Jesse Jackson, Jr.
|Jesse Jackson, Jr.|
|Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Illinois's 2nd district
December 12, 1995 – November 21, 2012
|Preceded by||Mel Reynolds|
|Succeeded by||Robin Kelly|
|Born||Jesse Louis Jackson, Jr.
March 11, 1965
Greenville, South Carolina
Jesse Louis III ("Tre")
|Alma mater||North Carolina A&T, BS
Chicago Theological Seminary, M.A.
University of Illinois, J.D.
Jesse Louis Jackson, Jr. (born March 11, 1965) is a former Democratic American Congressman who represented Illinois's 2nd congressional district in the United States House of Representatives from 1995 until his resignation in 2012. He is the son of activist and former presidential candidate Jesse Jackson, and, prior to his career in elected office, worked for his father in both the elder Jackson's 1984 presidential campaign and his social justice, civil rights and political activism organization, Operation PUSH. Jackson's wife, Sandi Jackson, served on the Chicago City Council. He served as a national co-chairman of the 2008 Barack Obama presidential campaign. Jackson established a consistent liberal record on both social and fiscal issues, and he has co-authored books on civil rights and personal finance.
In October 2012, Jackson was investigated for financial improprieties including misuse of campaign funds. Jackson resigned from Congress on November 21, 2012, citing mental and physical health problems, including bipolar disorder, clinical depression, and gastrointestinal problems. On February 8, 2013, Jackson admitted to violating federal campaign law by using campaign funds to make personal purchases. Jackson pleaded guilty on February 20, 2013 to one count of wire and mail fraud. On August 14, 2013, he was sentenced to 30 months in federal prison.
- 1 Early life, education, and early political career
- 2 U.S. House of Representatives
- 3 Trial, conviction, and sentencing
- 4 Other political activities
- 5 Author
- 6 Personal life
- 7 Electoral history
- 8 Published works
- 9 See also
- 10 References
- 11 External links
Early life, education, and early political career
Jackson was born in Greenville, South Carolina and raised in the Jackson Park Highlands District of the South Shore community area on the South Side of Chicago, one of five children of Jesse and Jacqueline (Brown) Jackson. He attended nursery school at the University of Chicago and attended John J. Pershing Elementary School. At age five Jackson mimicked his father in a speech atop a milk crate at the Operation PUSH headquarters. His father sought media attention to shed light on important issues according to some accounts and as a result of his father's travels, his time with his father often occurred in the time between meetings.
He and his brother Jonathan were sent to Le Mans Military Academy in Rolling Prairie, Indiana after Jackson was diagnosed as hyperactive. He was often paddled for disciplinary reasons during his time as a cadet. Jackson repeated ninth grade and was suspended from school twice. He was an all-state running back on his football team in high school and was featured in a the February 1984 issue of Sports Illustrated as part of their Faces in the Crowd section, which noted him for his 15 touchdowns, 889 rushing yards, and 7.2 yards per carry in six games. Jackson enrolled in North Carolina A&T University, his father's alma mater, earning his Bachelor of Science degree magna cum laude in 1987. He decided to follow his father's advice to receive a seminary education at the Chicago Theological Seminary, where he earned his master's degree a year early but opted not to become ordained. Jackson proceeded to law school at the University of Illinois and convinced his future wife to transfer there from the Georgetown University Law Center. He then earned a Juris Doctor (J.D.) from the University of Illinois College of Law in 1993. Jackson never sat for the bar exam despite finishing his coursework a semester early.
As a teenager, Jackson and his brother Jonathan assisted in their father's civil rights activities. During the 1984 Democratic primaries, the three Jackson brothers sometimes appeared at events together in support of their father's presidential campaign. While in college, Jackson held a voter registration drive that registered 3,500 voters on a campus with 4,500 students. His first job after graduation was as an executive director for the Rainbow Coalition.
Jackson was again involved in his father's campaigning during the 1988 Democratic primaries. In 1988, in the dealings between his father and Michael Dukakis at the 1988 Democratic National Convention, Jackson's father obtained for him a position as an at-large member of the Democratic National Committee (DNC) by a nomination from Democratic Party chairman Paul Kirk. Jackson, Jr. was the last of the five children to speak and introduced his father with the words "a man who fights against the odds, who lives against the odds, our dad, Jesse Jackson." At the time, in Time magazine, Margaret Carlson depicted the younger Jackson as a well-spoken and compelling personality who would likely carry any of his father's political aspirations that his father was unable to achieve himself. His experience with the DNC gave him the opportunity to work on numerous congressional election races. After the convention he also became a vice president of Operation PUSH.
Jackson was arrested on his twenty-first birthday in Washington, D.C. following his participation in demonstrations against apartheid at the South African Embassy. He had been arrested with his father and brother the year before in a similar activity. His protest against apartheid extended to weekly demonstrations in front of the South African Consulate in Chicago. Jackson shared the stage with Nelson Mandela when Mandela made his historic speech following his release from a 27-year imprisonment in Cape Town in February 1990. Before entering the House, he became secretary of the Democratic National Committee's Black Caucus, the national field director of the National Rainbow Coalition and a member of the Rainbow/PUSH Coalition. Jackson served as the national field director of the Rainbow Coalition from 1993 to 1995. Under Jackson's leadership, the Rainbow Coalition attempted to stimulate equitable hiring in the National Basketball Association because while 78% of the league's players were African American, 92% of the front-office executive positions, 88% of the administrative jobs, and 85% of the support positions were held by whites. While serving as the field director for the National Rainbow Coalition, he helped register millions of new voters through a newly instituted national non-partisan program. He also created a voter education program to teach citizens the importance of participating in the political process. He was a member of the Congressional Black Caucus, and also a founding board member of the Apollo Alliance.
U.S. House of Representatives
Jackson's wife wanted him to run for the 2nd District Congressional seat in the 1996 primary election, while his father wanted him to run for a position as an alderman or for the Illinois General Assembly. The 2nd District includes part of Chicago's southeast suburbs known as the Southland and part of the South Side. Jackson's father approached state Sen. Alice J. Palmer with a deal in which the Jacksons would support her for Congress in exchange for her support for Jackson for the Illinois Senate. Jackson, Jr. did not agree with the plan and wanted to run for the 2nd District seat. After seeking approval from former Democratic National Committee chairman David Wilhelm, he decided to run for the seat against Palmer. When Mel Reynolds, who was later convicted on sexual misconduct charges, announced his resignation from Congress on September 1, 1995, Jackson's name surfaced as a potential replacement; on September 10, 1995, Jackson officially announced his candidacy. Jackson's opponents in the Democratic primary were Palmer, Emil Jones, Monique Davis, and John Morrow in the Democratic primary, which was set for November 29, 1995. Jones was endorsed by Chicago Mayor Richard M. Daley. Jackson was endorsed by the Daily Southtown, Markham mayor Evans Miller, and one local labor organization. Campaign controversy arose when it was revealed that Jackson's salary as field director the Rainbow Coalition had been subsidized by the Hotel Employees and Restaurant Employees Union, which was accused by a U.S. Senate investigative committee of having ties to organized crime. Jackson was one of several Democrats who received campaign contributions from John Huang, a Democratic fundraiser who illegally funneled over $150,000 to Democratic candidates and was later convicted of conspiracy to commit campaign finance fraud. While most other recipients of the Huang-aggregated funds returned them or donated them elsewhere, Jackson kept the money, saying Huang's $1,000 contribution to his campaign was within legal limits.
Jackson won the Democratic primary with 48% of the vote to Jones's 39%, with the rest of the votes scattered among the other three candidates. The Republicans nominated Thomas Somer. Since the district was overwhelmingly Democratic, Jackson was the favorite for the December 12, 1995 special election. Jackson won the general election with 76% of the vote; his victory was widely anticipated. Upon his victory, Jackson made it known he would be a liberal voice in opposition to Speaker of the House of Representatives Newt Gingrich. He took office on December 15, 1995. Jackson was perceived as less charismatic than his father and less credentialed than his predecessor, but his family pedigree was expected to help him politically. In August 1996, Somer withdrew from a rematch leaving Jackson with no major party opposition in the November 1996 general election. As a result, Jackson received 94% of the vote in the general election.
As he prepared to run for president in 2000, Vice President Al Gore attempted to maintain good relations with the Jackson family, hoping to discourage Jackson's father from running for president against him. Jackson received a congratulatory call from Gore after his election in 1995. In 1998, Gore campaigned for and advised Jackson, and went out of his way to instruct aides to create a vice presidential event in Jackson's district to boost Jackson.
The 2nd District was overwhelmingly black when Jackson was first elected and remained so after the redistricting process following the 2000 Census. Jackson won re-election in 2000 by a 90–10 margin over Robert Gordon.
In 2001, the Federal Election Commission ruled that Jackson could hire his wife on his campaign payroll as long as she was paid no more than the fair market value for her services. In 2002, Jackson was challenged in the Democratic primary by three candidates. Jackson claimed that state Sen. William Shaw and his brother, Cook County Board of Review Commissioner Robert Shaw, had planted a bogus candidate in the primary race. The claim was that they selected 68-year-old retired Robbins truck driver, Jesse L. Jackson, as an opponent in order to confuse voters and derail the congressman's re-election campaign. Jackson asked a Cook County court to question the Shaws and others under oath, but his effort was rejected and no criminal wrongdoing was found. As Jackson prepared to take further legal action, Jesse L. Jackson withdrew his candidacy after the unexpected deaths of his wife and grandson.
Jackson won re-election in the 2004 House of Representatives elections by a wide margin over Stephanie Kennedy Sailor. In 2005, Jackson supported legislation that gave the United States Federal Court of Appeals jurisdiction over the Terri Schiavo case. In the 2006 election among Jackson's opponents was Libertarian Party candidate and African-American pastor Anthony Williams, an outspoken opponent of immigration. Jackson won with 85% of the vote.
Jackson quickly built a track record of never missing a floor vote. Once he nearly missed his great-grandmother's funeral for a roll call, but the presiding officer was able to slightly delay the closing the roll, thereby keeping his attendance record. Fellow Democrats said he debates and votes with a contentiousness that makes it difficult to view him as a team player. Jackson developed foes not only in the House, but also in Chicago against William Daley, who had a hand in several attempts to block Jackson's seating on the transportation committee he desired because of his support for a third Chicago airport. Jackson has also been a target of conservative media figures. Jackson established a heavily liberal voting record on both social and fiscal issues. During the 1990s, because of his name recognition and liberal track record, Jackson received many public speaking and media requests.
After being elected, Jackson attempted to parlay his popularity into a seat on the United States House Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure, using the leverage of his ability to perform voter registration drives. In the 1996 elections, Jackson began to rival his father as a requested visitor to congressional districts with 36 requests from congressional colleagues. He was typically sent on the "black circuit" without any notification to the press when he campaigned for other candidates. Jackson made 30 appearances for Democratic congressional candidates in 1998.
Jackson had some controversial interactions with Jewish leaders in his early years in office. In 1996, his message of unity and cooperation with the Jews was met with skepticism. In 1997, Jackson was criticized for stating simple disagreement with anti-Semitic remarks made by Louis Farrakhan while he was in New York City for the mayoral race; Jewish leaders were unsatisfied by Jackson's response to Farrakhan. In 1997, Newsweek mentioned Jackson in their list of 100 people to watch in the new century, dubbed "the Century Club", and raised the question of whether he would be the first black president. Jackson criticized the Bill Clinton administration for working with Republicans and voted in dissent on several notable bills that were the products of compromise between Democrats and Republicans. Jackson preferred direct aid and debt relief to trade reform as a method of helping impoverished nations such as those of sub-Saharan Africa and the Caribbean Basin, fearing that relaxed trade regulations would possibly benefit corporations and exploit labor. He is also an opponent of incentives for corporations to invest in developing nations. He was outspoken on issues of minority hiring in information technology. Jackson voted against the impeachment of Bill Clinton, voting against all four articles of impeachment considered by the House.
In late 2000, as word spread that President-elect George W. Bush intended to appoint both Colin Powell, Condoleezza Rice and a third unnamed black to the United States Cabinet, Jackson sought to prevent blacks from supporting Bush as Bush planned to reach out to blacks. Jackson partnered with Republican Henry Hyde to push for a third Chicago airport. Jackson said Hyde was the right wing complement to his own left wing role in pursuing support for the airport. Jackson has withheld support for local Democrats who would not support the airport, such as 1998 Democratic gubernatorial nominee Glenn Poshard.
In 2004, Jackson supported the Ho-Chunk tribe's proposal for a casino within his district in Lynwood, Illinois. The proposal was to build the largest casino in the state as part of an entertainment complex. In 2005, Jackson sponsored a bill for the creation and acquisition of a life-size statue of Rosa Parks to be placed in Statuary Hall at the United States Capitol. The bill approving the funding for the statue was signed by President Bush on December 1, 2005. Jackson was active in funding AIDS service organizations that serve blacks through Congress.
After the 2004 elections, Jackson became vocal in supporting election reform, disliking the way election rules differ across jurisdictions, saying that the U.S. "is founded on the constitutional foundation of 'states' rights'—50 states, 3,067 counties and 13,000 different election jurisdictions, all separate and unequal." He was one of 31 members of the House who voted not to count the electoral votes from Ohio in the 2004 presidential election. He also proposed legislation for uniform voting standards that was supported by black leaders.
Jackson and Zach Wamp were spokespersons for the changing the name of the main hall of the United States Capitol Visitor Center from the Great Hall to Emancipation Hall. The Library of Congress's main hall was already designated Great Hall. Some had wanted further feedback on naming possibilities, but the United States House Committee on Appropriations approved the new name, and it passed the House.
Jackson was one of the liberal leaders who supported a fixed timetable for Iraq troop withdrawals. In 2007, he has also co-sponsored (along with Roy Blunt), legislation providing nearly $1 million to each family that lost someone to the al-Qaida activities in the 1998 United States embassy bombings. In 2007 Jackson voiced an interest in initiating impeachment proceedings against President Bush for "crimes against the Constitution of the United States."
In March 2011, Jackson attracted ridicule for a speech he made on the House floor proposing a constitutional amendment for "equal education rights", which he illustrated by proposing that every student in America receive an iPad from the federal government. In April 2011, Jackson spoke on the house floor, blaming the iPad for "eliminating thousands of American jobs." In the February 27, 2007 Chicago municipal elections, Jackson's wife, Sandi Jackson, won the election for Alderman in Chicago's 7th ward.
Jackson gave a prime-time speech at the 2008 Democratic National Convention on August 25, 2008. During his speech he referenced Martin Luther King, Jr., stating, "I'm sure that Dr. King is looking down on us here in Denver noting this is the first political convention in history to take place within sight of a mountain top." Jackson said, "I know Barack Obama. I've seen his leadership at work. I've seen the difference he has made in the lives of people across Illinois." At the convention, Jackson started what was described as a "hugfest" in an attempt to unite the Illinois Democratic party, which had been squabbling internally. He started by hugging Bobby Rush (who had been upset that Jackson's wife was being positioned for Rush's seat when Rush had been ill earlier in the year) and then he hugged Debbie Halvorson, who as been at odds with him over the proposed airport. He then asked if anyone else was mad at him. At this point Mayor Daley jumped up to hug Jackson. Jackson then said "I'm not going to be satisfied until I see Rod Blagojevich give Mike Madigan a hug."
Before the entire Congress was charged with seeking a solution to the financial crisis of 2007–2008 and overall economic crisis of 2008, Jackson proposed that the United States Department of Agriculture increase the allotment of food stamps. During the congressional debates on a federal bailout, Jackson worried about the viability of various plan iterations to his constituents. Although only two years earlier he spoke of Speaker of the United States House of Representatives Nancy Pelosi in glowing terms, he could not support the late-September version of the legislation she was proposing because he felt it contained inadequate homeowner protections. Although he voted against the bill on September 29, 2008 he voted in support of the Emergency Economic Stabilization Act of 2008 on October 3, 2008. He later expressed concerns in a New York Times op-ed article about the implications that the eventual bill had on enfranchisement due to the lack of protections for homeowners as it relates to voting rights. Jackson sponsored legislation to make the Pullman District a National Park Service jurisdiction. On April 21, 2012, Jackson held a symbolic groundbreaking for the proposed third airport.
- Committee on Appropriations
Jackson was also appointed to the Abraham Lincoln Bicentennial Commission in 2003. He was among the scholars and politicians adding commentaries to Lincoln in Illinois which was published in the by the Abraham Lincoln Association and the Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library Foundation. The book had been expected in the fall, but was published in June 2008.
Health issues, criminal investigation, and resignation
On June 10, 2012, Jackson took a medical leave of absence from the House, citing exhaustion. On July 11, 2012, Jackson's office said he was being treated for a mood disorder at a residential treatment facility. His office denied speculation that he was being treated for alcoholism. On August 13, 2012 it was confirmed by numerous news outlets that Jackson was being treated for bipolar disorder.
In October 2012, federal prosecutors and FBI agents in Washington, D.C. investigated Jackson for alleged financial improprieties, including possible misuse of campaign funds. Sixteen days after being re-elected to another term, Jackson resigned effective on November 21, 2012, citing his health problems and acknowledging the ethics investigations.
Trial, conviction, and sentencing
Jackson and wife Sandi signed plea agreements in early February 2013. Jackson, Jr. agreed to plead guilty to charges of fraud, conspiracy, making false statements, mail fraud, wire fraud, and criminal forfeiture—having used about $750,000 in campaign money for over 3000 personal purchases that included a Michael Jackson fedora and cashmere capes.
The Justice Department filed the charges on February 15, 2013, and Jackson pleaded guilty on February 20, 2013 to one count of wire and mail fraud in connection with his misuse of $750,000 of campaign funds. On June 7, 2013, federal prosecutors indicated that they sought a four-year prison sentence for Jackson. On August 14, 2013, Jackson was sentenced to 30 months in federal prison, while wife Sandi was sentenced to 12 months in prison for filing false tax returns in attempt to conceal the crimes. The two sentences will not run concurrently. Rather, Jackson will initially serve prison time and upon his release, his wife will, then, begin her prison tenure shortly thereafter. The staggered sentences will allow for the Jackson children to have access to at least one parent during the time each is in prison.
Other political activities
2000 presidential race
Jackson reluctantly supported Al Gore when he became the Democratic presidential nominee, saying Gore and his running mate Joe Lieberman were not liberal enough but that he supported Gore as the only alternative to George W. Bush. Jackson criticized Lieberman and the campaign for emphasizing the importance of personal morality in American politicians. Jackson was still considered a likely appointee for United States Secretary of Education if Gore was elected.
2006–07 Mayoral race
Chicago is the largest American city without mayoral term limits, and Chicago Mayor Richard M. Daley started his mayoral tenure in 1989. Jackson holds press conferences less frequently than his father. After making a formal announcement in 2006 with a press conference, Jackson was considered a strong potential candidate to oppose Daley in the February 27, 2007 municipal election. He stated on September 7, 2006 that his final decision would come after the Congressional election in November. Jackson had built up a more moderate reputation than his father and had support that transcended racial lines. Jackson views his broad based support as a sign that the U.S. is advancing to the point where politicians from ethnic minorities can appeal to broad constituencies.
After more than a decade in the national political spotlight he had maintained an untarnished image, unlike his troubled 2nd district predecessors Mel Reynolds and Gus Savage, and had challenged Daley on several issues on the local political scene. Jackson has supported the living wage legislation that had been hotly contested in the Chicago City Council, and he has been an ardent backer of the long-proposed third Chicago airport in Peotone, Illinois, placing him at odds with Daley on both issues. He also railed against Daley over a trucking contract scandal involving city workers' collecting payoffs. At the time, the Mayor had recently exercised the first veto in his seventeen-year mayoral term to thwart a big box retailer city minimum wage bill from the City Council despite the bill's public popularity.
There were always doubts about the seriousness of Jackson's interest in the Mayor's office. On November 8, 2006, Jackson reported that he would not pursue a 2007 mayoral campaign in Chicago:
|“||[...] as you know Democrats are now poised to take control of the Congress for the first time in my eleven year career. More than any time since I took my initial oath of office, I am excited, I am eager, and I am downright giddy about the prospects of being in Washington. Washington will be the place to be in the next two years, and maybe even the foreseeable future. For me this means an unprecedented opportunity to help lead this country in a new and a better direction and to help serve my constituents, my hometown of Chicago and my state of Illinois. So I will not be a candidate for the mayor of the city of Chicago in 2007.||”|
Support for Barack Obama
Jackson was speculated as a potential candidate for the U.S. Senate in 2004, but declined to run and instead became one of Barack Obama's early supporters. He endorsed Howard Dean for the 2004 Democratic presidential nomination, joining Al Gore in saying Dean was the most likely candidate in the primary to beat Bush. The endorsement was a bitter blow to the hopes of candidate Al Sharpton, who had hoped for endorsements from both Jackson and his father.
Jackson was a national co-chairman of Barack Obama's 2008 presidential campaign. As such, he is involved in garnering support from the superdelegates. During the campaign, he provided the voice for some advertisements such as one South Carolina radio ad in which he said: "Once, South Carolina voted for my father, and sent a strong message to the nation,...Next year, you can send more than a message. You can launch a president.'" When describing Obama he stated that "Barack Obama is not speaking as a friend of the community; he's part of the community...He doesn't always tell people what they want to hear. He tells them what they need to hear.'" During the campaign, he described Obama as the first "successor" of Martin Luther King, Jr. to use the thoughtful and careful approach to language to frame social debate in a way that is unlikely to alienate whites and noted his ability to get various factions to agree with him and his political positions.
Jackson has a lengthy relationship with Obama. Obama's Illinois State Senate 13th district that he served from 1997–2005 was within Jackson's district. Jackson's sister Santita was a close friend of Michelle Obama and served as a bridesmaid at the Obama wedding. In 2008, Jackson's father, Jessie Jackson Senior, wrote an op-ed in the Chicago Sun-Times attacking presidential candidate Obama for his lack of activist involvement; Jackson Junior responded sharply in the same paper with a defense of Obama.
On July 6, 2008, Jackson's father said he thought Obama talks down to black people, and unaware he was near a live microphone offhandedly commented that he would like to "cut [Obama's] nuts off". Jackson Junior quickly expressed his outrage at and disappointment in his father's "ugly rhetoric". Jackson's father said he was expressing his disappointment in Obama's Father's Day speech chastisement of Black fathers.
2009 U.S. Senate seat
Jackson emerged as a possible candidate to replace Barack Obama, who, after being elected President of the United States on November 4, 2008, officially resigned his seat in the U.S. Senate effective November 16. The class 3 Illinois Senate seat was up for re-election in 2010. Other contenders included Danny Davis, Jan Schakowsky, Tammy Duckworth, Emil Jones, Jr., Kwame Raoul, Dan Hynes, and Lisa Madigan, while other sources also mentioned Luis Gutierrez and Melissa Bean. One early name mentioned, Valerie Jarrett, withdrew her name from consideration and both Davis and Duckworth noted that they had not been contacted by the governor's office by the time Obama announced his resignation on November 13, 2008. In a radio interview on the subject, Jackson cited his record on federal funding for his district, loyalty to Obama and diligence in voting in the U.S. House. Obama was the only black U.S. Senator, and black leaders pressured Blagojevich to appoint a black successor. The Chicago Defender and Southtown Star both endorsed Jackson, who noted that public opinion polls show him as the favorite. The selection was coming at a time when the Governor's public approval ratings were at an all-time low, which added to the pressure for him to make a selection that would be good for his own political perception, and it was believed that Jackson's constituency was one that the Governor might need to appease. Although Obama and Duckworth laid a wreath together on Veterans Day, Obama did not endorse a successor. However, in an internal report filed by Obama legal advisor Greg Craig, "Obama authorized Emanuel to pass on the names of four people he considered to be highly qualified to take over his seat – Illinois Comptroller Dan Hynes, Illinois Veterans’ Affairs Director Tammy Duckworth, Rep. Jan Schakowsky and Rep. Jesse Jackson Jr."
On November 27, 2008, Blagojevich hinted that Davis might be his choice. On December 6, the Chicago Tribune reported that Jackson was among the minority of potential candidates who had not been granted a meeting with Blagojevich on the subject, but two days later Blagojevich granted Jackson a meeting. On December 9, the day after a 90-minute meeting that Jackson described as his first meeting with Blagojevich in years, the Rod Blagojevich federal corruption scandal became public when the Governor was arrested. On December 10, Jackson was contacted by federal prosecutors for questioning with regard to the scandal involving Governor Blagojevich's search for a replacement. The press speculated that Jackson was "Senate Candidate #5", for whom it is alleged by Blagojevich that emissaries offered up to a million dollars in exchange for the appointment. Jackson, however, denies any wrongdoing, and says that the U.S. Attorney's office assured him that he is not a target of the investigation. In a press conference, his lawyer confirmed his belief that Jackson is candidate No. 5, but asserted that he has done nothing wrong. Immediately thereafter, in his own news conference, Jackson confirmed that he is a subject and not a target of the investigation and emphatically stated his opposition to "pay to play" politics. On December 16, a Jackson spokesperson confirmed special federal investigators have been questioning him since the summer. Also WLS-TV reported December 15 that Jackson has notified investigators that Blagojevich refused to appoint Sandi Jackson, his wife, as state lottery director because Jackson refused to donate $25,000 to the governor's campaign fund. Jackson spokesman Kenneth Edmonds clarified that although Jackson had been a federal informant for over a decade, never did his cooperation concern the current investigation into the Senate seat.
Although Blagojevich's corruption was reported to have been under federal investigation, journalist Howard Fineman of the Huffington Post allegedly has sources that claim Jackson attributes the Obama replacement case to Obama's neutral stance. According to Fineman's reported source, Jackson felt if Obama had endorsed him, Blagojevich would have selected Jackson. When the scandal first broke, the reaction was that Jackson's reputation was sullied to the point that his viability as a senatorial candidate was diminished. However, reports that Jackson has been a longtime federal information provider has led political allies to continue to speak of his viability as a candidate. After much controversy, Roland Burris was successfully nominated by Blagojevich.
In 2009, Jackson was named one of the 15 most corrupt members of Congress by the liberal Citizens for Responsibility and Ethics in Washington for his role in the scandal. On September 21, 2010, Jackson said of his affair with Peruvian Giovana Huidobro: "is a private and personal matter between me and my wife " (Associated Press). The Peruvian hostess was flown to Chicago twice by political fundraiser Raghuveer Nayak one month before the 2008 November election in a bid to see if Jackson would pony up $6 million in exchange for an Illinois senate seat being vacated by Barack Obama.
In September 2010, fundraiser Nayak was mentioned in the press as having been an alleged go between for Jackson and Blagojevich with the message that Jackson would help Blagojevich raise $6 million in exchange for the Senate appointment. The allegations have become the subject of a Congressional ethics investigation.
In December 1999, he co-authored It's About the Money: How You Can Get Out of Debt, Build Wealth, and Achieve Your Financial Dreams. The book is a self-help book with directions for achieving personal financial independence. The book is targeted toward people of limited means. In the fall of 2001, he co-authored Legal Lynching: The Death Penalty and America's Future, also known as Legal Lynching II. With coauthors, Rev. Jesse Jackson, Jackson, Jr., and Bruce Shapiro, the anti-death penalty voice was heard very publicly. The book was published, at a time when public opposition to the death penalty was at a historically high level, by two of America's most prominent civil rights leaders. It was a follow up to Legal Lynching: Racism, Injustice and the Death Penalty, which was released in 1996 by Jackson, Sr. In 2001, Jackson, Jr. authored A More Perfect Union: Advancing New American Rights, with his press secretary, Frank Watkins. The book outlines his moral and political philosophies, and it provides an autobiographical sketch. It provides analysis on the link between race and economics from colonial America to the present with a vision for the future. In addition to the analysis, it provides eight proposed constitutional amendments that Jackson sees as essential to pursuit of broader social and economic opportunity. Since the publication of this book, Jackson has refined these and formally proposed these constitutional amendments.
During the 1988 presidential campaign, Jackson met his future wife, Sandi Stevens, who was press secretary for United States Congressman Mickey Leland. After her first year at Georgetown University Law Center, the couple decided public schooling was more affordable and jointly enrolled at the University of Illinois College of Law. While still law students, they married on June 1, 1991. Jackson and Sandi now have two children, Jesse III ("Tre") and Jessica and keep two homes. They own one in the South Shore community area, which is within both the 2nd district that Congressman Jackson represents in the United States House of Representatives and within the seventh ward that his wife represents on the Chicago City Council as Alderman. The South Shore home serves as an election base for himself and candidates he has supported, for which he claims a 13–0 record in public elections. The South Shore home was the featured renovation on an HGTV Hidden Potential episode, first aired on March 24, 2009. The Jacksons also own a home in Dupont Circle in Washington, D.C., which serves as the family home and base for his service in Congress.
Jackson's earliest public controversy came when he was linked to alleged Nigerian drug trafficker Pius Ailemen. Ailemen was supposed to be Jackson's best man at his 1991 wedding, but canceled at the last minute due to supposed passport-related issues. Jackson and Aileman were investigated by the FBI; the investigation and court proceedings extended for several years. A wiretap recorded many conversations between the two, and financial records indicate that Ailemen had purchased an Alfa Romeo using a $13,000 charge on Jackson's credit card. Ailemen was sentenced to 24 years and four months in jail. In 2003, Ailemen was denied petition for a writ of certiorari. Ailemen's current motion questions Jackson's activities as a government informant at the time of his testimony in Ailemen's trial.
Jackson acknowledges that he has had the benefits of privilege and opportunity and says that his hobbies include fencing, hunting and fishing, especially salmon fishing. He often enjoys these hobbies in bipartisan friendships that include Dick Armey and regarded the late Republican Rep. Henry Hyde as one of his closest friends. In fact, Armey points to Jackson as an example of his ability to work with politicians at all ends of the political spectrum. Jackson also has a very good relationship with Republican United States President George W. Bush despite their sharp ideological differences. The relationship traces back to when Jackson Sr. and United States President-Elect George H. W. Bush met to discuss a range of issues while Jackson Jr. and his siblings Santita and Jonathan had an hour and a half luncheon with future president George W. He also developed a relationship with Bill and Hillary Clinton that enabled him to watch Super Bowl XXXIII at Camp David with them.
In March 2005, Jackson revealed that he had lost 50 pounds (22.7 kg; 3.6 st) due to gastric bypass surgery. In Ebony, Joe Madison revealed that when he and Jackson were on a panel at the Congressional Black Caucus Foundation conference he asked Jackson why he looked so different. He stated that Jackson described having undergone a duodenal switch medical procedure that his sister, Santita, had used to lose 200 pounds (90.7 kg; 14.3 st) over several years.
Jackson is a member of the Omega Psi Phi fraternity. In 2006, when Jackson became a member of Omega Psi Phi fraternity, Nu Pi Chapter, the Illinois House of Representatives issued a congratulatory resolution to his father. Jesse Sr. is also a member of the Omega fraternity. Jackson, Jr. delivered the keynote address to the fraternity at the November 18, 2006 Founder's Day gathering. He is also affiliated with the Theta Epsilon Chapter.
Jackson is a martial arts enthusiast who practices kung fu, tae kwon do, and karate. On August 1, 2007, Jackson got into a verbal disagreement with Rep. Lee Terry, a Republican from Nebraska on the House floor. Jackson stated in floor debate that "Republicans can't be trusted" and Terry responded with "shut up" before approaching Jackson. Jackson then spoke profanities and challenged Terry to step outside, presumably for a physical fight. Steve Rothman helped avoid escalation to actual physical confrontation. Martial artists throughout the Omaha, Nebraska area (Terry's district) called to inquire about Jackson's mindset and intentions. Jackson says Terry was the instigator. Terry says Jackson was at fault, but the two shook hands the next day and agreed to move forward in the interest of their constituents. However, a week later an unidentified man who claimed to be a Jackson relative walked into Terry's Omaha office saying he was Jackson's hitman who had come to beat up Terry, which led to FBI involvement. Although the story was covered in the Washington Post and Omaha World-Herald, neither the Chicago Tribune nor the Chicago Sun-Times covered any part of the story.
Jackson used a battery-powered, GPS-equipped Segway in Washington. Jackson, who missed two votes in his first thirteen years in Congress, quipped that the Segway helped him to maintain his good voting record.
On July 12, 2012, Jackson's office acknowledged that he had been absent from Congress since June 10, stating that he was receiving "intensive medical treatment at a residential treatment facility for a mood disorder." After weeks of the public's not knowing where the Congressman was, his office announced on July 27, 2012, that he was at the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota, undergoing an extensive inpatient evaluation for depression and for gastrointestinal issues. On August 13, 2012 the Mayo Clinic released a statement that Jackson was being treated for bipolar II disorder. Jackson was released from prison on March 26, 2015.
|1995*||Jesse Jackson, Jr.||43,333||74.2%||Thomas Somer||15,076||25.8%|
|1996||Jesse Jackson, Jr.||172,648||94.1%||Frank Stratman (Libertarian)||10,880||5.9%|
|1998||Jesse Jackson, Jr.||148,985||89.4%||Robert Gordon III||16,075||9.6%||Matthew Beauchamp (L)||1,608||1.0%|
|2000||Jesse Jackson, Jr.||175,995||89.8%||Robert Gordon III||19,906||10.2%|
|2002||Jesse Jackson, Jr.||151,443||82.3%||Doug Nelson||32,567||17.7%|
|2004||Jesse Jackson, Jr.||207,535||88.5%||Stephanie Sailor (L)||26,990||11.5%|
|2006||Jesse Jackson, Jr.||146,347||84.8%||Robert Belin||20,395||11.8%||Anthony Williams (L)||5,748||3.3%|
|2008||Jesse Jackson, Jr.||242,250||89.2%||Anthony W. Williams||29,050||10.8%|
|2010||Jesse Jackson, Jr.||150,666||80.5%||Isaac C. Hayes||25,883||13.8%||Anthony W. Williams (Green)||10,564||5.6%|
|2012**||Jesse Jackson, Jr.||181,067||63.0%||Brian Woodworth||25,883||23.5%||Marcus Lewis (Independent)||38,733||13.5%|
* 93% of precincts
** 99% of precincts
- Jackson, Jesse L., Jr., with Frank E. Watkins, A More Perfect Union: Advancing New American Rights.., ISBN 1-56649-186-X, Welcome Rain Publishers: New York, 2001.
- Zimmermann, Stephanie (December 19, 2006). "Jesse Jr.'s wife running for alderman: 'Change is in the air' says 7th Ward hopeful". Chicago Sun-Times. Retrieved 2008-04-25.[dead link]
- Dvorak, Blake (January 9, 2008). "The PM Line". Time. Retrieved 2008-04-18.
- "Illinois House: Jesse Louis Jackson". OnTheIssues.org & the SpeakOut Foundation. Retrieved 2008-04-22.
- Rafferty, Andrew (February 8, 2013). "Former Rep. Jesse Jackson Jr. admits to campaign finance violations". NBC News. Retrieved February 8, 2013.
- Schmidt, Michael S. (February 20, 2013). "Jackson Pleads Guilty to Wire and Mail Fraud". New York Times. Retrieved 20 February 2013.
- "Jesse Jackson Jr. sentenced to 2½ years". Chicago Sun Times. Retrieved 14 August 2013.
- Jackson and Watkins, p. 28.
- Jackson and Watkins, p. 31.
- Cannon, Angie (January 21, 2001). "The Jackson Reaction: As he does penance in the wilderness, supporters predict he'll return". U.S.News & World Report. Retrieved 2008-04-25.
- Dionne, E. J., Jr. (July 20, 1988). "The Democrats in Atlanta; Jackson Rouses Democrats With Plea For Hope, Saying 'Tonight I Salute' Dukakis". The New York Times. Retrieved 2008-04-25.
- Rhodes, Steve (May 2005). "What Does Junior Want?". Chicago Magazine. Retrieved 2008-04-24.
- Johnson, Dirk (March 3, 1998). "Jesse Jackson Jr. Is His Father's Son, But He Reaches Beyond the Rainbow". The New York Times. Retrieved 2008-04-19.
- Jackson and Watkins, p. 29.
- Jackson and Watkins, p. 32.
- "Faces in the Crowd". Sports Illustrated. February 13, 1984. p. 145.
- "Biography of Representative Jesse L. Jackson, Jr.". house.gov. Archived from the original on April 16, 2008. Retrieved 2008-04-21.[dead link]
- "Jackson, Jesse L., Jr., (1965 – )". congress.gov. Retrieved 2008-04-21.
- Smothers, Ronald (December 30, 1983). "Jackson Is Off To Syria To Seek Flier's Release". The New York Times. Retrieved 2008-04-25.
- Gaiter, Dorothy J. (April 18, 1984). "Jacqueline Jackson Finds Own Role". The New York Times. Retrieved 2008-04-26.
- Jackson and Watkins, p. 33.
- Jackson and Watkins, p. 34.
- Lyall, Sarah (April 11, 1988). "New Yorkers Welcome Jackson Like a Celebrity". The New York Times. Retrieved 2008-04-18.
- Carlson, Margaret, B. (August 1, 1988). "The Democrats". Time. Retrieved 2008-04-18.
- Oreskes, Michael (July 23, 1988). "After The Convention; Dukakis Sets Out To Parlay Unity into Fall Victory". The New York Times. Retrieved 2008-04-18.
- Terry, Don (November 24, 1995). "In House Election, a Familiar Name". The New York Times. Retrieved 2008-04-18.
- Jackson and Watkins, p. 35.
- "Riding the Airwaves to Prominence: Rhetorical Warriors". CQ Fifty (Congressional Quarterly). October 30, 1999. pp. 115–117.
- "Rep. Jesse Jackson, Jr.: original airdate January 13, 2004". The Smiley Group, Inc/PBS.org. January 13, 2004. Retrieved 2008-04-22.[dead link]
- "Around The Nation; Jackson Arrested in Embassy Protest". The New York Times. March 12, 1985. Retrieved 2008-04-25.
- "Junior Wins". Time. December 13, 1995. Retrieved 2008-04-18.
- "Sports People: Pro Basketball; Survey Shows Lack of Jobs for Blacks". The New York Times. June 29, 1993. Retrieved 2008-04-18.
- Jackson and Watkins, p. 38.
- "Congressional District 2". NationalAtlas.gov. Archived from the original on December 19, 2008. Retrieved 2009-02-11.
- "Life After Mel". Time. September 5, 1995. Retrieved 2008-04-18.
- Johnson, Dirk (August 24, 1995). "In Congressman's District, Conviction Evokes Regret". The New York Times. Retrieved 2008-04-18.
- "Jesse Jackson's Son to Run for House Seat". The New York Times. September 10, 1995. Retrieved 2008-04-18.
- "Jesse Jackson Jr. Wins Primary in Chicago". The New York Times. November 29, 1995. Retrieved 2008-04-18.
- "Filling Mel's Shoes". Time. November 28, 1995. Retrieved 2008-04-18.
- Jackson and Watkins, p. 39.
- "Jackson on John Huang Contribution" (Press release). Jesse Jackson, Jr. for Congress. March 3, 1997. Retrieved 2008-09-17.[dead link]
- Wayne, Leslie (March 2, 1997). "Fund-Raiser Helped Members of Congress". The New York Times. Retrieved 2008-04-18.
- Milwaukee Journal Sentinel via Google News
- August, Melissa, Lina Lofaro, Alice Park, Jeffrey C. Rubin, Alain L. Sanders, and Sidney Urquhart (December 11, 1995). "This Week". Time. Retrieved 2008-04-18.
- "Whitewater: Smoking Gun or Squirt Gun?; A Long Way from His Shoeshine Stand". U.S. News & World Report. December 17, 1995. Retrieved 2008-04-18.
- Horowitz, Janice M., Lina Lofaro, Michael Quinn, Jeffrey C. Rubin, Alain L. Sanders, and Sidney Urquhart (December 25, 1995). "This Week". Time. Retrieved 2008-04-18.
- Johnson, Dirk (December 14, 1995). "Victory His, Jesse Jackson Jr. Heads to Congress". The New York Times. Retrieved 2008-04-18.
- "Jesse Jackson Jr. Sworn in as House Member". The New York Times. December 15, 1995. Retrieved 2008-04-18.
- "Illinois". Time. November 4, 1996. Retrieved 2008-04-18.
- "Results of Contests For the U.S. House, District by District". The New York Times. November 7, 1996. Retrieved 2008-04-18.
- Berke, Richard L. (February 22, 1998). "The Gore Guide to the Future". The New York Times. Retrieved 2008-04-19.
- "Illinois, District 2 Census Data". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on August 20, 2007. Retrieved 2008-04-20.
- "The 2000 Elections: Congress; Electing the New Congress: Races for the House and Senate". The New York Times. November 9, 2000. Retrieved 2008-04-20.
- Drinkard, Jim, and Kathy Kiely (April 26, 2005). "DeLay has company in ethical gray areas". USA TODAY. Retrieved 2008-04-21.
- 2002 primary results
- Shanton, Elizabeth (January 17, 2002). "Jesse Jackson Jr. Sues Challenger". The New York Times. Retrieved 2008-04-20.
- "Lawmaker Loses Bid to Question Opponents". The New York Times. January 15, 2002. Retrieved 2008-04-20.
- Janega, James (February 2, 2002). "Jackson's same-name foe quits race". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved 2012-11-27.
- "The 2004 Elections: Congress; The Races for the House". The New York Times. November 4, 2004. Retrieved 2008-04-20.
- Goodnough, Abby (March 30, 2005). "Jesse Jackson Takes Up Cause of Schiavo's Parents". The New York Times. Retrieved 2008-04-20.
- Lowenstein, Roger (July 9, 2006). "The Immigration Equation". The New York Times. Retrieved 2008-04-21.
- 2006 results
- Luker, Amanda (September 18, 2009). "Jesse Jackson, Jr.: A Different Vision". Utne Reader.
- "Periscope: Jesse Jr's Quid Pro Quo". Newsweek. February 26, 1996. p. 6.
- Stanglin, Douglas, Jerelyn Eddings, Kenneth T. Walsh, Kevin Whitelaw, Edward T. Pound, Jeff Trimble and Linda Fasulo (September 29, 1996). "Jesse Jackson's Newest Rival: Jesse Jr.; Crunch Point?; On Their Own; Court Politics; Spy vs. Spies; High on 42nd Street". U.S. News & World Report. Retrieved 2008-04-18.
- "Metro Digest". The New York Times. May 24, 1996. Retrieved 2008-04-19.
- Haberman, Clyde (April 11, 1997). "2 Standards About Words on Farrakhan". The New York Times. Retrieved 2008-04-19.
- "The Century Club: A Newsweek List Of 100 People To Watch As America Prepares To Pass Through The Gate To The Next Millennium". Newsweek. April 21, 1997. Archived from the original on 2011. Retrieved 2008-04-18.
- Allen, Jodie T. (February 27, 2000). "Trade Wars Become the Thrilla on the Hill: Strange allies line up for a high-stakes fight". U.S. News & World Report. Retrieved 2008-04-18.
- Schmitt, Eric (March 16, 1998). "Bill to Push Africa Trade Is Approved". The New York Times. Retrieved 2008-04-19.
- Schmitt, Eric (September 12, 1996). "Foreign Investment Agency Is Rebuffed in House Vote". The New York Times. Retrieved 2008-04-18.
- Harmon, Amy (July 4, 1999). "Personal Business; Filling a Skill Shortage, Close to Home". The New York Times. Retrieved 2008-04-19.
- Clinton impeachment vote
- White, Jack E. (December 3, 2000). "No Toms Need Apply". Time. Retrieved 2008-04-18.
- Keily, Kathy (December 7, 2006). "Hyde leaving Congress with mixed feelings". USA TODAY. Retrieved 2008-04-21.
- Johnson, Dirk (July 28, 1998). "Democrats Cast Wary Eye on One of Their Own". The New York Times. Retrieved 2008-04-19.
- Napolitano, Jo (June 19, 2004). "Plan for Indian Casino Splits Illinois Town". The New York Times. Retrieved 2008-04-21.
- Watkins, Frank (June 7, 2006). "Jackson Secures Funds For Rosa Parks Statue" (Press release). house.gov. Retrieved 2008-04-21.[dead link]
- "Bush signs bill for Rosa Parks statue in Capitol". USA TODAY. December 1, 2005. Retrieved 2008-04-21.
- Briscoe, Daren (January 7, 2005). "In Defeat, a Victory?". Newsweek. Retrieved 2008-04-18.[dead link]
- "Final Vote Results For Roll Call 7". Office of the Clerk – U.S. Capitol. January 6, 2005. Retrieved 2008-04-18.
- "Al Sharpton: Courts and Civil Liberties". Time. May 4, 2004. Retrieved 2008-04-30.[dead link]
- McCormack, Kelly (June 13, 2007). "Appropriators rename main CVC hall and OK funding for legislative branch". The Hill. Retrieved 2008-05-23.
- "W-ashington News". U.S. News & World Report. April 25, 2007. Retrieved 2008-04-18.
- "House would pay 1998 bomb victims". USA TODAY. October 3, 2007. Retrieved 2008-04-21.
- Bevan, Tom (July 3, 2007). "Flood the Scooter Zone". Time. Retrieved 2008-04-18.
- Congressman stands by his proposal: An iPad for every student
- Manker, Rob (April 18, 2011). "Jesse Jackson Jr. blames iPad for higher unemployment". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved July 11, 2012.
- Lipman, Jonathan (February 28, 2007). "Election 2007: Chicago: Corruption hurts Troutman, but Daley gets away unscathed". Daily Southtown. Retrieved 2009-02-16.
- "February, 2007 Municipal – Alderman 7th Ward". Chicago Board of Elections Commission. 2007. Retrieved 2009-02-16.
- "U.S. Representative Jesse Jackson Jr., IL-2". Democratic National Convention Committee, Inc. August 25, 2008. Archived from the original on January 4, 2009. Retrieved 2009-02-16.
- "2008 Democratic National Convention: Remarks as Prepared for Delivery by Jesse Jackson Jr., Member of the U.S. House of Representatives, Illinois". Forbes. August 25, 2008. Retrieved 2008-08-28.[dead link]
- "Jackson sees the mountain top". Daily Herald. August 25, 2008. Retrieved 2008-08-28.
- Von Drehle, David (August 26, 2008). "Telling Obama's American Story". Time. Retrieved 2008-10-12.
- Pearson, Rick (August 27, 2008). "Illinois Democratic hug fest at convention (with video)". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved 2008-08-31.
- FitzPatrick, Lauren (August 27, 2008). "Slideshow update: Jesse Jackson Jr.'s morning hugfest (with video and slideshow)". Southtown Star. Retrieved 2008-11-15.
- Kaufman, Leslie (June 22, 2008). "Food Stamps Buy Less; Families Are Hit Hard". The New York Times. Retrieved 2008-11-21.
- Archibold, Randal C. (September 30, 2008). "Black and Hispanic Caucuses Resisted Pelosi on Bailout". The New York Times. Retrieved 2008-11-21.
- Mullins, Luke (October 6, 2008). "The Bailout Bill's Flip-Floppers". U.S. News & World Report. Retrieved 2008-11-22.
- Jackson, Jesse, Jr. (October 9, 2008). "Letter; Protecting Voting Rights". The New York Times. Retrieved 2008-11-21.
- Keen, Judy (February 26, 2012). "Chicago's Pullman District could become a national park site". USA Today. Retrieved 2012-04-22.
- "Rep. Jackson holds symbolic groundbreaking for Peotone airport". Chicago Tribune. April 21, 2012. Retrieved 2012-04-22.
- "Representative Jesse L. Jackson, Jr.". Library of Congress. Retrieved 2008-04-22.
- Springen, Karen (May 15, 2008). "Whole Lotta Lincoln: Lincoln's bicentennial will be packed with books, exhibitions, debates, contests and a Spielberg movie". Newsweek. Retrieved 2008-10-12.
- "Lincoln in Illinois". Barnesandnoble.com llc. 2008. Retrieved 2008-10-12.
- Sneed, Michael (June 25, 2012). "Jesse Jackson Jr. takes medical leave for 'exhaustion'". Chicago Sun-Times. Retrieved 2012-07-05.
- "Jesse Jackson Jr. being treated for ‘mood disorder,’ doctor says". The Washington Free Beacon. Retrieved July 12, 2012.
- "Rep. Jackson suffering from "mood disorder"". CBS News. Retrieved July 12, 2012.
- Szalavitz, Maia (August 16, 2012). "Jesse Jackson Jr.’s Bipolar 2: A Diagnosis Muddled by the Market". Time (Time Inc.). Retrieved 2012-08-16.
- Korecki, Natasha. "Feds probe ‘suspicious activity’ in Jesse Jackson Jr.’s finances: sources". Chicago Sun-Times. Retrieved October 13, 2012.
- Camia, Catalina; Davis, Susan (November 21, 2012). "Jesse Jackson Jr. to resign from Congress". USA Today. Retrieved November 21, 2012.
- Jesse Jackson Jr. quits Congress, cites health reasons
- Skiba, Katherine; Coen, Jeff; Venteicher, Wes (2013-02-20). "Jacksons' guilt a tale of excess". Chicago Tribune.
- "Jesse Jackson Jr. signs plea deal in federal investigation". Chicago Sun-Times. Retrieved February 8, 2013.
- Schmidt, Michael S. (February 15, 2013). "Jesse Jackson Jr. Charged in Misuse of Campaign Money". New York Times. Retrieved 15 February 2013.
- Bresnahan, John and Josh Gerstein (June 7, 2013). "Feds: 4 years in prison for ex-Rep. Jackson Jr.". Politico. Retrieved September 23, 2013.
- Merica, Dan; Lazo, Larry; Bentz, Leslie (14 August 2013). "Jesse Jackson Jr. going to prison; says he 'manned up'". CNN. Retrieved 15 August 2013.
- Southall, Ashley (August 15, 2013). "Jesse Jackson Jr. Gets 30 Months, and His Wife 12, to Be Served at Separate Times". The New York Times. Retrieved September 23, 2013.
- "Jesse Jackson Jr.".
- Sack, Kevin (August 15, 2000). "The Democrats: The Legacy; Like His Father, Jesse Jackson Jr. Raises Voice for the Left". The New York Times. Retrieved 2008-04-20.
- Saffire, William (October 26, 2000). "Essay; The Great Mentioning". The New York Times. Retrieved 2008-04-20.
- Cole, Wendy (January 22, 2007). "In Chicago, the Dynasty Rolls On". Time. Retrieved 2008-04-18.
- Gerlach, David (October 5, 2006). "Daley's Reign: Chicago Mayor Richard M. Daley discusses the Wal-Mart controversy, the fall elections and his city's Olympic bid.". Newsweek. Retrieved 2008-04-18.
- "Battle of the Scions?: Jesse Jackson Jr. Eyes a Run at Chicago's Mayor". Newsweek. July 25, 2005. Retrieved 2008-04-18.
- Ferkenhoff, Eric (September 13, 2006). "How Daley's Minimum Wage Victory Could Mean Defeat". Time. Retrieved 2008-04-18.
- "Midwest: Illinois: Jackson's Son Considers Bid For Mayor". The New York Times. September 7, 2006. Retrieved 2008-04-20.
- Cose, Ellis (September 30, 2002). "A New Kind of Race: Minority Candidates Were Once Confined To The 'Ethnic Ghetto.' These Days, They Are Reaching Far Beyond". Newsweek. Retrieved 2008-04-18.
- "Cross Country". U.S. News & World Report. June 26, 2005. Retrieved 2008-04-18.
- Bevan, Tom (November 13, 2006). "The Lure of the Majority". Time. Retrieved 2008-04-18.
- Alter, Jonathan (December 27, 2004). "'The Audacity of Hope': Barack Obama: The Dems' Freshest Face Has a New Challenge: To Help His Party Relocate Its Moral Core. Meet Him—And Nine Others Who Will Shape Our World". Newsweek. Retrieved 2008-04-18.
- Seelye, Katharine Q. and Robin Toner (December 19, 2003). "Some Democrats Uneasy About Dean as Nominee". The New York Times. Retrieved 2008-04-20.
- Wilgoren, Jodi (October 28, 2003). "Jesse Jackson Jr. Throws His Support to Dean". The New York Times. Retrieved 2008-04-20.
- Slackman, Michael (December 5, 2003). "Sharpton Runs for Presidency, and Influence". The New York Times. Retrieved 2008-04-25.
- Bowden, Mark (July–August 2004). "Pompadour With a Monkey Wrench". Atlantic Monthly. Retrieved 2008-04-22.
- Scotti, Ciro (December 1, 2003). "No Wonder Howard Dean Is So Angry". Bloomberg BusinessWeek. Retrieved 2008-04-28.[dead link]
- Dvorak, Blake (March 18, 2008). "What Obama Should Say". Time. Retrieved 2008-04-18.
- "Washington News". U.S. News & World Report. October 24, 2007. Retrieved 2008-04-18.
- Mabry, Marcus (June 8, 2008). "Color Test; Where Whites Draw the Line". The New York Times. Retrieved 2008-11-21.
- Becker, Jo and Christopher Drew (May 11, 2008). "The Long Run: Pragmatic Politics, Forged on the South Side". The New York Times. Retrieved 2008-11-21.
- Scott, Janny (December 29, 2007). "A Biracial Candidate Walks His Own Fine Line". The New York Times. Retrieved 2008-04-20.
- Jackson, Jesse (November 27, 2007). "Most Democratic candidates are ignoring African Americans – It is no longer acceptable for candidates to turn a blind eye to discrimination". Chicago Sun-Times. Retrieved 2008-04-24.
- "Jesse Jr. to Jesse Sr.: You're wrong on Obama, dad". Chicago Sun-Times. December 3, 2007. Retrieved 2008-04-24.[dead link]
- Cobb, William Jelani (January 13, 2008). "As Obama Rises, Old Guard Civil Rights Leaders Scowl". The Washington Post. Retrieved 2008-05-27.
- "Jackson apologizes for 'crude' Obama remarks". CNN. July 9, 2008. Retrieved 2008-07-11.
- Bai, Matt (August 6, 2008). "Is Obama the End of Black Politics?". The New York Times. Retrieved 2008-11-21.
- Conrad, Dennis (November 6, 2008). "Obama's victory leaves Ill. Senate seat in limbo". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved 2009-02-12.[dead link]
- Saulny, Susan (November 5, 2008). "Election Creates a Race to Fill Senate Vacancies". The New York Times. Retrieved 2008-11-21.
- Goldberger, Ben (November 5, 2008). "Obama's Replacement: Blagojevich Mulls Senate Pick". Huffington Post. Retrieved 2008-11-21.
- Sidoti, Liz (November 13, 2008). "Obama to Resign Senate Seat on Sunday". Time. Retrieved 2008-11-22.[dead link]
- "Jesse Jackson Jr.: Obama, Civil Rights And Illinois". Weekend Edition (NPR). November 8, 2008.
- Zeleny, Jeff (October 21, 2007). "Obama Calls for Ouster of Official After Remark". The New York Times. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
- Davey, Monica (November 12, 2008). "Picking Obama Successor Puts Spotlight on Governor". The New York Times. Retrieved 2008-11-21.
- Baker, Peter (November 14, 2008). "On The White House; If the Senate Reconvenes, Two Seats May Be Empty". The New York Times. Retrieved 2008-11-21.
- "Obama, top aides spoke with feds in corruption case". New Haven Register. Associated Press. December 24, 2008. Retrieved 2009-02-13.
- Ihejirika, Maudlyne (November 28, 2008). "Blagojevich trumpets 'Sen. Davis' but says he hasn't decided on seat". Chicago Sun-Times. Retrieved 2008-12-01.[dead link]
- Pearson, Rick (December 6, 2008). "Fellow Democrats are saying Gov. Rod Blagojevich's scandals could politically taint his selection for senator: Spotlight on Senate selection as pressure mounts". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved 2008-12-07.
- Garcia, Monique (December 8, 2008). "Blagojevich: 'Nothing but sunshine hanging over me'". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved 2008-12-09.
- Jackson, Jesse, Jr. (December 9, 2008). "Congressman Jackson Is Shocked By Governor's Arrest". house.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-10.[dead link]
- Johnson Dirk (December 9, 2008). "‘A Senate Seat on Ebay’: Inside the case against Illinois Gov. Blagojevich". Newsweek. Retrieved 2008-12-10.
- Ross, Brian (December 10, 2008). "Sources Say Rep. Jesse Jackson Jr. is 'Senate Candidate #5'". ABC News. Retrieved 2008-12-10.
- "Jackson: "I've done nothing wrong"". The Politico. December 10, 2008. Retrieved 2008-12-10.
- Roth, Zachary (December 10, 2008). "Jackson's Lawyer: I "Assume" He's Candidate 5". TPM Muckraker. TPM Media LLC. Retrieved 2008-12-10.[dead link]
- "Attorney: US Rep. Jesse Jackson Is 'Candidate 5'". The New York Times. December 10, 2008. Retrieved 2008-12-10.[dead link]
- "CQ Transcript: Rep. Jesse Jackson Jr. Holds Press Conference on Blagojevich Affair". CQPolitics. Congressional Quarterly. December 10, 2008. Archived from the original on December 15, 2008. Retrieved 2008-12-10.
- Thomas, Charles (December 15, 2008). "Jackson, Jr. May Have Been Working With Feds". ABC Inc., WLS-TV/DT Chicago, Illinois. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
- "Jackson, Jr. an informant to Blago investigations". CNN.com (Cable News Network LP, LLLP.). December 16, 2008. Retrieved 2008-12-18.
- Fusco, Chris and Tim Novak (December 22, 2008). "What Really Happened with Jackson Jr., Feds". Chicago Sun-Times. Archived from the original on February 7, 2009. Retrieved 2009-02-13.
- Fineman, Howard (December 10, 2008). "What Jesse Jr. Wants: Surfing Blagojevich's wake on Chicago's South Side.". Newsweek. Retrieved 2008-12-12.
- Carney, Timothy P. Timothy P. (December 17, 2008). "ENPR: Illinois, Colorado, and New York Senate Vacancies Kick Off 2010 Race". Human Events. Retrieved 2009-02-13.
- Pinkerton, James P. (December 17, 2008). "A ‘Black’ Senate Seat?". Fox News Channel. Retrieved 2009-02-13.
- "Senate Dems expect to seat Burris Thursday: Burris: 'I really never doubted that I would be seated'". MSNBC. January 13, 2009. Retrieved 2009-01-14.
- Davis, Susan (January 13, 2009). "Roland Burris to Be Sworn in as Senator on Thursday". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 2009-01-14.
- Bartosik, Matt. "Burris, Jackson Are Among "Most Corrupt"". The Black Collegian Magazine. Retrieved 2009-09-28.
- [dead link]
- Fitzsimmons, Emma Graves (September 21, 2010). "Illinois: Congressman Denies Dealing for Senate Seat". The New York Times. Retrieved 2011-10-19.
- Weber, Joseph (July 11, 2012). "Rep. Jackson facing mounting calls to explain illness, extended absence". Fox News Channel. Retrieved 2012-07-11.
- Jackson, Jesse L., Jr and Jesse L. Jackson, Sr. It's About the Money: How You Can Get Out of Debt, Build Wealth, and Achieve Your Financial Dreams. Random House, Incorporated. ISBN 978-0-8129-3296-6.
- "It's About the Money: How You Can Get Out of Debt, Build Wealth, and Achieve Your Financial Dreams". Random House, Incorporated. Retrieved 2008-04-19.
- Packer, George (December 12, 1999). "Trickle-Down Civil Rights". The New York Times. Retrieved 2008-04-19.
- Jackson, Jesse L., Jr., Jesse L. Jackson, Sr., and Bruce Shapiro. Legal Lynching II. New Press. ISBN 978-1-56584-685-2.
- Sachs, Andrea (August 16, 2001). "Galley Girl: Moon Unit Zappa Edition". Time. Retrieved 2008-04-18.
- "Legal Lynching". The New Press. Retrieved 2008-04-18.
- Jackson, Jesse L., Sr. Legal Lynching: Racism, Injustice and the Death Penalty. Marlowe & Co. ISBN 1-56924-761-7.
- Jackson, Jesse L., Jr., and Frank Watkins (2001). A More Perfect Union: Advancing New American Rights. Welcome Rain Publisher. ISBN 1-56649-186-X.
- "A More Perfect Union (Hardcover)". Amazon.com, Inc. Retrieved 2008-04-21.
- Stanton, Robert G. (May 17, 2001). "Rally on the High Ground". National Park Service. Retrieved 2008-04-21.
- Dyson, Michael Eric (December 11, 2001). "8 steps to equality – New book by Rep. Jackson offers bold strategy for improving the lives of everyday Americans". Chicago Sun-Times. Retrieved 2008-05-23.
- Thomas, John D. (August 3, 2003). "Rep. Jackson keeps pen busy with changes for Constitution". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved 2008-09-17.
- Jackson and Watkins, p. 36.
- Jackson and Watkins, p. 37.
- Simpson, Burney (March 1996). "Jesse Junior: Making a name for himself". Illinois Periodicals Online. Illinois State Library. Retrieved 2008-05-29.
- Hoppin, Jason (June 13, 2002). "9th Circuit May Let Ailemen Sentence Stand". Cal Law. ALM Properties, Inc. Retrieved 2008-05-29.[dead link]
- "Supreme Court Orders". FindLaw. February 24, 2003. Retrieved 2008-05-29.
- Tapper, Jake (September 1, 2002). "The Way We Live Now: 9-1-02: Questions For Dick Armey; Retiring, Not Shy". The New York Times. Retrieved 2008-04-20.
- Bailey, Holly (January 24, 2007). "And Then The President Hugged Me. And Kissed Me. And For One Magical Moment, I Felt Just Like Joe Lieberman". Newsweek. Retrieved 2008-04-18.
- Weinraub, Bernard (December 1, 1988). "Washington Talk; Bush and Jackson Seek Common Ground". The New York Times. Retrieved 2008-04-25.
- "Transcripts: Congressman Jesse Jackson, Jr.". Time (Time, Inc./Yahoo! Chat). February 1, 1999. Archived from the original on April 1, 2008. Retrieved 2008-04-30.
- Orakwue, Stella (January 2008). "What rich black folks do, poor black folks copy". New African (CNET Networks, Inc.). Retrieved 2008-04-27.[dead link]
- "Full Text of HR1492". Illinois General Assembly / Legislative Information System. Retrieved 2008-04-27.
- Jackson, Jesse Jr. (November 18, 2006). "The Enduring and Everlasting Call to Omega". Jesse Jackson, Jr. for Congress. Retrieved 2008-04-28.[dead link]
- "Omega Psi Phi Fraternity, Inc. Theta Epsilon Chapter". Kappa Psi Chapter of Omega Psi Phi Fraternity, Inc. 2007. Retrieved 2008-04-27.[dead link]
- Morton, Joseph (August 3, 2007). "Jesse Jackson: Lee Terry was aggressor". Omaha World-Herald. Archived from the original on September 3, 2007. Retrieved 2008-04-22.
- Morton, Joseph (August 2, 2007). "Lee Terry, Jackson go toe-to-toe on House floor". Omaha World-Herald. Retrieved 2008-04-22.
- Akers, Mary Ann (August 3, 2007). "Rep. Jackson Jr. and Lee Terry, Still Spatting". The Sleuth. Retrieved 2008-04-22.
- Akers, Mary Ann (August 9, 2007). "Third Party Enters Spat Between Reps. Jackson Jr. and Lee Terry". The Washington Post. Retrieved 2008-04-22.
- Joravsky, Ben (August 6, 2007). "Jesse Jackson Jr., Chicago's own Karate Kid". Chicago Reader. Creative Loafing Media. Retrieved 2008-04-22.
- Parker, Ashley (June 12, 2008). "Counting Steps, Not Votes, on Capitol Hill". The New York Times. Retrieved 2008-08-27.
- Monica Davey, For a Soaring Political Career, Uncertain Turns, The New York Times, July 11, 2012.
- "Jesse Jackson Jr. in Mayo Clinic for depression". USA Today. July 28, 2012. Retrieved July 28, 2012.
- "Rep. Jackson Jr. treated for bipolar disorder". USA Today. August 13, 2012. Retrieved August 13, 2012.
- Skiba, Katherine (2015-03-27). "Jesse Jackson Jr. arrives at halfway house, asks for 'a second chance'". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved 2015-04-17.
- "Jesse Jackson Jr. Elected". The New York Times. December 13, 1995. Retrieved 2008-05-05.
- "Statistics of the Presidential and Congressional Election of November 5, 1996". Clerk of the House of Representatives. Retrieved 2008-05-05.
- "Statistics of the Congressional Election of November 3, 1998". Clerk of the House of Representatives. Retrieved 2008-05-05.
- "Statistics of the Presidential and Congressional Election of November 7, 2000" (PDF). Clerk of the House of Representatives. Retrieved 2008-05-05.
- "Statistics of the Congressional Election of November 5, 2002" (PDF). Clerk of the House of Representatives. Retrieved 2008-05-05.
- "Statistics of the Presidential and Congressional Election of November 2, 2004" (PDF). Clerk of the House of Representatives. Retrieved 2008-05-05.
- "Statistics of the Congressional Election of November 7, 2006" (PDF). Clerk of the House of Representatives. Retrieved 2008-05-05.
- "The Races for the House". The New York Times. November 6, 2008. Retrieved 2008-11-21.
- "STATISTICS OF THE CONGRESSIONAL ELECTION OF NOVEMBER 2, 2010" (PDF).
- "2012 General Election Results: U.S. House of Representatives". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved December 16, 2012.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Jesse Jackson, Jr..|
- U.S. Congressman Jesse L. Jackson, Jr. official U.S. House site
- Jesse Jackson, Jr. Congressman official campaign site
- Biography at the Biographical Directory of the United States Congress
- Profile at Project Vote Smart
- Financial information (federal office) at the Federal Election Commission
- Biography at Answers.com
- Interview: Congressman Jesse L. Jackson, Jr., Buzzflash, December 30, 2002
- Jackson Jr., Jesse The Right to Vote, The Nation, January 19, 2006
|United States House of Representatives|
|Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Illinois's 2nd congressional district