Jerzy Kosinsky (1969)
June 14, 1933
|Died||May 3, 1991
Manhattan, United States
Cause of death
|Spouse(s)||1) Mary Hayward Weir (1962–1966)
2) Katherina "Kiki" von Fraunhofer (?-1991; his death)
Jerzy Kosiński (Polish pronunciation: [ˈjɛʐɨ kɔˈɕiɲskʲi]; June 14, 1933 – May 3, 1991), born Józef Lewinkopf, was an award-winning Polish-American novelist and two-time President of the American Chapter of P.E.N., who wrote primarily in English. Born in Poland, he survived World War II and as a young man emigrated to America, where he became a citizen.
- 1 Early life, teaching, and marriage
- 2 Novels
- 3 Criticism
- 4 TV, radio, film, and newspaper appearances
- 5 Friendships
- 6 Interests
- 7 Bibliography
- 8 Filmography
- 9 Awards & honors
- 10 References
- 11 Further reading
- 12 External links
Early life, teaching, and marriage
Kosiński, who was Jewish, was born Józef Lewinkopf in Łódź, Poland. As a child during World War II, he lived in central Poland under a false identity, Jerzy Kosiński, which his father gave to him. A Roman Catholic priest issued him a forged baptismal certificate. The Kosiński family survived the Holocaust thanks to local villagers who offered assistance to Jewish Poles, often at great personal risk (the penalty in Nazi-occupied Poland being death). Kosiński's father received help not only from town leaders and churchmen, but also from individuals such as Marianna Pasiowa, a member of the underground network helping Jews evade capture. The family lived openly in Dąbrowa Rzeczycka near Stalowa Wola, and attended church in nearby Wola Rzeczycka, obtaining support from villagers in Kępa Rzeczycka. They were sheltered temporarily by a Catholic family in Rzeczyca Okrągła. The young Jerzy even served as an altar boy in a local church.
After World War II, Kosiński remained with his parents in Poland, moved to Jelenia Góra, and by the age of 22 had earned two graduate degrees in history and sociology at the University of Łódź. He worked as an associate professor at the Polish Academy of Sciences. Kosinski also studied in the Soviet Union, and served as a sharpshooter in the Polish Army.
To emigrate to the United States in 1957, he created a fake foundation which supposedly sponsored him. He later claimed that he forged the letters from eminent Polish communist authorities guaranteeing his loyal return, which were needed for anyone leaving the country at that time.
After taking odd jobs to get by, such as driving a truck, Kosiński graduated from Columbia University. In 1965, he became an American citizen. He received grants from the Guggenheim Fellowship in 1967 and the Ford Foundation in 1968. in 1970, he received the American Academy of Arts and Letters award for literature. The grants allowed him to write a political non-fiction book that opened new doors of opportunity. He became a lecturer at Yale, Princeton, Davenport, and Wesleyan Universities.
In 1962, Kosiński married American steel heiress Mary Hayward Weir. They divorced in 1966. After Weir died in 1968 from brain cancer, Kosiński was left nothing in her will. He later fictionalized this marriage in his novel Blind Date, speaking of Weir under pseudonym Mary–Jane Kirkland. Kosiński went on to marry Katherina "Kiki" von Fraunhofer, a marketing consultant and descendant of Bavarian aristocracy.
Kosiński suffered from multiple illnesses at the end of his life, and was under attack from journalists who accused him of plagiarism. By the time he reached his late 50s, he was suffering from an irregular heartbeat as well as severe physical and nervous exhaustion.
Kosiński committed suicide on May 3, 1991, by ingesting a lethal amount of alcohol and drugs, and wrapping a plastic bag around his head and suffocating to death. His suicide note read: "I am going to put myself to sleep now for a bit longer than usual. Call it Eternity."
The Painted Bird
The Painted Bird, Kosiński's controversial 1965 novel, is a fictional account that depicts the personal experiences of a boy of unknown religious and ethnic background who wanders around unidentified areas of Eastern Europe during World War II and takes refuge among a series of people, many of whom are brutally cruel and abusive, either to him or to others.
Soon after the book was published in the US, Kosiński was accused by the then-Communist Polish government of being anti-Polish, especially following the regime's 1968 anti-Semitic campaign. The book was banned in Poland from its initial publication until the fall of the Communist government in 1989. When it was finally printed, thousands of Poles in Warsaw lined up for as long as eight hours to purchase copies of the work autographed by Kosiński. Polish literary critic and University of Warsaw professor Paweł Dudziak remarked that "in spite of the unclear role of its author,The Painted Bird is an achievement in English literature." He stressed that since the book is a work of fiction and does not document real-world events, accusations of anti-Polish sentiment may result only from taking it too literally.
The book received recommendations from Elie Wiesel who wrote in The New York Times Book Review that it was "one of the best ... Written with deep sincerity and sensitivity." Richard Kluger, reviewing it for Harper's Magazine wrote: "Extraordinary ... literally staggering ... one of the most powerful books I have ever read." Jonathon Yardley, reviewing it for The Miami Herald, wrote: "Of all the remarkable fiction that emerged from World War II, nothing stands higher than Jerzy Kosiński's The Painted Bird. A magnificent work of art, and a celebration of the individual will. No one who reads it will forget it; no one who reads it will be unmoved by it."
However, reception of the book was not uniformly positive. After being translated into Polish, it was read by the people with whom the Lewinkopf family lived during the war. They recognized names of Jewish children sheltered by them (who also survived the war), depicted in the novel as victims of abuse by characters based on them. Also, according to Iwo Cyprian Pogonowski, The Painted Bird was Kosiński's most successful attempt at profiteering from the Holocaust by maintaining an aura of a chronicle. In addition, several claims that Kosiński committed plagiarism in writing The Painted Bird were leveled against him. (See 'Criticism' section, below.)
American novelist David Foster Wallace described Steps as a "collection of unbelievably creepy little allegorical tableaux done in a terse elegant voice that's like nothing else anywhere ever". Wallace continued in praise: "Only Kafka's fragments get anywhere close to where Kosiński goes in this book, which is better than everything else he ever did combined." Samuel Coale, in a 1974 discussion of Kosiński's fiction, wrote that "the narrator of Steps for instance, seems to be nothing more than a disembodied voice howling in some surrealistic wilderness."
One of Kosiński's most significant works is Being There (1971), a satiric look at the unreality of America's media culture. It is the story of Chance the gardener, a man without many defining qualities who emerges from nowhere and suddenly becomes the heir to the throne of a Wall Street tycoon and a presidential policy adviser. His simple and straightforward responses to popular concerns are praised as visionary despite no one really understanding what he is really saying. Many questions surround his mysterious origins, and filling in the blanks in his background proves impossible.
The novel was made into a 1979 movie directed by Hal Ashby, starring Peter Sellers, who was nominated for an Academy Award for the role and Melvyn Douglas, who won the award for Best Supporting Actor. The screenplay was co-authored by award-winning screenwriter Robert C. Jones with Kosiński. The film won the 1981 British Academy of Film and Television Arts (Film) Best Screenplay Award, as well as the 1980 Writers Guild of America Award (Screen) for Best Comedy Adapted from Another Medium. It was also nominated for the 1980 Golden Globes Best Screenplay Award (Motion Picture).
According to Eliot Weinberger, an American writer, essayist, editor and translator, Kosiński was not the author of The Painted Bird. Weinberger alleged in his 2000 book Karmic Traces that Kosiński was not fluent in English at the time of its writing.
In a review of Jerzy Kosiński: A Biography by James Park Sloan, D. G. Myers, Associate Professor of English at Texas A&M University wrote "For years Kosinski passed off The Painted Bird as the true story of his own experience during the Holocaust. Long before writing it he regaled friends and dinner parties with macabre tales of a childhood spent in hiding among the Polish peasantry. Among those who were fascinated was Dorothy de Santillana, a senior editor at Houghton Mifflin, to whom Kosinski confided that he had a manuscript based on his experiences. Upon accepting the book for publication Santillana said, "It is my understanding that, fictional as the material may sound, it is straight autobiography." Although he backed away from this claim, Kosinski never wholly disavowed it.
M. A. Orthofer addressed Weinberger's assertion by saying: "Kosinski was, in many respects, a fake – possibly near as genuine a one as Weinberger could want. (One aspect of the best fakes is the lingering doubt that, possibly, there is some authenticity behind them – as is the case with Kosinski.) Kosinski famously liked to pretend he was someone he wasn't (as do many of the characters in his books), he occasionally published under a pseudonym, and, apparently, he plagiarized and forged left and right."
Kosiński himself addressed these claims in the introduction to the 1976 reissue of The Painted Bird, saying that "Well-intentioned writers, critics, and readers sought facts to back up their claims that the novel was autobiographical. They wanted to cast me in the role of spokesman for my generation, especially for those who had survived the war; but for me survival was an individual action that earned the survivor the right to speak only for himself. Facts about my life and my origins, I felt, should not be used to test the book's authenticity, any more than they should be used to encourage readers to read The Painted Bird. Furthermore, I felt then, as I do now, that fiction and autobiography are very different modes."
In June 1982, a Village Voice report by Geoffrey Stokes and Eliot Fremont-Smith accused Kosiński of plagiarism, claiming that much of his work was derivative of prewar books unfamiliar to English readers, and that Being There was a plagiarism of Kariera Nikodema Dyzmy — The Career of Nicodemus Dyzma — a 1932 Polish bestseller by Tadeusz Dołęga-Mostowicz. They also alleged Kosiński wrote The Painted Bird in Polish, and had it secretly translated into English. The report claimed that Kosiński's books had actually been ghost-written by "assistant editors", finding stylistic differences among Kosiński's novels. Kosiński, according to them, had depended upon his free-lance editors for "the sort of composition that we usually call writing." American biographer James Sloan notes that New York poet, publisher and translator, George Reavey, claimed to have written The Painted Bird for Kosiński.
The article found a more realistic picture of Kosiński's life during the Holocaust — a view which was supported by biographers Joanna Siedlecka and Sloan. The article asserted that The Painted Bird, assumed by some to be semi-autobiographical, was largely a work of fiction. The information showed that rather than wandering the Polish countryside, as his fictional character did, Kosiński spent the war years in hiding with a Polish Catholic family.
Terence Blacker, a profitable English publisher (who helped publish Kosiński's books) and author of children's books and mysteries for adults, wrote in his article published in The Independent in 2002:
"The significant point about Jerzy Kosiński was that ... his books ... had a vision and a voice consistent with one another and with the man himself. The problem was perhaps that he was a successful, worldly author who played polo, moved in fashionable circles and even appeared as an actor in Warren Beatty's Reds. He seemed to have had an adventurous and rather kinky sexuality which, to many, made him all the more suspect. All in all, he was a perfect candidate for the snarling pack of literary hangers-on to turn on. There is something about a storyteller becoming rich and having a reasonably full private life that has a powerful potential to irritate so that, when things go wrong, it causes a very special kind of joy."
D.G. Myers responded to Blacker's assertions in his review of Jerzy Kosinski: A Biography by James Park Sloan:
"This theory explains much: the reckless driving, the abuse of small dogs, the thirst for fame, the fabrication of personal experience, the secretiveness about how he wrote, the denial of his Jewish identity. 'There was a hollow space at the center of Kosinski that had resulted from denying his past,' Sloan writes, 'and his whole life had become a race to fill in that hollow space before it caused him to implode, collapsing inward upon himself like a burnt-out star.' On this theory, Kosinski emerges as a classic borderline personality, frantically defending himself against ... all-out psychosis.
Journalist John Corry, wrote a 6,000-word feature article in The New York Times in November 1982, responding and defending Kosiński, which appeared on the front page of the Arts and Leisure section. Among other things, Corry alleged that reports claiming that "Kosinski was a plagiarist in the pay of the C.I.A. were the product of a Polish Communist disinformation campaign."
Kosiński himself responded that he had never maintained that the book was autobiographical, even though years earlier he confided to Houghton Mifflin editor Santillana that his manuscript "draws upon a childhood spent, by the casual chances of war, in the remotest villages of Eastern Europe." In 1988, he wrote The Hermit of 69th Street, in which he sought to demonstrate the absurdity of investigating prior work by inserting footnotes for practically every term in the book. "Ironically," wrote theatre critic Lucy Komisar, "possibly his only true book ... about a successful author who is shown to be a fraud."
Despite repudiation of the Village Voice allegations in detailed articles in The New York Times, The Los Angeles Times, and other publications, Kosiński remained tainted. "I think it contributed to his death," said Zbigniew Brzezinski, a friend and fellow Polish exile.
TV, radio, film, and newspaper appearances
Kosiński appeared 12 times on The Tonight Show Starring Johnny Carson during 1971–73, and The Dick Cavett Show in 1974, was a guest on the talk radio show of Long John Nebel, posed half-naked for a cover photograph by Annie Leibovitz for The New York Times Magazine in 1982, and presented the Oscar for screenwriting in 1982.
He also played the role of Bolshevik revolutionary and Politburo member Grigory Zinoviev in Warren Beatty's film Reds. The Time magazine critic wrote: "As Reed's Soviet nemesis, novelist Jerzy Kosinski acquits himself nicely–a tundra of ice against Reed's all-American fire." Newsweek complimented Kosinski's "delightfully abrasive" performance.
Kosiński was friends with Roman Polanski, with whom he attended the National Film School in Łódź, and said he narrowly missed being at Polanski and Sharon Tate's house on the night Tate was murdered by Charles Manson's followers in 1969, due to lost luggage. His novel Blind Date discussed the Manson murders.
In 1984, Polanski denied Kosinski's story in his autobiography. Journalist John Taylor of New York Magazine believes Polanski was mistaken. "Although it was a single sentence in a 461-page book, reviewers focused on it. But the accusation was untrue: Jerzy and Kiki had been invited to stay with Tate the night of the Manson murders, and they missed being killed as well only because they stopped in New York en route from Paris because their luggage had been misdirected." The reason why Taylor believes this, is that "a friend of Kosinski's wrote a letter to the Times, which was published in the Book Review, describing the detailed plans he and Jerzy had made to meet that weekend at Polanski's house on Cielo Drive. Few people saw the letter." The NYM article does not contain the name of this friend, nor the particular issue of the Book Review in which this letter is supposed to have been published, nor names of the 'few' who may have read the letter.
Kosiński practiced the photographic arts, with one-man exhibitions to his credit in Warsaw's Crooked Circle Gallery (1957), and in the Andre Zarre Gallery in New York (1988). He watched surgeries, and read to terminally ill patients.
Kosiński was also very interested in polo, and compared himself to a character from his novel Passion Play: "The character, Fabian, is at the mercy of his aging and his sexual obsession. It's my calling card. I'm 46. I'm like Fabian."
- The Future Is Ours, Comrade: Conversations with the Russians (1960), published under the pseudonym "Joseph Novak"
- No Third Path (1962), published under the pseudonym "Joseph Novak"
- The Painted Bird (1965)
- The Art of the Self: Essays à propos Steps (1968)
- Steps (1968)
- Being There (1970)
- The Devil Tree (1973, revised & expanded 1982)
- Cockpit (1975)
- Blind Date (1977)
- Passion Play (1979)
- Pinball (1982)
- The Hermit of 69th Street (1988)
- Passing By: Selected Essays, 1962–1991 (1992)
- Being There (novel and screenplay, 1979)
- Reds (actor, 1981)
- The Statue of Liberty (self, 1985)
- Łódź Ghetto (film) (voice of Mordechai Chaim Rumkowski, 1989)
- Religion, Inc. (actor, 1989)
Awards & honors
- Prix du Meilleur Livre Étranger (French award for best foreign work of fiction) for The Painted Bird[clarification needed]
- 1969 – National Book Award for Steps.
- 1970 – Award in Literature, National Institute of Arts and Letters and American Academy of Arts and Letters.
- 1973–75 – President of the American Chapter of P.E.N. Re-elected 1974, serving the maximum permitted two terms.
- 1974 – B'rith Shalom Humanitarian Freedom Award.
- 1977 – American Civil Liberties Union First Amendment Award.
- 1979 – Writers Guild of America, East Best Screenplay Award for Being There (shared with screenwriter Robert C. Jones).
- 1980 – Polonia Media Perspectives Achievement Award.
- 1981 – British Academy of Film and Television Arts (BAFTA) Best Screenplay of the Year Award for Being There.
- International House Harry Edmonds Life Achievement Award.
- Received Ph.D. Honoris Causa in Hebrew Letters from Spertus College of Judaica.
- 1988 – Received Ph.D. Honoris Causa in Humane Letters from Albion College, Michigan.
- 1989 – Received Ph.D. Honoris Causa in Humane Letters from State University of New York at Potsdam.
- Stanley, Alessandra (May 4, 1991). "Jerzy Kosiński, The Writer, 57, Is Found Dead.". New York Times. Retrieved April 5, 2008. "The writer Jerzy Kosiński was found dead in his apartment in Manhattan yesterday morning, an apparent suicide, the police said. He was 57 years old."
- James Park Sloan. Jerzy Kosiński: A Biography (New York: Dutton/Penguin, 1996), pp.7–54.
- Taylor, John. "The Haunted Bird: The Death and Life of Jerzy Kosinski", New York Magazine, June 15, 1991.
- Chambers, Andrea. "Because He Writes from Life—his—sex and Violence Haunt Jerzy Kosiński's Fiction". People Weekly. Retrieved June 28, 2008.
- Mervyn Rothstein (May 4, 1991). "In Novels and Life, a Maverick and an Eccentric". The New York Times.
- Breitbart, William; Rosenfeld, Barry. "Physician-Assisted Suicide: The Influence of Psychosocial Issues". Moffitt Cancer Center. Retrieved February 27, 2011. "Jerzy Kosiński, the Polish novelist and Holocaust survivor, committed suicide in May 1991. Like other individuals suffering with chronic medical illnesses, he chose suicide as a means of controlling the course of his disease and the circumstances of his death."
- Los Angeles Times
- Article in Newsweek, May 13, 1991.
- Greenwood Press advertisement
- "Poland Publishes 'The Painted Bird'", The New York Times, April 22, 1989.
- Dudziak, Paweł. JERZY KOSIŃSKI, 2003. Last accessed on April 10, 2007. Polish: "Efektem kolektywnego tłumaczenia i niejasnej do końca roli samego "autora" w tworzeniu wersji ostatecznej, jest wyjątkowe pod względem językowym, wybitne dzieło literatury anglojęzycznej."
- From book promotional advertisement by Barnes & Noble
- Iwo Cyprian Pogonowski, On literary profiteers of the Holocaust
- "National Book Awards – 1969". National Book Foundation. Retrieved 2012-03-28.
(With essay by Harold Augenbraum from the Awards 60-year anniversary blog.)
- Zacharek, Stephanie (April 12, 1999). "Overlooked". Salon.com. Retrieved March 19, 2010.
- Samuel Coale. The Quest for the Elusive Self: the Fiction of Jerzy Kosiński. Critique: Studies in Modern Fiction. 14, (3), pp. 25–37. Quoted in: Harold Bloom. Twentieth-century American Literature.. Chelsea House Publishers, 1985. ISBN 0-87754-804-8, ISBN 978-0-87754-804-1
- Eliot Weinberger Genuine Fakes in his collection Karmic Traces; New Directions, 2000, ISBN 0-8112-1456-7; ISBN 978-0-8112-1456-8
- D. G. Myers, Jerzy Kosinski: A Biography by James Park Sloan
- "Facts and Fakes" by M.A.Orthofer
- Kosinski, Jerry (1976). The Painted Bird. Grove Press Books. xiii–xiv. ISBN 0-8021-3422-X.
- ReaveyD. G. Myers, Jerzy Kosinski: A Biography by James Park Sloan
- "Plagiarism? Let's just call it postmodernism" by Terence Blacker
- New York Theatre Wire: "More Lies About Jerzy" by Lucy Komisar
- Kosiński, Jerzy (1992) Passing By: Selected Essays, 1962–1991 Grove Press, p.54 ISBN 0-8021-3423-8
- Eliot Weinberger Genuine Fakes in his collection Karmic Traces; New Directions, 2000, ISBN 0-8112-1456-7; ISBN 978-0-8112-1456-8.
- Sepp L. Tiefenthaler, Jerzy Kosinski: Eine Einfuhrung in Sein Werk, 1980, ISBN 3-416-01556-8
- Norman Lavers, Jerzy Kosinski, 1982, ISBN 0-8057-7352-5
- Byron L. Sherwin, Jerzy Kosinski: Literary Alarm Clock, 1982, ISBN 0-941542-00-9
- Barbara Ozieblo Rajkowska, Protagonista De Jerzy Kosinski: Personaje unico, 1986, ISBN 84-7496-122-X
- Paul R. Lilly, Jr., Words in Search of Victims: The Achievement of Jerzy Kosinski, Kent, Ohio, Kent State University Press, 1988, ISBN 0-87338-366-4
- Welch D. Everman, Jerzy Kosinski: the Literature of Violation, Borgo Press, 1991, ISBN 0-89370-276-5.
- Tom Teicholz, ed. Conversations with Jerzy Kosinski, Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 1993, ISBN 0-87805-625-4
- Joanna Siedlecka, Czarny ptasior (The Black Bird), CIS, 1994, ISBN 83-85458-04-2.
- James Park Sloan, Jerzy Kosinski: a Biography, Diane Pub. Co., 1996, ISBN 0-7881-5325-0.
- Agnieszka Salska, Marek Jedlinski, Jerzy Kosinski : Man and Work at the Crossroads of Cultures, 1997, ISBN 83-7171-087-9
- Barbara Tepa Lupack, ed. Critical Essays on Jerzy Kosinski, New York: G.K. Hall, 1998, ISBN 0-7838-0073-8
- Oleg Ivsky, Review of The Painted Bird in Library Journal, Vol. 90, October 1, 1965, p. 4109
- Irving Howe, Review of The Painted Bird in Harper's Magazine, October 1965
- Andrew Feld, Review in Book Week, October 17, 1965, p. 2
- Anne Halley, Review of The Painted Bird in Nation, Vol. 201, November 29, 1965, p. 424
- D.A.N. Jones, Review of Steps in The New York Review of Books, Volume 12, Number 4, February 27, 1969
- Irving Howe, Review of Being There in Harper's Magazine, July 1971, p. 89.
- David H. Richter, The Three Denouements of Jerzy Kosinski's "The Painted Bird", Contemporary Literature, Vol. 15, No. 3, Summer 1974, pp. 370–85
- Gail Sheehy, "The Psychological Novelist as Portable Man", Psychology Today, December 11, 1977, pp. 126–30
- Margaret Kupcinskas Keshawarz, "Simas Kidirka: A Literary Symbol of Democratic Individualism in Jerzy Kosinski's Cockpit", Lituanus (Lithuanian Quarterly Journal of Arts and Sciences), Vol. 25, No.4, Winter 1979
- Roger Copeland, "An Interview with Jerzy Kosinski", New York Art Journal, Vol. 21, pp. 10–12, 1980
- Robert E. Ziegler, "Identity and Anonymity in the Novels of Jerzy Kosinski", Rocky Mountain Review of Language and Literature, Vol. 35, No. 2, 1981, pp. 99–109
- Barbara Gelb, "Being Jerzy Kosinski", New York Times Magazine, February 21, 1982, pp. 42–46
- Stephen Schiff, "The Kosinski Conundrum", Vanity Fair, June 1988, pp 114–19
- Thomas S. Gladsky, "Jerzy Kosinski's East European Self", Critique: Studies in Contemporary Fiction, Vol. XXIX, No. 2, Winter 1988, pp. 121–32
- Michael Schumacher, "Jerzy Kosinski", Writer's Yearbook, 1990, Vol. 60, pp. 82–87.
- John Corry, "The Most Considerate of Men", American Spectator, Vol. 24, No. 7, July 1991, pp. 17–18
- Phillip Routh, "The Rise and Fall of Jerzy Kosinski", Arts & Opinion, Vol. 6, No. 6, 2007.
- Timothy Neale, "'... the credentials that would rescue me': Trauma and the Fraudulent Survivor", Holocaust & Genocide Studies, Vol. 24, No. 3, 2010.
He is the subject of the off-Broadway play More Lies About Jerzy (2001), written by Davey Holmes and originally starring Jared Harris as Kosinski-inspired character "Jerzy Lesnewski". The most recent production being produced at the New End Theatre in London starring George Layton.
He also appears as one of the 'literary golems' (ghosts) in Thane Rosenbaum's novel The Golems of Gotham
- George Plimpton and Rocco Landesman (Summer 1972). "Jerzy Kosinski, The Art of Fiction No. 46". The Paris Review.
- Jerzy Kosiński at the Internet Movie Database
- Katherina von Fraunhofer-Kosinski Collection of Jerzy Kosinski. General Collection, Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library, Yale University.
- Designing The Painted Bird
- A guide to the Katherina von Fraunhofer-Kosinski collection of Jerzy Kosinski at the Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library