population (2012)
 • Total 592,449
 • Rank 9th
 • Density 320/km2 (800/sq mi)
Metropolitan Symbols
 • Flower Chamkkot
 • Tree Cinnamomum camphora
 • Bird Woodpecker
Dialect Jeju
Website Official Website
Jejudo
Native name: 제주도/濟州島
Jeju Island.jpg
Jeju Island, South Korea
Geography
Location East Asia
Archipelago Jeju
Area 1,848 km2 (714 sq mi)
Length 73 km (45.4 mi)
Width 64 km (39.8 mi)
Highest elevation 1,950 m (6,400 ft)
Highest point Hallasan
Country
South Korea
Special Autonomous Province Jeju-do
Largest city Jeju City (pop. 408,364)
Demographics
Population 583,284
Ethnic groups Korean

Jeju Province (officially the Jeju Special Autonomous Province[1]) is one of the nine provinces of South Korea. The province is situated on and coterminous with the nation's largest island of Jeju (also Jejudo; see Naming below), formerly transliterated as Cheju, Cheju Do, etc., or known as Quelpart to Europeans. The island lies in the Korea Strait, southwest of South Jeolla Province, of which it was a part before it became a separate province in 1946. Its capital is Jeju City.

The island contains the natural World Heritage Site Jeju Volcanic Island and Lava Tubes.[2] Jeju Island has a temperate climate and even in winter, the temperature rarely falls below freezing point.

History[edit]

Early history[edit]

Cheonjiyeon Waterfall on Jeju Island
Waves crashing on Jeju seashore
Cheonjiyeon Waterfall in Jeju

According to legend, three demi-gods emerged from Samsung-hyeol which is said to have been on the northern slopes of Mt. Halla and became the progenitors of the Jeju people who founded the Kingdom of Tamna.

It has also been claimed that three brothers—including Ko-hu—who were the 15th descendants of Koulla, one of the Progenitors of the Jeju people, were received by the court of Silla, at which time [when?] the name Tamna was officially recognized, while the official government posts of Commander, Prince and Governor were conferred by the court upon the three. However, there is no concrete evidence of when the "Three Names" (Samseong-Ko, Yang and Pu) appeared nor for the exact date of when Ko-hu and his brothers were received by Silla. It may be supposed that the "Three Names" Founding Period occurred during the Three Kingdoms (Goguryeo, Baekje and Silla) Period on the mainland of Korea.

Taejo, founder of Goryeo, attempted to establish the same relationship between Goryeo and Tamna as Tamna had had with Silla. Tamna refused to accept this position and the Goryeo court dispatched troops to force Tamna to submit. Ko ja-gyeon, chief of Tamna, submitted to Goryeo in 938 and sent his son, Prince Mallo, to Goryeo's court as a de facto hostage. In 1105 (King Sukjong's 10th year), the Goryeo court abolished the name Takna which had been used up to this time and, from that year on, the island was known as "Tamna-gun" (district) and Goryeo officials were sent to handle the affairs of the island.

Tamna-country was changed to Tamna-county in 1153 during the reign of King Uijong and Choi Cheok-kyeong was posted as Tamna-Myeong or Chief of Tamna. During the reign of Gojong of Goryeo, Tamna was renamed "Jeju" which means "province across the sea".[3]:93

In 1271, General Kim Tong-jeong escaped with what remained of his Sambyeolcho force from Jindo and built the Hangpadu Fortress at Kwiil-chon from where they continued their fight against the combined Korean government-Mongolian army but within two years, faced by an enemy army of over 10,000 troops, the Sambyeolcho was annihilated.

During the Joseon Dynasty (1392-1910), Jeju islanders were treated as foreigners and Jeju was considered as a place for horse breeding and exile for political prisoners.[3]:95. In the 17th Century, Injo of Joseon issued an edict prohibiting islanders from travelling to the Korean mainland.[3]:95 Consequently, Jeju islanders staged several major uprisings, including the Kang Je Geom Rebellion (1862), Bang Seong Chil Rebellion (1898), and the Lee Jae Su Rebellion (1901).[3]:95

Modern history[edit]

Japanese occupation[edit]

In 1910, Japan annexed Korea, including Jeju, inaugurating a period of hardship and deprivation for the islanders, many of whom were compelled to travel to the mainland or Japan for work.[3]:99 Residents of Jeju were active in the Korean independence movement during the period of Japanese rule.[3]:100 On Jeju, the peak of resistance came in 1931-32 when haenyeo ("sea women") from six eastern villages launched a protest against the Japanese-controlled Divers Association.[3]:101 Before it was brutally crushed, the protests spread and eventually 17,000 people participated, with over 100 arrested in Korea's largest protest movement ever led by women and fisheries workers.[3]:101

Jeju Uprising, 1948[edit]

Main article: Jeju Uprising

On April 3, 1948, against a background of an ongoing ideological struggle for control of Korea and a variety of grievances held by islanders against the local authorities, the many communist sympathizers on the island attacked police stations and government offices. The brutal and often indiscriminate suppression of the leftist rebellion resulted in the deaths of tens of thousands of both villagers and communist radicals and the imprisonment of thousands more in internment camps.[4]

While claims have been made that the U.S. government oversaw and supported "anti-communist" activities administratively if not openly in the field, validation remains to be made. It is a fact the US was heavily involved in counter-insurgence operations across Korea at this time leading up to the Korean War and UN involvement.[citation needed] Similarly, the Northwest Youth League, a Korean government sponsored watchdog group made up of refugees who had fled North Korea, actively repressed any and all "communist sympathizers" with a campaign of shooting on sight anyone entering or leaving the president's "enemy zone" and using open, armed violence and what would be labeled today as terrorist activities. This led to the deaths of hundreds of islanders, with many other islanders being raped and tortured. Intolerance by mainland Korean officials of islanders in general at the time, government- and organization-sponsored isolation of the island and a rumored cover-up of evidence linking the rebellion's suppressors with foreign powers and people who have gone unprosecuted is believed to be the primary cause of public ignorance, hedging on denial, over the April 3, 1948 genocide on Cheju-do.[citation needed] A documentary by the BBC and PBS, Korea: The Unknown War and many activities and publications, including Sun-i Samch'on by Hyun Ki Young, by organizations and persons from within Cheju-do and around the world continue to attempt shedding the light on this event. The Uprising has become a symbol of Jeju's Independence from Korean Peninsula.[5]

The provincial administrative building was burned to the ground in September 1948 and a new building was completed in 1-do, 2-dong in December, 1952.

Construction of a naval base[edit]

Further information: Jeju Naval Base

In June 2007, the South Korean government selected Gangjeong, a village on the southern coast of the island, as the site of a controversial $970 million naval base.[6] Villagers have protested and filed lawsuits to try to block construction and have widely publicized their opposition.[7]

Historical names[edit]

Historically, the island has been called by many different names including:

  • Doi (도이, 島夷, literally "Island barbarian")
  • Dongyeongju (동영주, 東瀛州)
  • Juho (주호, 州胡)
  • Tammora (탐모라, 耽牟羅)
  • Seobla (섭라, 涉羅)
  • Tagna (탁라, 乇羅)
  • Tamna (탐라, 耽羅)
  • Quelpart
  • Junwonha-do (준원하도, meaning southern part of peninsula)
  • Taegseungni-do (택승리도, meaning the peaceful hot island in Choseon Dynasty)

Before the Japanese annexation in 1910, the island was usually known as Quelpart to Europeans. The name apparently came from the first European ship to spot the island, the Dutch Quelpaert, which sighted it after being blown off course on its way to the Dutch trading base in Nagasaki, Japan, from Taiwan (then the Dutch colony of Formosa).

When Korea was annexed by Japan in 1910, Jeju then became known as Saishū, which is the Japanese reading of the hanja for Jeju.

Before 2000, when the Seoul government changed the official Romanization of Hangul, Jeju-do was spelled Cheju-do. Almost all written references to the island before that use that spelling.

Geography[edit]

Aerial photograph of Jeju Island.

Jeju Island is a volcanic island, dominated by Halla-san (Halla Mountain): a volcano 1,950 metres (6,400 ft) high and the highest mountain in South Korea. The island measures approximately 73 kilometres (45 mi) across, east to west, and 41 kilometres (25 mi) from north to south.[8]

The island was created entirely from volcanic eruptions approximately 2 million years ago, during the time period extending from the Tertiary to the beginning of the Quaternary period, and consists chiefly of basalt and lava. The eruptions took place in the Cenozoic era. It has a humid subtropical climate, warmer than that of the rest of Korea, with four distinct weather seasons. Winters are cool and dry while summers are hot, humid, and sometimes rainy.

There is a crater lake which is the only crater lake in South Korea.[citation needed]

An area covering about 12% (224 square kilometres or 86 square miles) of Jeju is known as Gotjawal Forest.[9] This area remained uncultivated until the 21st century, as its base of ʻAʻā lava made it difficult to develop for agriculture. Because this forest remained pristine for so long, it has a unique ecology.[10] The forest is the main source of groundwater and thus the main water source for the half million people of the island, because rainwater penetrates directly into the aquifer through the cracks of the ʻAʻā lava under the forest. Gotjawal forest is considered an internationally important wetland under the Ramsar Convention by some researchers[11] because it is the habitat of unique species of plants and is the main source of water for the residents, although to date it has not been declared a Ramsar site.[12]

Climate[edit]

Climate data for Jeju-si, Jeju-do (1981–2010)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 8.3
(46.9)
9.4
(48.9)
12.8
(55)
17.5
(63.5)
21.6
(70.9)
24.8
(76.6)
29.0
(84.2)
29.8
(85.6)
25.8
(78.4)
21.3
(70.3)
16.0
(60.8)
11.0
(51.8)
18.9
(66)
Average low °C (°F) 3.2
(37.8)
3.6
(38.5)
6.1
(43)
10.2
(50.4)
14.4
(57.9)
18.7
(65.7)
23.3
(73.9)
24.3
(75.7)
20.4
(68.7)
15.1
(59.2)
9.8
(49.6)
5.3
(41.5)
12.9
(55.2)
Precipitation mm (inches) 65.2
(2.567)
62.6
(2.465)
88.6
(3.488)
89.6
(3.528)
96.4
(3.795)
181.4
(7.142)
239.9
(9.445)
262.5
(10.335)
221.6
(8.724)
80.3
(3.161)
61.9
(2.437)
47.7
(1.878)
1,497.6
(58.961)
Avg. precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm) 12.6 10.3 11.2 10.0 10.4 11.8 12.5 13.5 10.8 7.0 9.3 10.8 130.2
 % humidity 65.3 64.9 64.9 66.5 70.4 76.8 78.3 76.5 73.7 66.9 65.1 65.1 69.6
Mean monthly sunshine hours 70.4 105.4 158.9 194.4 211.9 170.9 195.6 195.6 161.7 178.5 126.0 84.8 1,854.1
Source: Korea Meteorological Administration[13]

Administrative divisions[edit]

Historical[edit]

In 1273, Mongolian Yuan Dynasty established a military governor on the island, and for nearly a hundred years, the island was almost completely under the control of these governors.

During the Joseon Dynasty, all of the administrative rights and systems of Jeju island, which had maintained some independence until this time, were absorbed into the centralized form of government established by Joseon.

In 1402, the titles of Commander and Prince were abolished. In 1416, the island was divided into three major administrative districts: The area lying generally north of Mt. Halla was headed by a 'Moksa' or county magistrate, while the eastern area of Jeongui-county (today's Seongeup Folk village) and the south western area of Daejeong-county (today's Moseulpo, Daejeong-eup and Mt. Sanbang) were each headed by a Hyeon-gam (also county magistrate).

In August 1864, both Jeongui and Daejeong hyeons were removed from the control of the 'moksa' north of the mountain in today's Jeju-si area and were renamed 'Gun" (county) and came under the direct control of the Gwanchalsa (governor) of Jeolla province. Because of strife between these 'Guns' and the Jeju 'moksa', the system was abolished in January, 1880 and the two 'Guns' reverted again to 'hyeon'.

In 1895, Jeju-mok was redesignated as Jeju-Bu with a governor (Gwanchalsa) and Vice-governor (Chamsagwan) and a police agency was newly established, while in both Jeongui and Daejeong the offices of 'Gunsu' (county chief) were re-established. The very next year, the office of 'Gunsu' was abolished and the old system was restored.

Then in 1906, abolishing the Moksa system altogether, the Gunsu or County chief system was adopted. In 1910, Jeongui and Daejeong were included in Jeju gun while Chuja-myeon was placed under the jurisdiction of Wando-gun, part of South Jeolla province.

Modern[edit]

Japan annexed Korea in 1910. In 1915 the gun or county system which had been adopted in 1906 was abolished and Jeju island was designated as part of the 'island' system and called Jeju myeon under South Jeolla province. In 1931, Jeju-myeon was raised to the status of Jeju-eup or 'township' which gave the island one township (today's Jeju-si area) and 12 'myeon'.

On September 1, 1955, Jeju Township was elevated to city status with 40 administrative wards which on January 1, 1962, were reduced to 14 wards. On July 8, 1956, Seogwi, Daejeong and Hallim-myeons were raised to the status of townships while the southwestern portion of Hallim Township was separated and newly designated as the Hankyeong district(myeon) which gave the province one city, two counties, three townships and 10 myeon or districts with 14 wards in Jeju City. May 23, 1979 saw the restructuring of the Jeju-si wards and the addition of three more, giving 17 wards.

In March, 1980, the construction of a new provincial office was started in Yeon-dong of Jeju-si and in December of that year the four myeon of Aewol, Gujwa, Namwon and Seongsan were elevated to the status of townships giving the administrative area one city, two counties, seven townships, six districts and, within Jeju-si, 17 wards.

In 1981, the development of the Jungmun Tourist Complex brought about the unification of Seogwi township and Jungmun-myeon (district) into one as Seogwipo-si consisting of 12 wards (dong) giving the province two cities, two counties, six townships, five districts and 29 wards.

Former flag of Jeju-do

On October 1, 1983, Jeju-si's Samdo ward was divided into two wards to give a total of 30 wards in the province.

Yongdam ward in Jeju-si was restructured into Yongdam ward one and Yongdam ward two on October 1, 1985. On April 1, 1986 Jocheon myeon (district) was elevated to the status of Township and Yeonpyeong-ri Gujwa township was raised to the status of Udo district (myeon). The provincial area now administered 2 cities, 2 counties, 7 townships, 5 districts and 31 wards, the status of the province as of 3 December 1996.

Current[edit]

Until 2005, Jeju Province was divided into two cities (si), Jeju and Seogwipo, and two counties (gun), Bukjeju (North Jeju) and Namjeju (South Jeju) respectively. The two cities were further divided into thirty-one neighbourhoods (dong), while the two counties were divided into seven towns (eup) and five districts (myeon). The seven towns and five districts were in turn divided into 551 villages (ri).

In 2005, Jeju residents approved, by referendum, a proposal to merge Bukjeju County into Jeju City, and Namjeju County into Seogwipo City. Effective 1 July 2006, the province was also renamed Jeju Special Autonomous Province with two nominal subdivisions, Jeju City and Seogwipo City. In addition to the changes in name, the province was given extensive administrative powers that had previously been reserved for the central government. This is part of plans to turn Jeju into a "Free International City".[17]

Jeju, on 1 July 2006, was made into the first and only special autonomous province of South Korea

Naming[edit]

In Korean, do is the phonetic transcription of two distinct hanja (Chinese characters) meaning "island" (島) and "province" (道). However, Jejudo generally refers to the island, while Jeju-do refers to the government administrative unit. The table below also includes the name of Jeju City, the provincial capital.

English Name Korean Name Hangul Hanja
Jeju Island Jejudo 제주도 濟州島
Jeju Province Jeju-teukbyeoljachido 제주특별자치도 濟州特別自治道
Jeju City Jeju-si 제주시 濟州市

Cities[edit]

Map # Name Hangul Hanja Population (2013)
Jeju Municipal.svg
City
1 Jeju 제주시 濟州市 445,457
2 Seogwipo 서귀포시 西歸浦市 159,213

Symbols[edit]

Society and culture[edit]

Because of the relative isolation of the island, the people of Jeju have developed a culture and language that are distinct from those of mainland Korea. Jeju is home to thousands of local legends. Perhaps the most distinct cultural artifact is the ubiquitous dol hareubang ("stone grandfather") carved from a block of basalt.

Another distinct aspect of Jeju is the matriarchal family structure, found especially in Udo and Mara, but also present in the rest of the province. The best-known example of this is found among the haenyeo ("sea women"), who were often the heads of families, because they controlled the income. They earned their living from free diving, often all year round in quite cold water, without scuba gear, in order to harvest abalones, conchs, and a myriad of other marine products. It is thought that women are better at spending all day deep-water diving because they resist cold better.[18] In the early 1960s, 21% of women on the island were free divers, providing 60% of the island's fisheries revenue.[19] However, because of rapid economic development and modernization, as of 2014 only about 4,500 haenyeo, most aged over 60, were still actively working.[19][20][21]

Bangsatap

Bangsatap are small, round towers made of many stones. There are many Bangsataps and you can see them near the countryside in Jeju. People usually pile up many stones, making a shape like a tower in order to protect themselves from the bad luck in their village. They built Bangsatap according to the theory of divination because they believe that geography is very important in choosing the right place for them. It is also a good example to demonstrate religious belief in Jeju island because it is an object in which people put faith: people put a rice paddle inside the Bangsatap to gather as much money as possible, as well as an iron pot to overcome disaster and fight fire in their village. Nobody knows that when the Bangsatap was built over the year previous.

Sports[edit]

International competition[edit]

Jeju-do served as one of the host cities of the 2002 FIFA World Cup, with matches hosted at Jeju World Cup Stadium.
Jeju City will host the AIBA 2014 Women's World Boxing Championships at the Halla Gymnasium.[22]

Football[edit]

Jeju United is the only professional sports club on Jeju-do. Jeju United was runner-up in the K-League in 2010. Jeju-do has a famous high school football tournament which began in 1971.

Cuisine[edit]

Jeonbokjuk, abalone porridge

Jeju Island is the southernmost and largest island isolated from the Korean peninsula. Due to its lack of fresh water, paddy farming is only done on a small scale on the island, with the cultivation of cereal crops such as millet, barnyard millet, buckwheat, and barley being the main feature of agriculture. Therefore, the traditional Jeju meal generally consists of japgokbap which is a bowl of steamed multiple grains as a main dish, with various salted dried fish called jaban[23][24] as banchan (side dishes), and a soup based on doenjang (soybean paste) such as baechuguk made with Napa cabbage, kongnipguk made with soybean leaves, or muguk made with daikon. Jeju dishes are made with simple ingredients, and the taste is generally salty. Raw seafood called hae is commonly consumed as a part of the meal. The warm weather affects Jeju cuisine in that gimjang, preparing kimchi in late autumn for winter consumption, is not necessary to Jeju, as it is in the other provinces. Only a small amount of kimchi is pickled by Jeju locals. Representative main dishes in Jeju cuisine are porridge made with fish, seafood, seaweeds, or mushrooms. Examples include jeonbokjuk made with abalone, okdomjuk made with Red tilefish,[25] gejuk made with crabs, gingijuk made with small crabs called bangge (Helice tridens),[26] maeyeoksae juk made with young miyeok (미역) (wakame),[27] and chogijuk made with shiitake.[28]

Gamgyul is a type of orange similar to the Mandarin orange or tangerine, commonly harvested in Jeju island. Black pig is a delicacy on the island as well. Black pigs are famous for their black hair and their meat for its chewy texture. The meat is nutritious but does not have the unique smell of pork. Black pigs other notable features are their long faces, narrow snouts and small ears that stand up.

Myths and legends[edit]

The myth of Seolmundae Halmang is well known in Jeju. According to this myth, Seolmundae Halmang (Grandmother Seolmundae) could reach from Seongsan Ilchulbong to Guan Tal island at Aewol in a single stride, and with two strides to Mount Halla. She was very strong, had 500 children, and built Mount Halla with seven scoops of earth.

One day, Seolmundae Halmang was making soup for her sons while they were out hunting. While they were gone, she fell into the pot and drowned. On their return, they hungrily ate the soup, without knowing that it contained their mother. However, the youngest son knew. He told the truth to the rest of the sons, and the whole family cried, and eventually turned into 500 stones.

Economy[edit]

The Jeju economy has traditionally been supported by primary industry, agriculture and fishing, but tourism has taken a more and more important role as the island receives upwards of six million visitors per year. These are mostly Korean mainlanders but through the opening of the 2010 decade hundreds of thousands of Chinese tourists have been arriving and the number is increasing.

In 2006, the GDP of the province was projected at 8.5 trillion won (about US$8.5 billion), approximately 15 million won per capita. The provincial government's budget for 2006 was projected at 1.1 trillion won, an increase of 10% over 2005.

Jeju is also a home for key functions of Daum Communications,[29] a leading Korean internet site, and sole owner of Lycos until August, 2010.

Jeju is also famous for hosting many conferences and international meetings, including the World Scout Conference in July 2008. Jeju has its own international convention center called ICC Jeju. The ASEAN-KOREA Commemorative Summit 2009 was held at ICC Jeju.

In 2010, the South Korean central government tasked Jeju Island to develop itself as an international Meetings, Incentives, Conferencing, Exhibitions destination, and since then, the island has hosted a number of notable events such as the 10,000-pax China Baozhen Group incentive and 8,000-pax Amway (South) Korea incentive. In 2010, the destination welcomed 67 events, enabling it to reach 27th spot globally and seventh in Asia in the UIA ranking of global meetings destinations.[30]

Main sights[edit]

Jeju Stone Statue Park Statue.
Rapseed fields in Jeju Island

Tourism commands a large fraction of Jeju's economy. Jeju's temperate climate, natural scenery, and beaches make it a popular tourist destination for South Koreans as well as visitors from other parts of East Asia. The most popular tourist spots on the island are Cheonjeyeon and Cheonjiyeon waterfalls, Mount Halla, Hyeobje cave, and Hyeongje island. There is a variety of leisure sports that tourists can take part in Jeju including golf, horse riding, hunting, fishing, mountain climbing, etc. Depending on the season, Jeju hosts many festivals for tourists including a penguin swimming contest in winter, cherry blossom festival in spring, the midsummer night beach festival in summer, and Jeju horse festival in autumn, among others. For most tourists, traffic to and from the island is mainly taken through Jeju International Airport and transport within the island by rental cars. Some local products are popular with tourists, including Jeju's special tile fish and mandarin oranges, as well as souvenirs and duty-free shopping.

Jeju was chosen as one of the New 7 Wonders of Nature through the New 7 Wonders of Nature campaign by the New7Wonders Foundation. The campaign saw hundreds of millions of votes and the top seven wonders were announced on 11/11/11.

Museums on the island include Nexon Computer Museum.

Tourist attractions[edit]

Hallim Park[31] is one of the oldest and most popular tourist attractions on Jeju. It is located on the west coast of the island.

There is an annual fire festival on the island that stems from a custom of removing harmful insects and old grass in villages every winter. The fire festival is held on the fifteenth day of the first lunar month each year. Dal-gip (to pile up much wood) is burned when the moon rises while praying for good harvests and making good wishes. Jeju traditional food is eaten at the site of the festival. This festival was held 13 times until 2009. The ""Jeju Jeongwol Daeboreum Fire Festival"" started in 1997 and become a leading festival of Jeju. This takes place in Saebyeol Oreum located in Bongseong ri, Aewol Eup. It takes up to 25 minutes to reach it from Jeju International Airport by car. Jeju citizens do their utmost to prepare the Fire Festival so as to pass down, develop and ultimately develop branding for the unique folk culture resources of Jeju. Saebyeol oreum has a characteristic of a complex volcano. It has a horseshoe shaped crater that is both very wide and slightly split. Also, it rises high with the little peaks making an oval from the south peak to northwest. The scale is above sea level 519.3m, height 119m, circumference 2,713m, area 522,216㎡. Saebyeol oreum is the middle size among the 360 oreums in Jeju island. It is named after the saying "it brightens like a star".

Olle[32] is a word in the local dialect which refers to the paths between houses and public roads."
The Jeju Olle Trail, called Jeju Olle Gil or simply, "jejuolle" in Korean, is a long distance footpath on Jeju Island. The course, mostly following the coastline, consists of 21 connected, numbered main courses, 5 major spurs, and a short spur that connects to Jeju Airport. The courses have an average length of 16 km and all together total 404 km. The exact length and locations change over time as trails are modified or re-routed. The courses pass through small villages, cross beaches, wind through farms and orchards, twist through forests, climb oreums (low parasitic volcanoes), and provide a good look at the lives of average Islanders and the unique natural beauty of Jeju Island.

Manjanggul[33] is one of the longest lava tubes in the world. Manjang Cave, situated at Donggimnyeong-ri, Gujwa-eup, North Jeju, 30 kilometers east of Jeju City, was designated as Natural Monument No. 98 on March 28, 1970. The annual temperature inside the cave ranges from 11℃ to 21℃, thus facilitating a favorable environment throughout the year. The cave is also academically significant as rare species live in the cave. Created by spewing lava, "the lava turtle", "lava pillar", and "Wing-shaped Wall" look like the work of the gods. It is considered to be a world class tourist attraction. The Geomunoreum lava tube system is the most impressive and significant series of protected lava tube caves in the world and includes a spectacular array of secondary carbonate speleothems (stalactites and other formations). And it overwhelms other lava tubes with its abundance and diversity. The Geomunoreum Lava Tube System, which is regarded as the finest such cave system in the world, has an outstanding visual impact even for those experienced with such phenomena. It displays the unique spectacle of multi-colored carbonate decorations adorning the roofs and floors, and dark-colored lava walls, partially covered by a mural of carbonate deposits. In addition, lava tube caves are like those in limestone karst in scale, shape and internal decoration, but completely different in origin. Lava tube caves are known from basaltic terrain in most of the world's volcanic regions. The lava tube caves of the Geomunoreum Lava Tube System are, however, regarded as internationally important due to their length, massive volume, intricate passage configuration, well preserved internal lava features, abundant and spectacular secondary carbonate formations, ease of access, and their scientific and educational values. Another feature making Geomunoreum Lava Tube System globally significant and distinctive is the presence of carbonate deposits and formations. Very small deposits of calcite are common in lava tube caves, and are more significantly developed as speleothems in Duck Creek cave in Utah, USA. However, in abundance, density and diversity they are far less impressive than those of Yongcheongul and Dangcheomuldonggul Lava Tubes in Jeju, and the scale of these decorations within the lava caves of Jeju Island far exceeds any other comparable examples. The nomination is supported by the Commission on Volcanic Caves of the International Union of Speleology – the world's most authoritative scientific body on volcanic caves, which regards Jeju's lava caves as being of the highest international ranking. Yongcheongul Lava Tube has been discovered subsequently and is of equivalent value.

Sangumburi volcanic crater

Sangumburi Crater[34] is the crater of an extinct volcano. Unlike its brethren Halla-san and Songsan Ilch'ubong, this one exploded quickly, but did not spew much lava nor did it form much of a surrounding cone. This phenomenon is called maru in Korean, and Sangumburi is the only one of its kind in the country, making it Natural Monument #263. The remaining crater is 100 meters deep and an average of 350 meters across. Over 400 species of plants and animals live inside the crater. Visitors can walk around part of the rim (the rest is private property and fenced off), but they cannot venture down inside the crater. A well-paved path leads from the parking area to the viewing area, which has a small pavilion and several vista points. Also on the grounds are numerous grave sites made in traditional Jeju fashion: a wide, trapezoidal stone wall surrounding the burial mound. Several of the sites also have small stone figures that guard the mound from evil spirits. At the park entrance are several large rocks from the crater. During the eruption, molten rock flew from the volcano into the air and cooled into many exotic shapes.

Mt. Halla[35] is the mountain of one of the three gods. It stands at the center of Jeju Island, spreading east and west. The east face is steep, the north side is gentle, and the east and west form a flat, wide highland. Mount Halla is a dormant volcano created by volcanic activities during the quaternary period of the Cenozoic era. It is primarily covered with basalt. On its top is a crater and Baeknok Lake. This mountain is a home to alpine plants and houses as many as 1,800 species of flora. It also boasts luxuriant natural forests and vast grasslands. In addition, precipitous cliffs and slopes and unusual rock formations standing along valleys produce magnificent scenic views. The community of azaleas also adds to the beauty of Mount Halla. Mount Halla's autumnal tints and snow-covered scenes have been selected[by whom?] as the best of the best. The 43-km long Road 5.16 crossing the eastern waist of the mountain from Jeju City to Seogwipo City is considered to be one of the best tourist roads in Korea. Along this road, there are many tourist attractions such as Sancheondan and Seongpanak, and people can enjoy the royal azalea blossoms in spring, lush, green woods in summer, colorful foliage in fall, and a glistening landscape of snow in winter. While enjoying the scenes, the road takes you to Seogwipo City and brings a scenic view of many different beaches. The 37 km-long Road 110 crossing the western waist of the mountain from Jeju-si to Jungmun runs through a high area which is 110m high above sea level, and it passes by Eoseungsang Reservoir, which is a source of water for Jeju islanders. The 99 Passes where, a legend says, neither a king nor a tiger are born because it is one short to 100 passes[?]. It also passes closely by Youngsil Giam (Youngsil Grotesque Rocks). It is possible to climb up to Wetse Oreum along Eorimok Trail and Youngsil Trail and to the top along Seongpanak Trail and Kwaneumsa Temple Trail.

Utilities[edit]

The island's power-grid is connected to mainland plants by the HVDC Haenam-Cheju, and electricity is also provided by generators located on the island. As of 2001, there were four power plants on Jeju, with more under planning and construction. The most notable of these are the gas-fired generators of Jeju Thermal Power Plant, located in Jeju City. The present-day generators of this plant were constructed from 1982 onwards, replacing earlier structures that dated from 1968.[36] As elsewhere in Korea, the power supply is overseen by the Korea Electric Power Corporation, or KEPCO.

In February 2012, the governor of the state of Hawaii, Neil Abercrombie, and the director of the Electricity Market and Smart Grid Division at the Korea Ministry of Knowledge Economy, Choi Kyu-Chong, signed a letter of intent to share information about Smart Grid technology. The Jeju Smart Grid was initially installed in 6,000 homes in Gujwa-eup and is being expanded. South Korea is using the pilot program of the Smart Grid on Jeju Island as the testing ground in order to implement a nationwide Smart Grid by 2030.[37]

Media[edit]

There are five local newspapers on Jeju Island: the Cheju Daily News,[38] Jeminilbo,[39] Hallailbo,[40] Seogwipo-News,[41] Jejumaeil.[42][43] The Jeju Weekly is the only print English-language newspaper on the island.[44] JejuWorldWide.com is a daily online news and events Web site which opened in early 2013.[45]

TV and radio stations include Jeju Free International City Broadcasting System (an affiliate of SBS), KBS Jeju, and Jeju MBC, and KCTV Jeju.

Sister provinces[edit]

Jeju's international sister provinces are also islands:

See also[edit]

Notes and references[edit]

  1. ^ "Jeju Special Autonomous Province". Retrieved 16 May 2012. 
  2. ^ "Unesco names World Heritage sites". BBC News. June 28, 2007. Retrieved May 6, 2010. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h Hilty, Anne (2011). Jeju Island: Reaching to the Core of Beauty. Korea Essentials 5. Republic of Korea: The Korea Foundation. ISBN 9788991913837. 
  4. ^ Wheeler, Wolcott, "The 1948 Cheju-do Civil War", Korea WebWeekly, archived from the original on 1999-10-12, retrieved 2014-04-21 
  5. ^ Eperjesi, John (Aug 14, 2011). "Jeju: From peace island to war island". Asia Times. The Asia-Pacific Journal: Japan Focus. Retrieved 2013-05-04. 
  6. ^ Song Sang-ho (August 7, 2011). "Controversy over Jeju naval base mounts". Korea Herald. 
  7. ^ Gloria Steinem (August 6, 2011). "The Arms Race intrudes on Paradise". New York Times. 
  8. ^ Map of Korea: Cheju Island The People's Korea. Accessed 8 July 2012
  9. ^ Jeong, Gwang-jung, 2004, Gotjawal and the livelihood of Jeju's People, 2004, Jeju Educational College, V. 33, pp. 41–65. 정광중, 2004, 곶자왈과 제주인의 삶, 제주교육대학교 논문집. http://www.riss4u.net/link?id=A35499718, page 49
  10. ^ Yim, Eun-young, 2007, Bryophyte Flora of Dongbaek-dongsan, Jeju-do, Cheju National University, M.A. thesis. 임은영, 2007, 제주도 동백동산의 선태식물상, 제주대학교 석사학위논문. http://www.riss4u.net/link?id=U10812496_003
  11. ^ Jang, Yong-chang and Chanwon Lee, 2009, "Gotjawal Forest as an internationally important wetland," Journal of Korean Wetlands Studies, 2009, Vol 1.
  12. ^ Ramsar site list[dead link] Accessed June 2009
  13. ^ "평년값자료(1981–2010) 제주(184)". Korea Meteorological Administration. Retrieved 2011-05-23. 
  14. ^ "평년값자료(1981–2010) 서귀포(189)". Korea Meteorological Administration. Retrieved 2011-05-23. 
  15. ^ "평년값자료(1981–2010) 성산(188)". Korea Meteorological Administration. Retrieved 2011-05-23. 
  16. ^ "평년값자료(1981–2010) 고산(185)". Korea Meteorological Administration. Retrieved 2011-05-23. 
  17. ^ "Cheju Consolidation Vote". Korea Times July 28, 2005. Retrieved July 29, 2005. [dead link]
  18. ^ Ernest S Campbell, MD. "Acclilatization to Cold Water". Scuba-doc.com. Retrieved 2013-08-25. 
  19. ^ a b Choe Sang-Hun (29 March 2014). "Hardy Divers in Korea Strait, 'Sea Women' Are Dwindling". New York Times. Retrieved 31 March 2014. 
  20. ^ "Jeju Cyber Samdakwan :: Diving into the sea out of Jeju". English.jejusamda.com. 1970-01-01. Retrieved 2013-08-25. [dead link]
  21. ^ McConvey, Joel (2008-09-16). "Lady Good Divers | BLOUIN ARTINFO". Artinfo.com. Retrieved 2013-08-25. 
  22. ^ South Korea to host 2014 AIBA Women's Boxing World Championships after Canada withdraw - insidethegames.biz - Olympic, Paralympic and Commonwealth Games News
  23. ^ 자반[dead link]
  24. ^ 자반[dead link]
  25. ^ 옥돔죽
  26. ^ 깅이죽
  27. ^ 매역새우럭국
  28. ^ 초기죽
  29. ^ How Daum fell under Jeju's spell, The Jeju Weekly, January 16, 2011
  30. ^ "Little Jeju, big dreams". TTGmice. Retrieved 8 April 2013. 
  31. ^ [1][dead link]
  32. ^ JejuOlle.org
  33. ^ Manjang Cave, The Jeju Weekly, March 2, 2011
  34. ^ Sangumburi.net, Korean only
  35. ^ "Jeju Special Self-Governing Province". English.tour2jeju.net. Retrieved 2013-08-25. 
  36. ^ "Jeju Thermal P/P". Korea Midland Power website. Archived from the original on June 16, 2005. Retrieved July 29, 2005. 
  37. ^ "Korea and Hawaii join forces in Smart Grid venture". The Jeju Weekly. Feb 24, 2012. Retrieved Mar 5, 2012. 
  38. ^ "제주일보". Chejunews.co.kr. Retrieved 2013-08-25. 
  39. ^ "제주도민의 자존심 제민일보". Jemin.com. Retrieved 2013-08-25. 
  40. ^ http://www.hallailbo.co.kr
  41. ^ "서귀포신문 : 인터넷일간신문". Seogwipo.co.kr. Retrieved 2013-08-25. 
  42. ^ http://www.jejutimes.co.kr/
  43. ^ "Mass Media - Jeju Special Self-Governing Province". English.jeju.go.kr. Retrieved 2013-08-25. 
  44. ^ "Don't let print pass you by". Jeju Weekly. Retrieved 2013-08-25. 
  45. ^ Robert Neff (2013-01-01). "A New Year and a new newspaper". Jeju World Wide. Retrieved 2013-08-25. 

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 33°22′N 126°32′E / 33.367°N 126.533°E / 33.367; 126.533