Jewish ghettos in German-occupied Poland
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Jewish ghettos in German-occupied Poland were established during World War II in hundreds of locations across occupied Poland. Most Jewish ghettos had been created by Nazi Germany between October 1939 and July 1942 in order to confine and segregate Poland's Jewish population of about 3.5 million for the purpose of persecution, terror, and exploitation. In smaller towns, ghettos often served as staging points for Jewish slave-labor and mass deportation actions, while in the urban centers they resembled walled-off prison-islands described by some historians as little more than instruments of "slow, passive murder," with dead bodies littering the streets.
In most cases, the larger ghettos did not correspond to traditional Jewish neighborhoods, and non-Jewish Poles and members of other ethnic groups were ordered to take up residence elsewhere. Smaller Jewish communities with populations under 500 were terminated through expulsion soon after the invasion.
The liquidation of the Jewish ghettos across Poland was closely connected with the construction of highly secretive death camps built in early 1942 by various German companies, for the sole purpose of annihilating a people. The Nazi extermination program depended on killing centers as much as on the effectiveness of their railways. Rail transport enabled the SS to run industrial-scale mass-extermination facilities and, at the same time, openly lie to their victims about the "resettlement" program. Jews were transported to their deaths in Holocaust trains from liquidated ghettos of all occupied cities, including Litzmannstadt, the last ghetto in Poland to be emptied in August 1944. In some larger ghettos there were armed resistance attempts, such as the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, the Białystok Ghetto Uprising and the Łachwa Ghetto uprising, but in every case they failed against the overwhelming German military force, and the remaining Jews were either executed or deported to the extermination camps. By the time Nazi-occupied Eastern Europe was liberated by the Red Army, not a single Jewish ghetto in Poland was left standing. Only about 50,000–120,000 Polish Jews survived the war on native soil with the assistance of their Polish neighbors, a fraction of their prewar population of 3,500,000.
In total, according to USHMM archives, "The Germans established at least 1000 ghettos in German-occupied and annexed Poland and the Soviet Union alone." The list of locations of the Jewish ghettos within the borders of pre-war and post-war Poland is compiled with the understanding that their inhabitants were either of Polish nationality from before the invasion, or had strong historical ties with Poland. Also, not all ghettos are listed here due to their transient nature. Permanent ghettos were created only in settlements with rail connections, because the food aid (paid by the Jews themselves) was completely dependent on the Germans, making even the potato-peels a hot commodity. Throughout 1940 and 1941, most ghettos were sealed off from the outside, walled off or enclosed with barbed wire, and many Jews found leaving them were shot. The Warsaw Ghetto was the largest ghetto in all of Nazi occupied Europe, with over 400,000 Jews crammed into an area of 1.3 square miles (3.4 km2), or 7.2 persons per room. The Łódź Ghetto was the second largest, holding about 160,000 inmates. In documents and signage, the Nazis usually referred to the ghettos they created as Jüdischer Wohnbezirk or Wohngebiet der Juden, meaning "Jewish Quarter". By the end of 1941, most Polish Jews were already ghettoized, even though the Germans knew that the system was unsustainable; most inmates had no chance of earning their own keep, and no savings left to pay the SS for further deliveries. The quagmire was resolved at the Wannsee conference of 20 January 1942 near Berlin, where the "Final Solution" (die Endlösung der Judenfrage) was set in place.
List of Jewish ghettos in occupied Poland
The settlements listed in the Polish language, including major cities, had all been renamed after the 1939 joint invasion of Poland by Germany and the Soviet Union. Renaming everything in their own image had been one way in which the invaders sought to redraw Europe's political map. All Polish territories were confiscated as either Nazi zones of occupation (i.e. Bezirk Bialystok, Provinz Ostpreußen, Reichskommissariat Ostland, etc.), or Soviet brand-new extensions to the two fledging western republics (i.e. West Belarus), soon overrun again in Operation Barbarossa. The Soviet Ukraine and Byelorussia witnessed the genocide of Poles just prior to invasion, resulting in the virtual absence of ethnic Poles in the USSR along the pre-war border with Poland since the Great Terror.
- For a chronological list of names and ghetto operations, please use table-sort buttons. The locations in both other languages are available through active links.
|#||Ghetto location in prewar
and postwar Poland
Within months, the most populous Jewish ghettos in World War II included the Łódź Ghetto (set up in April 1940), and the Warsaw Ghetto (October 1940)
|1||Aleksandrów Lódzki||3,500||1939||1939–12 !Dec 1939||to Głowno ghetto|
|2||Bełżyce||4,500||1940–06 !Jun 1940||1943–05 !May 1943||to Budzyń ghetto, Sobibor and Majdanek|
|3||Będzin Ghetto||7,000–28,000||1940–07 !Jul 1940||1943–08 !Aug 1943||to Auschwitz (7,000).|
|4||Błonie||2,100||1940–12 !Dec 1940||1941–02 !Feb 1941||to Warsaw Ghetto (all 2,100)|
|5||Bodzentyn||700||1940||1942–09 !Sep 1942||to Suchedniów ghetto → Treblinka.|
|6||Brześć Kujawski||630||1940||1942–04 !Apr 1942||to Łódź Ghetto, Chełmno extermination camp|
|7||Brzeziny||6,000–6,800||1940–02 !Feb 1940||1942–05 !May 1942||to Łódź Ghetto, Chełmno extermination camp|
|8||Brzozów||1,000||1940||1942–08 !Aug 1942||to Belzec extermination camp|
|9||Bychawa||2,700||1940||1941–04 !Apr 1941||to Belzyce|
|10||Chęciny||4,000||1940/1941–06 !1940 – Jun 1941||1942–09 !Sep 1942||to Treblinka|
|11||Dąbrowa Górnicza||4,000–10,000||1940||1943–06 !Jun 1943||to Auschwitz|
|12||Dęblin||3,300–5,800||1940–04 !Apr 1940||1942–10 !Oct 1942||to Sobibor and Treblinka|
|13||Działoszyce||15,000?||1940–04 !Apr 1940||1942–10 !Oct 1942||to Płaszów and Bełżec extermination camp|
|14||Gąbin||2,000–2,300||1940||1942–04 !Apr 1942||to Chełmno extermination camp|
|15||Głowno||5,600||1940–05 !May 1940||1941–03 !Mar 1941||to Łowicz ghetto and Warsaw Ghetto (5,600)|
|16||Gorlice (labor camp 1st)||?||1940||1942||to Buchenwald, Muszyna, Mielec, see Gorlice|
|17||Góra Kalwaria||3,300||1940–01 !Jan 1940||1941–02 !Feb 1941||to Warsaw Ghetto (3,000), 300 killed locally|
|18||Grodzisk Mazowiecki||6,000||1940/1941–01 !1940 – Jan 1941||1942–10 !Oct 1942||to Warsaw Ghetto (all 6,000)|
|19||Grójec||5,200–6,000||1940–07 !Jul 1940||1942–09 !Sep 1942||to Warsaw Ghetto (all 6,000) → Treblinka|
|20||Izbica Kujawska||1,000||1940||1942–01 !Jan 1942||to Chełmno extermination camp|
|21||Jeżów||1,600||1940||1941–02 !Feb 1941||to Warsaw Ghetto (all 1,600)|
|22||Jędrzejów||6,000||1940–03 !Mar 1940||1942–09 !Sep 1942||to Treblinka|
|23||Kazimierz Dolny||2,000–3,500||1940/1941–04 !1940 – Apr 1941||1942–03 !Mar 1942||to Sobibor, and Treblinka|
|24||Kobyłka||1,500||1940–09 !Sep 1940||1942–10 !Oct 1942||to Treblinka|
|25||Koło||2,000–5,000||1940–12 !Dec 1940||1941–12 !Dec 1941||to Treblinka (2,000) and Chełmno|
|26||Koniecpol||1,100–1,600||1940||1942–10 !Oct 1942||to Treblinka|
|27||Konin||1,500?||1939–12 !Dec 1939||1940/1941–03 !1940 – Mar 1941||to Zagórów & other ghettos, many killed locally|
|28||Kozienice||13,000||1940–01 !Jan 1940||1942–09 !Sep 1942||to Treblinka|
|29||Koźminek||2,500||1940||1942–07 !Jul 1942||to Chełmno|
|30||Krasnystaw||2,000||1940–08 !Aug 1940||1942–10 !Oct 1942||to Belzec|
|31||Krośniewice||1,500||1940–05 !May 1940||1942–03 !Mar 1942||to Chełmno extermination camp|
|32||Kutno||7,000||1940–06 !Jun 1940||1942–03 !Mar 1942||to Chełmno|
|34||Łańcut||2,700||1939–12 !Dec 1939||1942–08 !Aug 1942||to Belzec|
|35||Łask||4,000||1940–12 !Dec 1940||1942–08 !Aug 1942||to Chełmno extermination camp|
|36||Łowicz||8,000–8,200||1940||1941–03 !Mar 1941||to Warsaw Ghetto (all, including labor camp)|
|37||Łódź Ghetto||200,000||1940–02–08 !8 Feb 1940||1944–08 !Aug 1944||to Auschwitz and Chełmno extermination camp|
|38||Marki||?||1940/1941–03 !1940 – Mar 1941||1942||to Warsaw Ghetto|
|39||Mielec||4,000–4,500||1940||1942–03 !Mar 1942||to Belzec|
|40||Mińsk Mazowiecki Ghetto||5,000–7,000||1940–10 !Oct 1940||1942–08 !Aug 1942||to Treblinka, 1,300 killed locally|
|41||Mława||6,000–6,500||1940–12 !Dec 1940||1942–11 !Nov 1942||to Treblinka and Auschwitz|
|42||Mogielnica||1,500||1940||1942–02–28 !28 Feb 1942||to Warsaw Ghetto (all) → Treblinka.|
|43||Mordy||4,500||1940–11 !Nov 1940||1942–08 !Aug 1942||to Treblinka|
|44||Muranów||445,000||1940||1942||see also Warsaw Ghetto (all) → Treblinka|
|45||Nowy Dwór Mazowiecki||2,000–4,000||1940/1941–01 !1940 – Jan 1941||1942–12 !Dec 1942||to Pomiechówek ghetto → Auschwitz|
|46||Nowy Korczyn||4,000||1940||1942–10 !Oct 1942||to Treblinka|
|47||Opoczno||3,000–4,000||1940–11 !Nov 1940||1942–10 !Oct 1942||to Treblinka|
|48||Otwock||12,000–15,000||1939–12 !Dec 1939||1942–08 !Aug 1942||to Treblinka, and Auschwitz|
|49||Pabianice||8,500–9,000||1940–02 !Feb 1940||1942–05 !May 1942||to Łódź Ghetto → Chełmno extermination camp|
|50||Piaseczno||2,500||1940||1941–01 !Jan 1941||to Warsaw Ghetto (all 2,500)|
|51||Piaski (transit)||10,000||1940||1943–11 !Nov 1943||to Belzec, Sobibor, Trawniki|
|52||Piotrków Trybunalski Ghetto||25,000||1939–10–8 !8 Oct 1939||1944–10–14/21 !14 / 21 Oct 1944||to Majdanek and Treblinka (22,000), killed locally|
|53||Płock||7,000–10,000||1939–1940||1941–02 !Feb 1941||to Działdowo ghetto|
|54||Płońsk||12,000||1940–09 !Sep 1940||1942–11 !Nov 1942||to Treblinka, Auschwitz|
|55||Poddębice||1,500||1940–11 !Nov 1940||1942–04 !Apr 1942||to Treblinka(?)|
|56||Pruszków||1,400||1940||1941||to Warsaw Ghetto (all 1,400)|
|57||Przedbórz||4,000–5,000||1940–03 !Mar 1940||1942–10 !Oct 1942||to Belzec and Treblinka|
|58||Puławy||5,000||1939–11/12 !Nov – Dec 1939||1940||to Opole Lubelskie → Sobibor|
|59||Radomsko||18,000–20,000||1939/40–01 !1939 – Jan 1940||1943–07–21 !21 Jul 1943||to Treblinka extermination camp (18,000)|
|60||Radzymin||2,500||1940–09 !Sep 1940||1942–10 !Oct 1942||to Treblinka|
|61||Serock||2,000||1940–02 !Feb 1940||1940–12 !Dec 1940||to other ghettos|
|62||Sieradz||2,500–5,000||1940–03 !Mar 1940||1942–08 !Aug 1942||to Chełmno extermination camp|
|63||Sierpc||500–3,000||1940||1942–02 !Feb 1942||to Warsaw Ghetto → Treblinka|
|64||Skaryszew||1,800||1940||1942–04 !Apr 1942||to Szydlowiec|
|65||Skierniewice||4,300–7,000||1940–12 !Dec 1940||1941–04 !Apr 1941||to Warsaw Ghetto (all 7,000)|
|66||Sochaczew||3,000–4,000||1940–01 !Jan 1940||1941–02 !Feb 1941||to Warsaw Ghetto (all 3,000)|
|67||Stalowa Wola||2,500||1940||1942–07 !Jul 1942||to Belzec|
|68||Stryj||12,000||1940–1941||1943–06 !Jun 1943||to Belzec|
|69||Szadek||500||1940||1940||to other ghettos|
|70||Szczebrzeszyn||4,000||1940/1941–04 !1940 – Apr 1941||1942–10 !Oct 1942||to Belzec, also killed locally|
|71||Tomaszów Mazowiecki||16,000–20,000||1940–12 !Dec 1940||1942–11 !Nov 1942||to Treblinka (16,000), with 4,000 killed locally|
|72||Turek||5,000||1940||1941–10 !Oct 1941||to Kowale Pańskie ghetto (all 5,000)|
|73||Tyszowce||1,500–2,000||1940||1942–09 !Sep 1942||to Belzec|
|74||Uchanie||2,000||1940||1942–11 !Nov 1942||to Sobibor|
|75||Ulanów||500||1940||1942–10 !Oct 1942||to other ghettos|
|76||Uniejów||500||1940||1941–10 !Oct 1941||to Kowale Pańskie ghetto (all 500)|
|77||Warka||2,800||1940||1941–02 !Feb 1941||to Warsaw Ghetto (all 2,800)|
|78||Warta||1,000–2,400||1940–02 !Feb 1940||1942–08 !Aug 1942||to Chełmno extermination camp|
|79||Warsaw Ghetto||450,000||1940–10/1940–11–15 !Oct – 15 Nov 1940||1942–09 !Sep 1942||to Treblinka (300,000), and Majdanek|
|80||Włocławek||4,000–13,500||1940–10 !Oct 1940||1942–04 !Apr 1942||to Chełmno extermination camp|
|81||Włodawa||6,000||1940–1942||1943–04 !Apr 1943||to Sobibor|
|82||Włoszczowa||4,000–6,000||1940–07 !Jul 1940||1942–09 !Sep 1942||to Treblinka|
|83||Wodzisław||4,000||1940–06 !Jun 1940||1942–11 !Nov 1942||to Treblinka|
|84||Wołomin||3,000–5,500||1940–1942||1943–04 !Apr 1943||to Treblinka|
|85||Wyszogród||2,700–3,000||1940–12 !Dec 1940||1942–11 !Nov 1942||to Treblinka|
|86||Zagórów||2,000–2,500||1940–07 !Jul 1940||1941–10 !Oct 1941||all killed locally|
|87||Zamość||12,000–14,000||1940 !1940||1943–05 !May 1943||to Izbica Ghetto, Belzec, Majdanek|
|88||Zduńska Wola||8,300–10,000||1940||1942–08 !Aug 1942||to Chełmno extermination camp|
|89||Żychlin||2,800–4,000||1940–07 !Jul 1940||1942–03 !Mar 1942||to Chełmno extermination camp|
|90||Żyrardów||3,000–5,000||1940–12 !Dec 1940||1941–02 !Feb 1941||to Warsaw Ghetto (all 5,000)|
The creation of new Jewish ghettos and the mass executions on-site by mobile killing squads intensified.
|91||Augustów||4,000||1941–10 !Oct 1941||1942–06 !Jun 1942||to Treblinka and Auschwitz, many killed locally|
|92||Bełchatów||5,500–6,000||1941–03 !Mar 1941||1942–08 !Aug 1942||to Chełmno extermination camp|
|93||Biała Podlaska||7,000–8,400||1941–07 !Jul 1941||1942–09 !Sep 1942||to Majdanek, Sobibor, Treblinka|
|94||Biała Rawska||4,000||1941–09 !Sep 1941||1942–10 !Oct 1942||to Treblinka|
|95||Białystok Ghetto||40,000–50,000||1941–07–26 !26 Jul 1941||1943–11 !Nov 1943||to Majdanek, Treblinka|
|96||Biłgoraj||2,500–3,000||1941–1942||1942–11 !Nov 1942||to Belzec|
|97||Bobowa||658?||1941–10 !Oct 1941||1942–08 !Aug 1942||to Gorlice and Biecz ghettos|
|98||Bochnia||14,000–15,000||1941–03 !Mar 1941||1943–09 !Sep 1943||to Szebnie, Belzec and Auschwitz|
|99||Brześć Litewski Ghetto||18,000||1941–12–16 !16 Dec 1941||1942–10 !Oct 1942||shot locally (5,000 before the ghetto was set up)|
|100||Busko Zdrój||2,000||1941||1942–10 !Oct 1942||to Treblinka|
|101||Chełm||8,000–12,000||1941–06 !Jun 1941||1942–11 !Nov 1942||to Sobibor|
|102||Chmielnik||10,000–14,000||1941–04 !Apr 1941||1942–11 !Nov 1942||to Treblinka|
|103||Chodel||1,400||1941–06 !Jun 1941||1942||to other ghettos|
|104||Chrzanów||8,000||1941–11 !Nov 1941||1943–02 !Feb 1943||to Auschwitz|
|105||Ciechanowiec||4,000||1941||1941–11 !Nov 1941||to Treblinka|
|106||Ciepielów||600||1941–12 !Dec 1941||1942–10–15/29 !15 / 29 Oct 1942||to Treblinka, Polish rescuers killed 6 Dec 1942.|
|107||Czeladź||800||1941–11 !Nov 1941||1943–02 !Feb 1943||to Auschwitz|
|108||Częstochowa Ghetto||48,000||1941–04–9 !9 Apr 1941||1942–09–22/1942–10–9 !22 Sep – 9 Oct 1942||to Treblinka extermination camp|
|109||Ćmielów||1,500–2,000?||1941||1942–10 !Oct (end) 1942||to Treblinka (900), murdered locally|
|110||Dąbie||900||1941||1941–12 !Dec 1941||to Chełmno extermination camp|
|111||Dobre||500–1,000||1941||1942–09 !Sep 1942||to Treblinka|
|112||Drohiczyn||700||1941–06 !Jun 1941||1942–11 !Nov 1942||to Bransk and Bielsk ghettos|
|113||Drzewica||2,000||1941||1942–10 !Oct 1942||to Treblinka|
|114||Dubienka||2,500–3,000||1941–06 !Jun 1941||1942–10 !Oct 1942||to other ghettos|
|115||Głogów Małopolski||120?||1941||1942||to Rzeszów ghetto, 5,000 executed in local forest|
|116||Gniewoszów (open type)||6,580||1941–12 !Dec 1941||1942–11 !Nov 1942||to Zwoleń (5,000); 1,000 → Treblinka|
|117||Goniądz||1,000–1,300||1941–06 !Jun 1941||1942–11 !Nov 1942||to Bogusze ghetto|
|118||Gorlice||4,500||1941–10 !Oct 1941||1942–08 !Aug 1942||to Belzec|
|119||Gostynin||3,500||1941||1942–08 !Aug 1942||to Chełmno extermination camp|
|120||Grajewo||3,000||1941–06 !Jun 1941||1942–11 !Nov 1942||to Bogusze ghetto|
|121||Hrubieszów (open type)||6,800–10,000||1941–06/1942–05 !Jun 1941 – May 1942||1943–05/1943–09 !May – Nov 1943||to Sobibor and Budzyn, killed locally, 2,000 fled.|
|122||Iłża||1,900–2,000||1941||1942–10 !Oct 1942||to Treblinka|
|123||Inowłódz||500–600||1941||1942–08 !Aug 1942||to Tomaszow Mazowiecki ghetto|
|124||Iwacewicze||600||1941||1942–03-14 !14 Mar 1942||to Słonim ghetto, all killed locally|
|125||Izbica Ghetto (transit)||12,000–22,700||1941||1942–11-02 !2 Nov 1942||to Belzec and Sobibor, 4,500 killed locally|
|126||Jasło||2,000–3,000||1941||1942–08 !Aug 1942||to other ghettos|
|127||Jedwabne||100–130||1941–07 !Jul 1941||1941–11 !Nov 1941||to Łomża Ghetto → Treblinka, 340 killed locally.|
|128||Kalisz||400||1941||1942||to other ghettos|
|129||Kałusz||6,000||1941–06 !Jun 1941||1942–11 !Nov 1942||to Belzec, several hundred executed locally|
|130||Karczew||700||1941–03 !Mar 1941||1941–10 !Oct 1941||to Warsaw Ghetto|
|131||Kielce||27,000||1941||1942–08 !Aug 1942||to Treblinka, with 6,000 killed locally|
|132||Kłobuck||2,000||1941||1942–06 !Jun 1942||to Auschwitz|
|133||Knyszyn||2,000||1941–06 !Jun 1941||1942–11 !Nov 1942||to Bialystok Ghetto|
|134||Kobryn||8,000||1941–06 !Jun 1941||1942–10 !Oct 1942||all killed locally|
|135||Kock||2,500–3,000||1941–06 !Jun 1941||1942–12 !Dec 1942||to Treblinka|
|136||Kodeń||?||1941–06 !Jun 1941||1942–09 !Sep 1942||to Miedzyrzec Podlaski Ghetto|
|137||Kolbuszowa||2,500||1941||1942–09 !Sep 1942||to Belzec|
|138||Koluszki||2,000||1941||1942–10 !Oct 1942||to Treblinka|
|139||Końskie||10,000||1941||1943–01 !Jan 1943||to Treblinka|
|140||Korczyn||2,000||1941||1942–08 !Aug 1942||to Belzec|
|141||Kraków Ghetto||20,000 (pop. 68,500)||1941–03 !Mar 1941||1943–03 !Mar 1943||to Belzec and Płaszów; 48,000 expelled in 1940.|
|142||Kraśnik||5,000–6,000||1940–1941||1942–11 !Nov 1942||to Belzec|
|143||Krynki||3,500–6,000||1941–06/11 !Jun – Nov 1941||1942–11 !Nov 1942||all killed locally|
|144||Książ Wielki||200?||1941||1942–11 !Nov 1942||to Miechow ghetto|
|145||Kunów||500||1941||1942–10 !Oct 1942||to Treblinka|
|146||Limanowa||2,000||1941||1942–08 !Aug 1942||to Belzec|
|147||Lipsk||3,000||1941–12 !Dec 1941||1942–10 !Oct 1942||to Treblinka|
|148||Lubartów Ghetto||3,269–4,500||1941–06 !Jun 1941||1942–10 !Oct 1942||to Bełżec extermination camp|
|149||Lublin Ghetto||30,000–40,000||1941–03–24 !24 Mar 1941||1942–11 !Nov 1942||to Belzec (30,000) and Majdanek (4,000)|
|150||Lwów Ghetto||115,000–160,000||1941–06/11 !Jun – Nov 1941||1943–06 !Jun 1943||to Belzec and Janowska concentration camp|
|151||Łapy||600||1941–06/07 !Jun – Jul 1941||1942–11 !Nov 1942||to Białystok Ghetto|
|152||Łaskarzew||1,300||1941||1942–09 !Sep 1942||to Treblinka|
|153||Łęczyca||3,000–4,300||1941||1942–06 !Jun 1942||to Chełmno extermination camp, many killed locally|
|154||Łomża Ghetto||9,000–11,000||1941–06 !Jun 1941||1942–11 !Nov 1942||to Auschwitz, many killed locally|
|155||Łosice||5,500–6,000||1941||1942–08 !Aug 1942||to Treblinka|
|156||Łuków||10,000||1941||1942–10/11 !Oct – Nov 1942||to Treblinka (Oct: 7,000 and Nov 1942: 3,000)|
|157||Maków Mazowiecki||3,500–5,000||1941||1942–12 !Dec 1942||to Treblinka|
|158||Michałowo||1,500||1941||1942–11 !Nov 1942||to Bialystok Ghetto|
|159||Miechów||4,000||1941||1942||to Belzec (1,000 killed locally)|
|160||Nowe Miasto||3,700||1941||1942–10–22 !22 Oct 1942||to Treblinka (3,000), killed locally|
|161||Nowogródek||6,000?||1941–06 !Jun 1941||1942–10 !Oct 1942||all killed locally|
|162||Nowy Sącz||20,000||1941–08 !Aug 1941||1942–08 !Aug 1942||to Belzec extermination camp|
|163||Nowy Targ||2,500||1941||1942–08 !Aug 1942||to Belzec|
|164||Nowy Żmigród||1,300||1941||1942–07 !Jul 1942||all killed locally|
|165||Olkusz||3,000–4,000||1941||1942–06 !Jun 1942||to Auschwitz|
|166||Opatów||10,000||1941||1942–10 !Oct 1942||to Treblinka|
|167||Opole Lubelskie||8,000–10,000||1941||1942–10 !Oct 1942||to Sobibor and Poniatowa ghetto|
|168||Osiek||500||1941||1942–06 !Jun 1942||to Ożarów ghetto → Treblinka |
|169||Ostrowiec Świętokrzyski||16,000||1941–04 !Apr 1941||1942–10 !Oct 1942||to Treblinka|
|170||Ozorków||3,000–5,000||1941||1942–08 !Aug 1942||to Lodz Ghetto → Chełmno extermination camp|
|171||Pajęczno||3,000||1941||1942||to Lodz Ghetto|
|172||Parczew||7,000||1941||1942–10 !Oct 1942||to Treblinka|
|173||Piątek||?||1941||1942–07 !Jul 1942||to Chełmno extermination camp|
|174||Pilzno||788?||1941||1942–06 !Jun 1942||to Belzec|
|175||Pińczów||3,000–3,500||1941||1942–10 !Oct 1942||to Treblinka|
|176||Pionki (labor camp)||682||1941||1942–08 !Aug 1942||to Zwoleń ghetto → Treblinka|
|177||Połaniec||2,000||1941||1942||to Chełmno extermination camp|
|178||Praszka||?||1941||1942–08 !Aug 1942||to Chełmno extermination camp|
|179||Rabka||300||1941||1942–08 !Aug 1942||to Belzec|
|180||Radom Ghetto||30,000–32,000||1941–03 !Mar 1941||1942–08 !Aug 1942||to Treblinka extermination camp|
|181||Radomyśl Wielki||1,300?||1941||1942||to Bełżec|
|182||Radoszyce||3,200?||1941||1942–11 !Nov 1942||to Treblinka|
|183||Radzyn Podlaski||2,000–3,000||1941||1942–12 !Dec 1942||to Treblinka|
|184||Rajgród||1,200||1941||1942–11 !Nov 1942||to Bogusze|
|185||Rawa Mazowiecka||4,000||1941||1942–10 !Oct 1942||to Treblinka|
|186||Rejowiec||3,000||1941||1943||to Auschwitz, Sobibor and Majdanek|
|187||Ropczyce||800||1941||1942–07 !Jul 1942||to Belzec|
|188||Ryki||1,800–3,500||1941||1942–10 !Oct 1942||to Treblinka and Sobibor|
|189||Rymanów||1,600?||1941||1942–08 !Aug 1942||to Krakow Ghetto, Belzec, killed locally|
|190||Sędziszów Małopolski||2,000||1941||1942–01 !Jan 1942||to Belzec|
|191||Siedlce||12,000–18,000||1941–06/08 !Jun – Aug 1941||1942–11 !Nov 1942||to Treblinka|
|192||Siemiatycze||7,000||1941||1942–11 !Nov 1942||to Sobibor|
|193||Sieniawa||3,000||1941||1942||all killed locally|
|194||Siennica||700?||1941||1942–09–15 !15 Sep 1942||to Treblinka (700)|
|195||Skarżysko-Kamienna||3,000||1941||1942||to Treblinka (2,500), the rest killed locally|
|196||Skrzynno||?||1941||1942–10 !Oct 1942||to Opoczno ghetto|
|197||Słonim||22,000||1941–07 !Jul 1941||1942–07–15 !15 Jul 1942||all killed locally (Jul-41: 1,200; Nov: 9,000; Jul-42: 10,000)|
|198||Słuck||3,000–8,500||1941–06 !Jun 1941||1942–11 !Nov 1942||all killed locally|
|199||Sokołów Małopolski||3,000||1941||1942–07 !Jul 1942||to Belzec|
|200||Sokołów Podlaski||4,000–7,000||1941–06 !Jun 1941||1942–09 !Sep 1942||to Treblinka|
|201||Sokółka||8,000–9,000||1941–06 !Jun 1941||1942–11 !Nov 1942||to Kiełbasin → Treblinka|
|202||Solec||800||1941||1942–12 !Dec 1942||to Tarlow ghetto|
|203||Starachowice||6,000||1941–04 !Apr 1941||1942–10 !Oct 1942||to Treblinka|
|204||Stary Sącz||1,000||1941||1942–08 !Aug 1942||to Belzec|
|205||Staszów||7,000||1941||1942–12 !Dec 1942||to Treblinka|
|206||Stopnica||5,000||1941||1942–11 !Nov 1942||to Treblinka, many killed locally|
|207||Strzemieszyce Wielkie||1,800||1940–1941||1942–05/06–15 !May – 15 Jun 1942||to Będzin Ghetto (500), Auschwitz (1,400)|
|208||Strzyżów||1,300||1941||1942–06–26/28 !26 / 28 Jun 1942||to Rzeszów ghetto, killed locally → Belzec|
|209||Suchedniów||5,000||1941||1942–08 !Aug 1942||to Treblinka|
|210||Sulejów||1,500||1941||1942–10 !Oct 1942||to Treblinka|
|211||Szczuczyn||2,000||1941||1942–07/11 !Jul – Nov 1942||to Bogusze transit camp, killed locally|
|212||Śniadowo||650||1941||1942–11 !Nov 1942||to Zambrow ghetto|
|213||Tarczyn||1,600||1941||1942–02 !Feb 1942||to Treblinka|
|214||Tarnobrzeg (ghetto & camp)||500||1941–06 !Jun 1941||1942–07 !Jul 1942||to Dębica ghetto → Belzec|
|215||Tarnogród||2,600–5,000||1941||1942–11 !Nov 1942||to Belzec (from ghetto & camp), many killed locally|
|216||Tarnopol||25,000||1941–07/08 !Jul – Aug 1941||1943–06 !Jun 1943||to Belzec extermination camp|
|217||Tarnów||40,000||1941–03 !Mar 1941||1943–09 !Sep 1943||10,000 killed locally, Belzec (10,000), Auschwitz|
|218||Tomaszów Lubelski||1,400–1,500||1941||1942–10 !Oct 1942||to Belzec|
|219||Tyczyn||?||1941||1942–07 !Jul 1942||to Belzec|
|220||Wadowice||1,400||1941||1943–08 !Aug 1943||to Auschwitz|
|221||Wąwolnica||2,500||1941||1942–05 !May 1942||to Belzec|
|222||Węgrów||6,000–8,300||1941||1942–09 !Sep 1942||to Treblinka|
|223||Wieliczka||7,000||1941||1942–08 !Aug 1942||to Belzec|
|224||Wielun||4,200–7,000||1941||1942–08 !Aug 1942||to Chełmno extermination camp, killed locally|
|225||Wieruszów||1,400||1941||1942–08 !Aug 1942||to Chełmno extermination camp|
|226||Wilno Ghetto||30,000–80,000||1941–09 !Sep 1941||1943–09 !Sep 1943||killed locally (21,000 before ghetto was set up)|
|227||Wiślica||2,000||1941||1942–10 !Oct 1942||to Jedrzejow ghetto|
|228||Wolbrom||3,000–5,000||1941||1942–09 !Sep 1942||to Belzec, many killed locally|
|229||Wysokie Mazowieckie||5,000||1941||1942–11 !Nov 1942||to Zambrow ghetto|
|230||Zabłudów||1,800||1941–07 !Jul 1941||1942–11–2 !2 Nov 1942||10th Calvary camp near Białystok → Treblinka (1,400)|
|231||Zambrów||3,200–4,000||1941||1943–01 !Jan 1943||to Auschwitz, mass killings locally|
|232||Zawiercie||5,000–7,000||1941||1943–10 !Oct 1943||to Auschwitz (5,000)|
|233||Zelów||?||1941||1942–09 !Sep 1942||to Chełmno extermination camp|
|234||Zwoleń (open type)||6,500–10,000||1941||1942–09–29 !29 Sep 1942||to Treblinka extermination camp (8,000)|
|235||Żarki||3,200||1941||1942–10 !Oct 1942||to Treblinka|
|236||Żelechów||5,500–13,000||1941||1942–09 !Sep 1942||to Treblinka|
was deportation from the ghettos and subsequent mass extermination of the Jews, and discussed plans for implementation.
Six death factories were built by German firms in occupied Poland within two-to-six months.
|237||Andrychów||700||1942–09 !Sep 1942||1943–11 !Nov 1943||to Auschwitz concentration camp|
|238||Annopol||?||1942–06 !Jun 1942||1942–10 !Oct 1942||to Kraśnik ghetto|
|239||Baranów Sandomierski||2,000||1942–06 !Jun 1942||1942–07 !Jul 1942||to Dębica ghetto, (all)|
|240||Biecz||700–800||1942–04 !Apr 1942||1942–08 !Aug 1942||to Belzec|
|241||Czortków||4,000||1942–04 !Apr 1942||1943–09 !Sep 1943||to Belzec|
|242||Dąbrowa Tarnowska||2,400–3,000||1942–10 !Oct 1942||1943–09 !Sep 1943||to Belzec and Auschwitz|
|242||Dębica||1,500–4,000||1942||1943–03 !Mar 1943||to Belzec|
|243||Drohobych Ghetto||10,000||1942–03 !Mar 1942||1943–06 !Jun 1943||to Belzec|
|244||Dubno||9,000?||1942–04 !Apr 1942||1942–10 !Oct 1942||all killed locally|
|245||Frysztak||1,600||1942||1942–08–18 !18 Aug 1942||to Jasło ghetto → killed in Warzyce forest|
|246||Hrubieszów (labor camp)||200||1942–05 !May 1942||1943–05 !May 1943||to Budzyn, killed locally, see Hrubieszów (6,800)|
|247||Jasienica Rosielna||1,500||1942||1942–08 !Aug 1942||to Belzec|
|248||Kołomyja (ghetto & camp)||18,000||1942||1943–02 !Feb 1943||to Belzec, many killed locally|
|249||Koprzywnica||1,800||1940||1942–10 !Oct 1942||to Treblinka|
|250||Kowale Pańskie||3,000–5,000||1939–1942||1942||to Chełmno extermination camp|
|251||Kowel||17,000||1942–05 !May 1942||1942–10 !Oct 1942||all killed locally|
|252||Kraśnik (ghetto & camp)||5,000||1940–1942||1942–11 !Nov 1942||to Belzec|
|253||Krosno||600–2,500||1942–08 !Aug 1942||1942–12 !Dec 1942||to Belzec|
|254||Lesko||2,000||1942||1942–09 !Sep 1942||to Belzec|
|255||Lubaczów||4,200–7,000||1942–10 !Oct 1942||1943–01 !Jan 1943||to Sobibor, many killed locally|
|256||Łachwa Ghetto||2,350||1942–04–4 !4 Apr 1942||1942–09 !Sep 1942||killed locally, 1,500 in an uprising.|
|257||Łęczna||3,000||1942–06 !Jun 1942||1942–11 !Nov 1942||to Sobibor, many killed locally|
|258||Międzyrzec Podlaski Ghetto||20,000||1942–08–28 !28 Aug 1942||1943–07–18 !18 Jul 1943||to Treblinka (17,000), hundreds killed locally.|
|259||Ożarów||4,500||1942–01 !Jan 1942||1942–10 !Oct 1942||to Treblinka|
|260||Pińsk Ghetto||26,200||1942–04 !Apr 1942||1942–10 !Oct 1942||to Bronna Góra (3,500), the rest killed locally|
|261||Przemyśl||22,000–24,000||1942–07 !Jul 1942||1943–09 !Sep 1943||to Belzec, Auschwitz, Janowska|
|262||Przeworsk||1,400?||1942–07 !Jul 1942||1942–10 !Oct 1942||to Belzec|
|263||Przysucha||2,500–5,000||1942–07/08–15 !Jul – 15 Aug 1942||1942–10–27/31 !27 / 31 Oct 1942||to Treblinka (5,000)|
|264||Sambor||8,000–9,000||1942–03 !Mar 1942||1943–07 !Jul 1943||to Belzec, many killed locally|
|265||Sosnowiec Ghetto||12,000||1942–10 !Oct 1942||1943–08 !Aug 1943||to Auschwitz|
|266||Starachowice (labor camp)||13,000||1942||1942||to Treblinka, see also Starachowice ghetto|
|267||Stryj||4,000–12,000||1942||1943–06 !Jun 1943||all killed locally|
|268||Sucha Beskidzka||400||1942||1943||to Auschwitz|
|269||Szydłów||1,000||1942–01 !Jan 1942||1942–10 !Oct 1942||to Chmielnik ghetto|
|270||Tarnogród (labor camp)||1,000||1942||1942||see Tarnogród ghetto → Belzec|
|271||Tomaszów M. (labor camp)||1,000||1942||1943–05 !May 1943||to Starachowice, see also Tomaszów M. ghetto|
|272||Tuchów||3,000||1942–06 !Jun 1942||1942–09 !Sep 1942||to Belzec|
|273||Zdzięcioł Ghetto||4,500||1942–02–22 !22 Feb 1942||1942–04–30/08–06 !30 Apr – 6 Aug 1942||killed locally during Zdzięcioł massacres|
The ghetto inhabitants – most of whom were killed during Operation Reinhard – possessed Polish citizenship before the Nazi–Soviet invasion of Poland, which in turn enabled over 150,000 Holocaust survivors registered at CKŻP to take advantage of the later repatriation agreements between the governments of Poland and the Soviet Union, and legally emigrate to the West to help form the nascent State of Israel. Poland was the only Eastern Bloc country to allow free Jewish aliyah without visas or exit permits upon the conclusion of World War II. By contrast, Stalin forcibly brought Soviet Jews back to USSR along with all Soviet citizens, as agreed to in the Yalta Conference.
Notes and references
- Yitzhak Arad, Belzec, Sobibor, Treblinka. Indiana University Press, Bloomington and Indianapolis, 1987.
- Biuletyn Głównej Komisji Badania Zbrodni Hitlerowskich w Polsce, Wydawnictwo Prawnicze, 1960. (Polish)
- The statistical data compiled on the basis of "Glossary of 2,077 Jewish towns in Poland" by Virtual Shtetl Museum of the History of the Polish Jews (English), as well as "Getta Żydowskie," by Gedeon, (Polish) and "Ghetto List" by Michael Peters at www.deathcamps.org/occupation/ghettolist.htm (English). Some figures might require further confirmation due to their comparative range. Accessed June 21, 2011.
- Michael Berenbaum, The World Must Know, United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, 2006, p. 114.
- "The War Against The Jews." The Holocaust Chronicle, 2009. Chicago, Il. Accessed June 21, 2011.
- Wojciech Roszkowski, Historia Polski 1914–1997, Warsaw 1998. PDF file, 46,0 MB (available with purchase). Chomikuj.pl, 2013.
- Dwork, Deborah and Robert Jan Van Pelt,The Construction of Crematoria at Auschwitz, W.W. Norton & Co., 1996.
- Cecil Adams, "Did Krups, Braun, and Mercedes-Benz make Nazi concentration camp ovens?"
- Jewish Virtual Library, Łódź. Overview of the Litzmannstadt Ghetto's history. Accessed June 27, 2011.
- United States Holocaust Memorial Museum - Online Exhibition: Give Me Your Children: Voices from the Lodz Ghetto
- University of Minnesota, Majdanek Death Camp
- Kraków Ghetto including photographs, at www.krakow-poland.com.
- About Kraków Ghetto with valuable historical photographs. (Polish)
- "Schindler's Krakow," with modern-day photographs of the WWII relics.
- The Kraków Ghetto complete with contemporary picture gallery, at JewishKrakow.net
- Edward Victor, "Ghettos and Other Jewish Communities." Judaica Philatelic. Accessed June 20, 2011.
- Richard C. Lukas, Out of the Inferno: Poles Remember the Holocaust, University Press of Kentucky 1989 - 201 pages. Page 13; also in Richard C. Lukas, The Forgotten Holocaust: The Poles Under German Occupation, 1939-1944, University Press of Kentucky, 1986, Google Print, p.13.
- Gunnar S. Paulsson, "The Rescue of Jews by Non-Jews in Nazi-Occupied Poland," Journal of Holocaust Education, Vol.7, Nos.1&2, 1998, pp.19-44. Published by Frank Cass, London.
- Peter Vogelsang & Brian B. M. Larsen, "The Ghettos of Poland." The Danish Center for Holocaust and Genocide Studies. 2002.
- Warsaw Ghetto, United States Holocaust Memorial Museum (USHMM), Washington, D.C.
- Ghettos, United States Holocaust Memorial Museum
- François Furet, Unanswered Questions: Nazi Germany and the Genocide of the Jews. Schocken Books (1989), p. 182; ISBN 0-8052-4051-9
- "A letter from Timothy Snyder of Bloodlands: Two genocidaires, taking turns in Poland". The Book Haven. Stanford University. December 15, 2010. Retrieved April 25, 2011.
- Tomasz Sommer (2010). "Execute the Poles: The Genocide of Poles in the Soviet Union, 1937-1938. Documents from Headquarters". Warsaw: 3S Media. p. 277. ISBN 83-7673-020-7. Retrieved April 25, 2011.
- First Jewish ghetto established in Piotrkow Trybunalski: October 8, 1939 at the Wayback Machine (archived January 6, 2009). Yad Vashem The Holocaust Martyrs' and Heroes' Remembrance Authority.
- Maciej i Ewa Szaniawscy, "Zagłada Żydów w Będzinie w świetle relacji" (Extermination of Jews in the light of testimony). (Polish) According to 1946 research by Wojewódzka Żydowska Komisja Historyczna in Katowice, wrote Maciej i Ewa Szaniawscy, there were around 30,000 Jews in Będzin following the invasion, including those who came in from neighbouring settlements. Between October 1940 and May 1942, the first 4,000 Jews were deported. In May 1942 additional 2,000 and in August, 5,000 more. Deportations between August 1942 and mid June 1943 amounted to additional 5,000. On 22 June 1943 the next transport of 5,000 Jews departed to Auschwitz, and finally, between 1–3 August 1943, the remaining 8,000 were sent away. The dispersed Jews who stayed, amounting to 1,000 persons, were deported between early October 1943 and July 1944. In total, about 28,000 Jews are believed to have been deported from the Będzin Ghetto. This information however, is not confirmed by the two main sources of the remaining data nor the Jewish Historical Institute, listing only 7,000 victims.
- Będzin in the Jewish Historical Institute community database. Warsaw.
- Iwona Pogorzelska, Bodzentyn od 1869 roku do niepodległości. Polska.pl. Accessed June 16, 2011.
- "Getto w Łowiczu," at Miejsca martyrologii, Wirtualny Sztetl. Instytut Adama Mickiewicza. (Polish)
- "Cmentarz żydowski w Mogielnicy (Jewish cemetery in Mogielnica)," at Kirkuty.xip.pl.
- Angelika Lasiewicz-Sych, "An Essay of Traces of the Past," published in Kultura Współczesna nr 4 (38) 2003
- Piotrków Trybunalski – Getto w Piotrkowie Trybunalskim. Virtual Shtetl. Museum of the History of the Polish Jews. Accessed July 1, 2011.
- "Brześć – History". Virtual Shtetl, Museum of the History of Polish Jews. p. 12. Retrieved July 15, 2011.
- Yitzhak Arad, Belzec, Sobibor, Treblinka: The Operation Reinhard Death Camps. Indiana University Press. "Appendix A." Page 395.
- "Życie za Życie" (Righteous of Ciepielów who paid the ultimate price)." Urząd Gminy w Ciepielowie. (Polish). Accessed July 6, 2011.
- "Ćmielów – Historia," Muzeum Historii Żydów Polskich Wirtualny Sztetl (Museum of the History of the Polish Jews). Accessed July 6, 2011.
- Geoffrey P. Megargee, Christopher Browning, Martin Dean (2012). "Gniewoszów". The United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Encyclopedia. Indiana University Press. pp. 224–225. ISBN 0-253-35599-0. Retrieved April 9, 2012.
- The Hrubieszow Genealogy Group. ShtetLinks Project. Accessed June 30, 2011.
- "Getto w Iwacewiczach". Virtual Shtetl. Museum of the History of Polish Jews. Retrieved April 11, 2012.
- (Polish) Getta tranzytowe w dystrykcie lubelskim (Transit ghettos in Lublin district). Pamięć Miejsca. Retrieved April 12, 2012.
- "Izbica. History". Virtual Shtetl. Museum of the History of Polish Jews. pp. 3 of 6. Retrieved April 12, 2012.
- The 90th session of the Senate of the Republic of Poland. Stenograph, part 2.2. A Report by Leon Kieres, president of the Institute of National Remembrance, for the period from July 1, 2,000 to June 30, 2001. Donald Tusk presiding. See statement by Senator Jadwiga Stokarska. (Polish)
- Kraków – History. Page 3. Virtual Shtetl, Museum of the History of Polish Jews. Accessed July 12, 2011.
- Jack Kugelmass, Jonathan Boyarin, Zachary M. Baker, From a ruined garden: the memorial books of Polish Jewry, United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Accessed June 27, 2011.
- Jack Fischel, The Holocaust, Greenwood Publishing Group, 1998, pg. 58; in Google Books.
- "Treblinka Death Camp Day-by-Day," at Holocaust Education & Archive Research Team (www.HolocaustResearchProject.org). Accessed June 30, 2011.
- "Osiek. History of Jewish community". Virtual Shtetl. Museum of the History of Polish Jews. Retrieved April 8, 2012.
- Geoffrey P. Megargee, Christopher Browning, Martin Dean. "Pionki by Jolanta Kraemer". The United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Encyclopedia. Indiana University Press. pp. 278–279. ISBN 0-253-35599-0. Retrieved April 10, 2012.
- Piotr Berghof, "Radoszyce, wspomnienie o żydowskich mieszkańcach miasteczka." (Polish). Accessed June 27, 2011.
- Słonim – History. Jewish community. Virtual Shtetl. Museum of the History of Polish Jews. (Polish) Accessed July 7, 2011. The prewar Polish city of Słonim was overrun by the Red Army in September 1939 and confiscated as part of Western Belarus. The influx of refugees from Nazi-occupied Poland increased its Jewish population to 27,000. Over 1,000 were deported to Siberia by the NKVD. Following German invasion of USSR, the ghetto was set up in August 1941, but mass executions began already on 17 July (1,200 men shot just outside the city). A second shooting action took place on 14 November 1941 with 9,000 killed. The ghetto was burned to the ground with all its inhabitants between 29 June and 15 July 1942 following a revolt. Only about 500 managed to escape.
- Shmuel Spector, Geoffrey Wigoder (2001). The Encyclopedia of Jewish Life Before and During the Holocaust. NYU Press. p. 1255. ISBN 0-8147-9356-8. Retrieved June 29, 2011.
- "Tarnobrzeg. Warto zobaczyć" (Tarnobrzeg worth seeing), Wydawnictwo Bezdroża. Accessed June 27, 2011.
- Wadowice – Historia. Wirtualny Sztetl. (Polish). Accessed June 27, 2011.
- "Chronology of Vilna Ghetto," at Vilnaghetto.com without additional confirmation of quantitative data. Accessed June 24, 2011.
- "The Deportation of the Zabludow Jews to Treblinka Death Camp." 2003 Tilford Bartman, Jerusalem, Israel.
- Geoffrey P. Megargee, Christopher Browning, Martin Dean. "Radom Region by Jolanta Kraemer". The United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Encyclopedia. Indiana University Press. pp. 355–356. ISBN 0-253-35599-0. Retrieved April 9, 2012.
- Daniel Blatman. Translated from the Hebrew by Judy Montel (Summer 2003). "Zwolen". Pinkas HaKehillot, Polen, Volume VII (Jerusalem: Yad Vashem, 1999), pages 187-189. Kielce-Radom SIG Journal Volume 7, Number 3. pp. 8–9.
- "The History of Miedzyrzec Podlaski." Association of Immigrants of Mezritch Depodalsia Area in Israel. Accessed July 5, 2011.
- "Mezritch (Międzyrzec) Podlaski in the Jewish sources." Association of Immigrants of Mezritch Depodalsia. Accessed June 16, 2011.
- Przysucha, województwo Mazowieckie, Polska. Haapalah Index and Source Database. Accessed July 5, 2011.
- Przysucha – History. Virtual Shtetl. Museum of the History of Polish Jews. Accessed July 5, 2011.
- Gmina Sucha Beskidzka, powiat suski. Targeo. (Polish). Accessed June 27, 2011.
- Stefan Krakowski, Tomaszow Mazowiecki, Jewish Virtual Library. Accessed June 24, 2001.
- Philipp Ther, Ana Siljak (2001). Redrawing nations: ethnic cleansing in East-Central Europe, 1944-1948. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 138. ISBN 0-7425-1094-8. Retrieved May 11, 2011.
- Devorah Hakohen, Immigrants in turmoil: mass immigration to Israel and its repercussions... Syracuse University Press, 2003 - 325 pages. Page 70. ISBN 0-8156-2969-9
- Arieh J. Kochavi, Post-Holocaust politics: Britain, the United States & Jewish refugees, 1945-1948. Page 15. The University of North Carolina Press. ISBN 0-8078-2620-0 Accessed June 20, 2011.