The party suffered a major split in August 1919, when a dissident group formed the Jewish Communist Party (Poalei Zion). After the JCP(PZ) had merged into the Communist Party in 1922, the JSDLP(PZ) changed name to the Jewish Communist Labour Party (Poalei Zion). The party was completely banned and dissolved in 1928 when most of its member either joined the Communist movement or quit the party.
The party was represented in the Central Council of Ukraine in 1917 and in the Council of National Ministers of the Ukrainian National Republic (executive branch of the Ukrainian National Republic) the Poalist Abraham Revutsky was minister of Jewish affairs. Another Poalist, Solomon Goldelman, was deputy minister of trade and industry and of labour in the Directory of the Ukrainian National Republic (state authority created by the Ukrainian National Union on 14 November 1918).