Jewish ghettos in German-occupied Poland

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A child lies on the street in the Warsaw Ghetto, May 1941. Photo by Nazi officer P.K. Zermin, now in German Federal Archive

Jewish ghettos in German-occupied Poland were established during World War II in hundreds of locations across occupied Poland.[1][2][3] Most Jewish ghettos had been created by Nazi Germany between October 1939 and July 1942 in order to confine and segregate Poland's Jewish population of about 3.5 million for the purpose of persecution, terror, and exploitation. In smaller towns, ghettos often served as staging points for Jewish slave-labor and mass deportation actions, while in the urban centers they resembled walled-off prison-islands described by some historians as little more than instruments of "slow, passive murder," with dead bodies littering the streets.[4]

In most cases, the larger ghettos did not correspond to traditional Jewish neighborhoods, and non-Jewish Poles and members of other ethnic groups were ordered to take up residence elsewhere. Smaller Jewish communities with populations under 500 were terminated through expulsion soon after the invasion.[5][6]

The Holocaust[edit]

The liquidation of the Jewish ghettos across Poland was closely connected with the construction of highly secretive death camps built in early 1942 by various German companies, for the sole purpose of annihilating a people.[7][8] The Nazi extermination program depended on killing centers as much as on the effectiveness of their railways. Rail transport enabled the SS to run industrial-scale mass-extermination facilities and, at the same time, openly lie to their victims about the "resettlement" program. Jews were transported to their deaths in Holocaust trains from liquidated ghettos of all occupied cities, including Litzmannstadt, the last ghetto in Poland to be emptied in August 1944.[7][9][10][11] In some larger ghettos there were armed resistance attempts, such as the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, the Białystok Ghetto Uprising and the Łachwa Ghetto uprising, but in every case they failed against the overwhelming German military force, and the remaining Jews were either executed or deported to the extermination camps.[4][12][13][14][15] By the time Nazi-occupied Eastern Europe was liberated by the Red Army, not a single Jewish ghetto in Poland was left standing.[16] Only about 50,000–120,000 Polish Jews survived the war on native soil with the assistance of their Polish neighbors, a fraction of their prewar population of 3,500,000.[17][18]

For more details on this topic, see The Holocaust in Poland.
Partial liquidation of the Białystok Ghetto, 15–20 August 1943. Jewish men with their hands up, surrounded by military unit

In total, according to USHMM archives, "The Germans established at least 1000 ghettos in German-occupied and annexed Poland and the Soviet Union alone."[16] The list of locations of the Jewish ghettos within the borders of pre-war and post-war Poland is compiled with the understanding that their inhabitants were either of Polish nationality from before the invasion, or had strong historical ties with Poland. Also, not all ghettos are listed here due to their transient nature. Permanent ghettos were created only in settlements with rail connections, because the food aid (paid by the Jews themselves) was completely dependent on the Germans, making even the potato-peels a hot commodity.[19] Throughout 1940 and 1941, most ghettos were sealed off from the outside, walled off or enclosed with barbed wire, and many Jews found leaving them were shot. The Warsaw Ghetto was the largest ghetto in all of Nazi occupied Europe, with over 400,000 Jews crammed into an area of 1.3 square miles (3.4 km2), or 7.2 persons per room.[20] The Łódź Ghetto was the second largest, holding about 160,000 inmates.[21] In documents and signage, the Nazis usually referred to the ghettos they created as Jüdischer Wohnbezirk or Wohngebiet der Juden, meaning "Jewish Quarter". By the end of 1941, most Polish Jews were already ghettoized, even though the Germans knew that the system was unsustainable; most inmates had no chance of earning their own keep, and no savings left to pay the SS for further deliveries.[19] The quagmire was resolved at the Wannsee conference of 20 January 1942 near Berlin, where the "Final Solution" (die Endlösung der Judenfrage) was set in place.[22]

List of Jewish ghettos in occupied Poland[edit]

The settlements listed in the Polish language,[3] including major cities, had all been renamed after the 1939 joint invasion of Poland by Germany and the Soviet Union. Renaming everything in their own image had been one way in which the invaders sought to redraw Europe's political map. All Polish territories were confiscated as either Nazi zones of occupation (i.e. Bezirk Bialystok, Provinz Ostpreußen, Reichskommissariat Ostland, etc.), or Soviet brand-new extensions to the two fledging western republics (i.e. West Belarus), soon overrun again in Operation Barbarossa.[3] The Soviet Ukraine and Byelorussia witnessed the genocide of Poles just prior to invasion, resulting in the virtual absence of ethnic Poles in the USSR along the pre-war border with Poland since the Great Terror.[23][24]

For a chronological list of names and ghetto operations, please use table-sort buttons. The locations in both other languages are available through active links.
# Ghetto location in prewar
and postwar Poland  
Number of
Jews confined  
Date of
creation  
Date of
liquidation  
Deportation route  
Only 38 days after the 1939 Nazi German Invasion of Poland, the first large ghetto of World War II was set up at Piotrków Trybunalski on October 8, 1939.[25]
Within months, the most populous Jewish ghettos in World War II included the Łódź Ghetto (set up in April 1940), and the Warsaw Ghetto (October 1940)
1   Aleksandrów Lódzki 3,500    1939   Dec 1939     to Głowno ghetto
2   Bełżyce 4,500    Jun 1940   May 1943     to Budzyń ghetto, Sobibor and Majdanek
3   Będzin Ghetto 7,000[3]–28,000[26]  Jul 1940   Aug 1943     to Auschwitz (7,000).[27]
4   Błonie 2,100    Dec 1940   Feb 1941     to Warsaw Ghetto (all 2,100)
5   Bodzentyn 700    1940   Sep 1942     to Suchedniów ghetto → Treblinka.[28]
6   Brześć Kujawski 630    1940   Apr 1942     to Łódź Ghetto, Chełmno extermination camp
7   Brzeziny 6,000–6,800    Feb 1940   May 1942     to Łódź Ghetto, Chełmno extermination camp
8   Brzozów 1,000    1940   Aug 1942     to Belzec extermination camp
9   Bychawa 2,700    1940   Apr 1941     to Belzyce
10   Chęciny 4,000    1940 – Jun 1941   Sep 1942     to Treblinka
11   Dąbrowa Górnicza 4,000–10,000    1940   Jun 1943     to Auschwitz
12   Dęblin 3,300–5,800    Apr 1940   Oct 1942     to Sobibor and Treblinka
13   Działoszyce 15,000?    Apr 1940   Oct 1942     to Płaszów and Bełżec extermination camp
14   Gąbin 2,000–2,300    1940   Apr 1942     to Chełmno extermination camp
15   Głowno 5,600    May 1940   Mar 1941     to Łowicz ghetto and Warsaw Ghetto (5,600)
16   Gorlice (labor camp 1st) ?    1940   1942     to Buchenwald, Muszyna, Mielec, see Gorlice
17   Góra Kalwaria 3,300    Jan 1940   Feb 1941     to Warsaw Ghetto (3,000), 300 killed locally
18   Grodzisk Mazowiecki 6,000    1940 – Jan 1941   Oct 1942     to Warsaw Ghetto (all 6,000)
19   Grójec 5,200–6,000    Jul 1940   Sep 1942     to Warsaw Ghetto (all 6,000) → Treblinka
20   Izbica Kujawska 1,000    1940   Jan 1942     to Chełmno extermination camp
21   Jeżów 1,600    1940   Feb 1941     to Warsaw Ghetto (all 1,600)
22   Jędrzejów 6,000    Mar 1940   Sep 1942     to Treblinka
23   Kazimierz Dolny 2,000–3,500    1940 – Apr 1941   Mar 1942     to Sobibor, and Treblinka
24   Kobyłka 1,500    Sep 1940   Oct 1942     to Treblinka
25   Koło 2,000–5,000    Dec 1940   Dec 1941     to Treblinka (2,000) and Chełmno
26   Koniecpol 1,100–1,600    1940   Oct 1942     to Treblinka
27   Konin 1,500?    Dec 1939   1940 – Mar 1941     to Zagórów & other ghettos, many killed locally
28   Kozienice 13,000    Jan 1940   Sep 1942     to Treblinka
29   Koźminek 2,500    1940   Jul 1942      to Chełmno
30   Krasnystaw 2,000    Aug 1940   Oct 1942     to Belzec
31   Krośniewice 1,500    May 1940   Mar 1942     to Chełmno extermination camp
32   Kutno 7,000    Jun 1940   Mar 1942     to Chełmno
33   Legionowo 3,000    1940   1942     to Treblinka
34   Łańcut 2,700    Dec 1939   Aug 1942     to Belzec
35   Łask 4,000    Dec 1940   Aug 1942     to Chełmno extermination camp
36   Łowicz 8,000–8,200    1940   Mar 1941     to Warsaw Ghetto (all, including labor camp)[29]
37   Łódź Ghetto 200,000    8 Feb 1940   Aug 1944     to Auschwitz and Chełmno extermination camp
38   Marki ?    1940 – Mar 1941   1942     to Warsaw Ghetto
39   Mielec 4,000–4,500    1940   Mar 1942     to Belzec
40   Mińsk Mazowiecki Ghetto 5,000–7,000    Oct 1940   Aug 1942     to Treblinka, 1,300 killed locally
41   Mława 6,000–6,500    Dec 1940   Nov 1942     to Treblinka and Auschwitz
42   Mogielnica 1,500    1940   28 Feb 1942     to Warsaw Ghetto (all) → Treblinka.[30]
43   Mordy 4,500    Nov 1940   Aug 1942     to Treblinka
44   Muranów 445,000    1940   1942     see also Warsaw Ghetto (all) → Treblinka[31]
45   Nowy Dwór Mazowiecki 2,000–4,000    1940 – Jan 1941   Dec 1942     to Pomiechówek ghetto → Auschwitz
46   Nowy Korczyn 4,000    1940   Oct 1942     to Treblinka
47   Opoczno 3,000–4,000    Nov 1940   Oct 1942     to Treblinka
48   Otwock 12,000–15,000    Dec 1939   Aug 1942     to Treblinka, and Auschwitz
49   Pabianice 8,500–9,000    Feb 1940   May 1942     to Łódź GhettoChełmno extermination camp
50   Piaseczno 2,500    1940   Jan 1941     to Warsaw Ghetto (all 2,500)
51   Piaski (transit) 10,000    1940   Nov 1943     to Belzec, Sobibor, Trawniki
52   Piotrków Trybunalski Ghetto 25,000[32]  8 Oct 1939[25] 14 / 21 Oct 1944    to Majdanek and Treblinka (22,000),[32] killed locally
53   Płock 7,000–10,000    1939–1940   Feb 1941     to Działdowo ghetto
54   Płońsk 12,000    Sep 1940   Nov 1942     to Treblinka, Auschwitz
55   Poddębice 1,500    Nov 1940   Apr 1942     to Treblinka(?)
56   Pruszków 1,400    1940   1941     to Warsaw Ghetto (all 1,400)
57   Przedbórz 4,000–5,000    Mar 1940   Oct 1942     to Belzec and Treblinka
58   Puławy 5,000    Nov – Dec 1939   1940     to Opole LubelskieSobibor
59   Radomsko 18,000–20,000    1939 – Jan 1940   21 Jul 1943     to Treblinka extermination camp (18,000)
60   Radzymin 2,500    Sep 1940   Oct 1942     to Treblinka
61   Serock 2,000    Feb 1940   Dec 1940     to other ghettos
62   Sieradz 2,500–5,000    Mar 1940   Aug 1942     to Chełmno extermination camp
63   Sierpc 500–3,000    1940   Feb 1942     to Warsaw GhettoTreblinka
64   Skaryszew 1,800    1940   Apr 1942     to Szydlowiec
65   Skierniewice 4,300–7,000    Dec 1940   Apr 1941     to Warsaw Ghetto (all 7,000)
66   Sochaczew 3,000–4,000    Jan 1940   Feb 1941     to Warsaw Ghetto (all 3,000)
67   Stalowa Wola 2,500    1940   Jul 1942     to Belzec
68   Stryj    12,000    1940–1941   Jun 1943     to Belzec
69   Szadek 500    1940   1940     to other ghettos
70   Szczebrzeszyn 4,000    1940 – Apr 1941   Oct 1942     to Belzec, also killed locally
71   Tomaszów Mazowiecki 16,000–20,000    Dec 1940   Nov 1942     to Treblinka (16,000), with 4,000 killed locally
72   Turek 5,000    1940   Oct 1941     to Kowale Pańskie ghetto (all 5,000)
73   Tyszowce 1,500–2,000    1940   Sep 1942     to Belzec
74   Uchanie 2,000    1940   Nov 1942     to Sobibor
75   Ulanów 500    1940   Oct 1942     to other ghettos
76   Uniejów 500    1940   Oct 1941     to Kowale Pańskie ghetto (all 500)
77   Warka 2,800    1940   Feb 1941     to Warsaw Ghetto (all 2,800)
78   Warta 1,000–2,400    Feb 1940   Aug 1942     to Chełmno extermination camp
79   Warsaw Ghetto 450,000    Oct – 15 Nov 1940   Sep 1942     to Treblinka (300,000), and Majdanek
80   Włocławek 4,000–13,500    Oct 1940   Apr 1942     to Chełmno extermination camp
81   Włodawa 6,000    1940–1942   Apr 1943     to Sobibor
82   Włoszczowa 4,000–6,000    Jul 1940   Sep 1942     to Treblinka
83   Wodzisław 4,000    Jun 1940   Nov 1942     to Treblinka
84   Wołomin 3,000–5,500    1940–1942   Apr 1943     to Treblinka
85   Wyszogród 2,700–3,000    Dec 1940   Nov 1942     to Treblinka
86   Zagórów 2,000–2,500    Jul 1940   Oct 1941     all killed locally
87   Zamość 12,000–14,000    1940   May 1943     to Izbica Ghetto, Belzec, Majdanek
88   Zduńska Wola 8,300–10,000    1940   Aug 1942     to Chełmno extermination camp
89   Żychlin 2,800–4,000    Jul 1940   Mar 1942     to Chełmno extermination camp
90   Żyrardów 3,000–5,000    Dec 1940   Feb 1941     to Warsaw Ghetto (all 5,000)
Year 1941: under the codename Operation Barbarossa Germany entered the Soviet occupation zone on June 22.
The creation of new Jewish ghettos and the mass executions on-site by mobile killing squads intensified.
91   Augustów 4,000    Oct 1941   Jun 1942     to Treblinka and Auschwitz, many killed locally
92   Bełchatów 5,500–6,000    Mar 1941   Aug 1942     to Chełmno extermination camp
93   Biała Podlaska 7,000–8,400    Jul 1941   Sep 1942     to Majdanek, Sobibor, Treblinka
94   Biała Rawska 4,000    Sep 1941   Oct 1942     to Treblinka
95   Białystok Ghetto 40,000–50,000    26 Jul 1941   Nov 1943     to Majdanek, Treblinka
96   Biłgoraj 2,500–3,000    1941–1942   Nov 1942     to Belzec
97   Bobowa 658?[33]  Oct 1941   Aug 1942     to Gorlice and Biecz ghettos
98   Bochnia 14,000–15,000    Mar 1941   Sep 1943     to Szebnie, Belzec and Auschwitz
99   Brześć Litewski Ghetto 18,000    16 Dec 1941   Oct 1942    shot locally (5,000 before the ghetto was set up)[34]
100   Busko Zdrój 2,000    1941   Oct 1942     to Treblinka
101   Chełm 8,000–12,000    Jun 1941   Nov 1942     to Sobibor
102   Chmielnik 10,000–14,000    Apr 1941   Nov 1942     to Treblinka
103   Chodel 1,400    Jun 1941   1942     to other ghettos
104   Chrzanów 8,000    Nov 1941   Feb 1943     to Auschwitz
105   Ciechanowiec 4,000    1941   Nov 1941     to Treblinka
106   Ciepielów 600    Dec 1941   15 / 29 Oct 1942[35]    to Treblinka, Polish rescuers killed 6 Dec 1942.[36]
107   Czeladź 800    Nov 1941   Feb 1943     to Auschwitz
108   Częstochowa Ghetto 48,000    9 Apr 1941   22 Sep – 9 Oct 1942     to Treblinka extermination camp
109   Ćmielów 1,500–2,000?[37]  1941   Oct (end) 1942     to Treblinka (900),[35] murdered locally
110   Dąbie 900    1941   Dec 1941     to Chełmno extermination camp
111   Dobre 500–1,000    1941   Sep 1942     to Treblinka
112   Drohiczyn 700    Jun 1941   Nov 1942     to Bransk and Bielsk ghettos
113   Drzewica 2,000    1941   Oct 1942     to Treblinka
114   Dubienka 2,500–3,000    Jun 1941   Oct 1942     to other ghettos
115   Głogów Małopolski 120?    1941   1942     to Rzeszów ghetto, 5,000 executed in local forest
116   Gniewoszów (open type) 6,580[38]  Dec 1941   Nov 1942     to Zwoleń (5,000); 1,000 → Treblinka
117   Goniądz 1,000–1,300    Jun 1941   Nov 1942     to Bogusze ghetto
118   Gorlice 4,500    Oct 1941   Aug 1942     to Belzec
119   Gostynin 3,500    1941   Aug 1942     to Chełmno extermination camp
120   Grajewo 3,000    Jun 1941   Nov 1942     to Bogusze ghetto
121   Hrubieszów (open type) 6,800–10,000    Jun 1941 – May 1942   May – Nov 1943    to Sobibor and Budzyn, killed locally, 2,000 fled.[39]
122   Iłża 1,900–2,000    1941   Oct 1942     to Treblinka
123   Inowłódz 500–600    1941   Aug 1942     to Tomaszow Mazowiecki ghetto
124   Iwacewicze 600    1941[40]  14 Mar 1942     to Słonim ghetto, all killed locally
125   Izbica Ghetto (transit) 12,000–22,700[41]  1941[42]  2 Nov 1942     to Belzec and Sobibor, 4,500 killed locally
126   Jasło 2,000–3,000    1941   Aug 1942     to other ghettos
127   Jedwabne 100–130    Jul 1941   Nov 1941     to Łomża GhettoTreblinka, 340 killed locally.[43]
128   Kalisz 400    1941   1942     to other ghettos
129   Kałusz 6,000    Jun 1941   Nov 1942     to Belzec, several hundred executed locally
130   Karczew 700    Mar 1941   Oct 1941     to Warsaw Ghetto
131   Kielce 27,000    1941   Aug 1942     to Treblinka, with 6,000 killed locally
132   Kłobuck 2,000    1941   Jun 1942     to Auschwitz
133   Knyszyn 2,000    Jun 1941   Nov 1942     to Bialystok Ghetto
134   Kobryn 8,000    Jun 1941   Oct 1942     all killed locally
135   Kock 2,500–3,000    Jun 1941   Dec 1942     to Treblinka
136   Kodeń ?    Jun 1941   Sep 1942     to Miedzyrzec Podlaski Ghetto
137   Kolbuszowa 2,500    1941   Sep 1942     to Belzec
138   Koluszki 2,000    1941   Oct 1942     to Treblinka
139   Końskie 10,000    1941   Jan 1943     to Treblinka
140   Korczyn 2,000    1941   Aug 1942     to Belzec
141   Kraków Ghetto 20,000 (pop. 68,500)    Mar 1941   Mar 1943     to Belzec and Płaszów; 48,000 expelled in 1940.[44]
142   Kraśnik 5,000–6,000    1940–1941   Nov 1942     to Belzec
143   Krynki 3,500–6,000    Jun – Nov 1941   Nov 1942     all killed locally
144   Książ Wielki 200?[45]  1941   Nov 1942     to Miechow ghetto
145   Kunów 500    1941   Oct 1942     to Treblinka
146   Limanowa 2,000    1941   Aug 1942     to Belzec
147   Lipsk 3,000    Dec 1941   Oct 1942     to Treblinka
148   Lubartów Ghetto 3,269–4,500    Jun 1941   Oct 1942     to Bełżec extermination camp
149   Lublin Ghetto 30,000–40,000    24 Mar 1941   Nov 1942     to Belzec (30,000)[46] and Majdanek (4,000)
150   Lwów Ghetto 115,000–160,000    Jun – Nov 1941   Jun 1943     to Belzec and Janowska concentration camp
151   Łapy 600    Jun – Jul 1941   Nov 1942     to Białystok Ghetto
152   Łaskarzew 1,300    1941   Sep 1942     to Treblinka
153   Łęczyca 3,000–4,300    1941   Jun 1942     to Chełmno extermination camp, many killed locally
154   Łomża Ghetto 9,000–11,000    Jun 1941   Nov 1942     to Auschwitz, many killed locally
155   Łosice 5,500–6,000    1941   Aug 1942     to Treblinka
156   Łuków 10,000[3]  1941   Oct – Nov 1942     to Treblinka (Oct: 7,000 and Nov 1942: 3,000)[47]
157   Maków Mazowiecki 3,500–5,000    1941   Dec 1942     to Treblinka
158   Michałowo 1,500    1941   Nov 1942     to Bialystok Ghetto
159   Miechów 4,000    1941   1942     to Belzec (1,000 killed locally)
160   Nowe Miasto 3,700    1941   22 Oct 1942     to Treblinka (3,000),[47] killed locally
161   Nowogródek 6,000?[45]  Jun 1941   Oct 1942     all killed locally
162   Nowy Sącz 20,000    Aug 1941   Aug 1942     to Belzec extermination camp
163   Nowy Targ 2,500    1941   Aug 1942     to Belzec
164   Nowy Żmigród 1,300    1941   Jul 1942     all killed locally
165   Olkusz 3,000–4,000    1941   Jun 1942     to Auschwitz
166   Opatów 10,000    1941   Oct 1942     to Treblinka
167   Opole Lubelskie 8,000–10,000    1941   Oct 1942     to Sobibor and Poniatowa ghetto
168   Osiek 500    1941   Jun 1942     to Ożarów ghetto → Treblinka [48]
169   Ostrowiec Świętokrzyski 16,000    Apr 1941   Oct 1942     to Treblinka
170   Ozorków 3,000–5,000    1941   Aug 1942     to Lodz GhettoChełmno extermination camp
171   Pajęczno 3,000    1941   1942     to Lodz Ghetto
172   Parczew 7,000    1941   Oct 1942     to Treblinka
173   Piątek ?    1941   Jul 1942     to Chełmno extermination camp
174   Pilzno 788?[33]  1941   Jun 1942     to Belzec
175   Pińczów 3,000–3,500    1941   Oct 1942     to Treblinka
176   Pionki (labor camp) 682[49]  1941   Aug 1942     to Zwoleń ghetto → Treblinka
177   Połaniec 2,000    1941   1942     to Chełmno extermination camp
178   Praszka ?    1941   Aug 1942     to Chełmno extermination camp
179   Rabka 300    1941   Aug 1942     to Belzec
180   Radom Ghetto 30,000–32,000    Mar 1941   Aug 1942     to Treblinka extermination camp
181   Radomyśl Wielki 1,300?[33]  1941   1942     to Bełżec
182   Radoszyce 3,200?[50]  1941   Nov 1942     to Treblinka
183   Radzyn Podlaski 2,000–3,000    1941   Dec 1942     to Treblinka
184   Rajgród 1,200    1941   Nov 1942     to Bogusze
185   Rawa Mazowiecka 4,000    1941   Oct 1942     to Treblinka
186   Rejowiec 3,000    1941   1943     to Auschwitz, Sobibor and Majdanek
187   Ropczyce 800    1941   Jul 1942     to Belzec
188   Ryki 1,800–3,500    1941   Oct 1942     to Treblinka and Sobibor
189   Rymanów 1,600?[33]  1941   Aug 1942     to Krakow Ghetto, Belzec, killed locally
190   Sędziszów Małopolski 2,000    1941   Jan 1942     to Belzec
191   Siedlce 12,000–18,000    Jun – Aug 1941   Nov 1942     to Treblinka
192   Siemiatycze 7,000    1941   Nov 1942     to Sobibor
193   Sieniawa 3,000    1941   1942     all killed locally
194   Siennica 700?    1941   15 Sep 1942     to Treblinka (700)[47]
195   Skarżysko-Kamienna 3,000    1941   1942     to Treblinka (2,500), the rest killed locally
196   Skrzynno ?    1941   Oct 1942     to Opoczno ghetto
197   Słonim 22,000    Jul 1941   15 Jul 1942[51]    all killed locally (Jul-41: 1,200; Nov: 9,000; Jul-42: 10,000)
198   Słuck 3,000–8,500    Jun 1941   Nov 1942     all killed locally
199   Sokołów Małopolski 3,000    1941   Jul 1942     to Belzec
200   Sokołów Podlaski 4,000–7,000    Jun 1941   Sep 1942     to Treblinka
201   Sokółka 8,000–9,000    Jun 1941   Nov 1942     to KiełbasinTreblinka
202   Solec 800    1941   Dec 1942     to Tarlow ghetto
203   Stanisławów Ghetto 20,000    Dec 1941   Feb 1943     killed locally → to Belzec
204   Starachowice 6,000    Apr 1941   Oct 1942     to Treblinka
205   Stary Sącz 1,000    1941   Aug 1942     to Belzec
206   Staszów 7,000    1941   Dec 1942     to Treblinka
207   Stopnica 5,000    1941   Nov 1942     to Treblinka, many killed locally
208   Strzemieszyce Wielkie 1,800[52]  1940–1941   May – 15 Jun 1942     to Będzin Ghetto (500), Auschwitz (1,400)
209   Strzyżów 1,300[52]  1941   26 / 28 Jun 1942     to Rzeszów ghetto, killed locally → Belzec
210   Suchedniów 5,000    1941   Aug 1942     to Treblinka
211   Sulejów 1,500    1941   Oct 1942     to Treblinka
212   Szczuczyn 2,000    1941   Jul – Nov 1942     to Bogusze transit camp, killed locally
213   Śniadowo 650    1941   Nov 1942     to Zambrow ghetto
214   Tarczyn 1,600    1941   Feb 1942     to Treblinka
215   Tarnobrzeg (ghetto & camp) 500[53]  Jun 1941   Jul 1942     to Dębica ghetto → Belzec
216   Tarnogród 2,600–5,000    1941   Nov 1942     to Belzec (from ghetto & camp), many killed locally
217   Tarnopol 25,000    Jul – Aug 1941   Jun 1943     to Belzec extermination camp
218   Tarnów 40,000    Mar 1941   Sep 1943     10,000 killed locally, Belzec (10,000), Auschwitz
219   Tomaszów Lubelski 1,400–1,500    1941   Oct 1942     to Belzec
220   Tyczyn ?    1941   Jul 1942     to Belzec
221   Wadowice 1,400[54]  1941   Aug 1943     to Auschwitz
222   Wąwolnica 2,500    1941   May 1942     to Belzec
223   Węgrów 6,000–8,300    1941   Sep 1942     to Treblinka
224   Wieliczka 7,000    1941   Aug 1942     to Belzec
225   Wielun 4,200–7,000    1941   Aug 1942     to Chełmno extermination camp, killed locally
226   Wieruszów 1,400    1941   Aug 1942     to Chełmno extermination camp
227   Wilno Ghetto 30,000–80,000[3]  Sep 1941   Sep 1943    killed locally (21,000 before ghetto was set up)[55]
228   Wiślica 2,000    1941   Oct 1942     to Jedrzejow ghetto
229   Wolbrom 3,000–5,000    1941   Sep 1942     to Belzec, many killed locally
230   Wysokie Mazowieckie 5,000    1941   Nov 1942     to Zambrow ghetto
231   Zabłudów 1,800[56]  Jul 1941   2 Nov 1942     10th Calvary camp near BiałystokTreblinka (1,400)
232   Zambrów 3,200–4,000    1941   Jan 1943     to Auschwitz, mass killings locally
233   Zawiercie 5,000–7,000    1941   Oct 1943     to Auschwitz (5,000)
234   Zelów ?    1941   Sep 1942     to Chełmno extermination camp
235   Zwoleń (open type) 6,500–10,000[57]  1941   29 Sep 1942     to Treblinka extermination camp (8,000)[58]
236   Żarki 3,200    1941   Oct 1942     to Treblinka
237   Żelechów 5,500–13,000    1941   Sep 1942     to Treblinka
Year 1942: on January 20 at the Wannsee conference near Berlin, Reinhard Heydrich informed senior Nazi officials that "the final solution of the Jewish question"
was deportation from the ghettos and subsequent mass extermination of the Jews, and discussed plans for implementation.
Six death factories were built by German firms in occupied Poland within two-to-six months.
238   Andrychów 700    Sep 1942   Nov 1943     to Auschwitz concentration camp
239   Annopol ?    Jun 1942   Oct 1942     to Kraśnik ghetto
240   Baranów Sandomierski 2,000    Jun 1942   Jul 1942     to Dębica ghetto, (all)
241   Biecz 700–800    Apr 1942   Aug 1942     to Belzec
242   Czortków 4,000    Apr 1942   Sep 1943     to Belzec
243   Dąbrowa Tarnowska 2,400–3,000    Oct 1942   Sep 1943     to Belzec and Auschwitz
244   Dębica 1,500–4,000    1942   Mar 1943     to Belzec
245   Drohobycz Ghetto 10,000    Mar 1942   Jun 1943     to Belzec
246   Dubno 9,000?    Apr 1942   Oct 1942     all killed locally
247   Frysztak 1,600[33]  1942   18 Aug 1942     to Jasło ghetto → killed in Warzyce forest
248   Hrubieszów (labor camp) 200[39]  May 1942   May 1943     to Budzyn, killed locally, see Hrubieszów (6,800)
249   Jasienica Rosielna 1,500    1942   Aug 1942     to Belzec
250   Kołomyja (ghetto & camp) 18,000    1942   Feb 1943     to Belzec, many killed locally
251   Koprzywnica 1,800    1940   Oct 1942     to Treblinka
252   Kowale Pańskie 3,000–5,000    1939–1942   1942     to Chełmno extermination camp
253   Kowel 17,000    May 1942   Oct 1942     all killed locally
254   Kraśnik (ghetto & camp) 5,000    1940–1942   Nov 1942     to Belzec
255   Krosno 600–2,500    Aug 1942   Dec 1942     to Belzec
256   Lesko 2,000    1942   Sep 1942     to Belzec
257   Lubaczów 4,200–7,000    Oct 1942   Jan 1943     to Sobibor, many killed locally
258   Łachwa Ghetto 2,350    4 Apr 1942   Sep 1942     killed locally, 1,500 in an uprising.[21]
259   Łęczna 3,000    Jun 1942   Nov 1942     to Sobibor, many killed locally
260   Międzyrzec Podlaski Ghetto 20,000    28 Aug 1942   18 Jul 1943[59]    to Treblinka (17,000), hundreds killed locally.[60]
261   Ożarów 4,500    Jan 1942   Oct 1942     to Treblinka
262   Pińsk Ghetto 26,200    Apr 1942   Oct 1942     to Bronna Góra (3,500), the rest killed locally
263   Przemyśl 22,000–24,000    Jul 1942   Sep 1943     to Belzec, Auschwitz, Janowska
264   Przeworsk 1,400?[33]  Jul 1942   Oct 1942     to Belzec
265   Przysucha 2,500–5,000    Jul – 15 Aug 1942   27 / 31 Oct 1942[61]    to Treblinka (5,000)[62]
266   Sambor 8,000–9,000    Mar 1942   Jul 1943     to Belzec, many killed locally
267   Sosnowiec Ghetto 12,000    Oct 1942   Aug 1943     to Auschwitz
268   Starachowice (labor camp) 13,000    1942   1942     to Treblinka, see also Starachowice ghetto
269   Stryj 4,000–12,000    1942   Jun 1943     all killed locally
270   Sucha Beskidzka 400[63]  1942   1943     to Auschwitz
271   Szydłów 1,000    Jan 1942   Oct 1942     to Chmielnik ghetto
272   Tarnogród (labor camp) 1,000    1942   1942     see Tarnogród ghetto → Belzec
273   Tomaszów M. (labor camp) 1,000    1942   May 1943     to Starachowice,[64] see also Tomaszów M. ghetto
274   Tuchów 3,000    Jun 1942   Sep 1942     to Belzec
275   Zdzięcioł Ghetto 4,500    22 Feb 1942   30 Apr – 6 Aug 1942     killed locally during Zdzięcioł massacres

Aftermath[edit]

Originally captioned "Forcibly pulled out of dug-outs," this Stroop Report photo shows SS man Josef Blösche pointing his gun at people during the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising

The ghetto inhabitants – most of whom were killed during Operation Reinhard – possessed Polish citizenship before the Nazi–Soviet invasion of Poland, which in turn enabled over 150,000 Holocaust survivors registered at CKŻP to take advantage of the later repatriation agreements between the governments of Poland and the Soviet Union, and legally emigrate to the West to help form the nascent State of Israel.[65] Poland was the only Eastern Bloc country to allow free Jewish aliyah without visas or exit permits upon the conclusion of World War II.[66] By contrast, Stalin forcibly brought Soviet Jews back to USSR along with all Soviet citizens, as agreed to in the Yalta Conference.[67]

Further information: Percentages agreement

See also[edit]

Notes and references[edit]

  1. ^ Yitzhak Arad, Belzec, Sobibor, Treblinka. Indiana University Press, Bloomington and Indianapolis, 1987.
  2. ^ Biuletyn Głównej Komisji Badania Zbrodni Hitlerowskich w Polsce, Wydawnictwo Prawnicze, 1960.  (Polish)
  3. ^ a b c d e f The statistical data compiled on the basis of "Glossary of 2,077 Jewish towns in Poland" by Virtual Shtetl Museum of the History of the Polish Jews  (English), as well as "Getta Żydowskie," by Gedeon,  (Polish) and "Ghetto List" by Michael Peters at www.deathcamps.org/occupation/ghettolist.htm  (English). Some figures might require further confirmation due to their comparative range. Accessed June 21, 2011.
  4. ^ a b Michael Berenbaum, The World Must Know, United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, 2006, p. 114.
  5. ^ "The War Against The Jews." The Holocaust Chronicle, 2009. Chicago, Il. Accessed June 21, 2011.
  6. ^ Wojciech Roszkowski, Historia Polski 1914–1997, Warsaw 1998. PDF file, 46,0 MB (available with purchase). Chomikuj.pl, 2013.
  7. ^ a b Dwork, Deborah and Robert Jan Van Pelt,The Construction of Crematoria at Auschwitz, W.W. Norton & Co., 1996.
  8. ^ Cecil Adams, "Did Krups, Braun, and Mercedes-Benz make Nazi concentration camp ovens?"
  9. ^ Jewish Virtual Library, Łódź. Overview of the Litzmannstadt Ghetto's history. Accessed June 27, 2011.
  10. ^ United States Holocaust Memorial Museum - Online Exhibition: Give Me Your Children: Voices from the Lodz Ghetto
  11. ^ University of Minnesota, Majdanek Death Camp
  12. ^ Kraków Ghetto including photographs, at www.krakow-poland.com.
  13. ^ About Kraków Ghetto with valuable historical photographs. (Polish)
  14. ^ "Schindler's Krakow," with modern-day photographs of the WWII relics.
  15. ^ The Kraków Ghetto complete with contemporary picture gallery, at JewishKrakow.net
  16. ^ a b Edward Victor, "Ghettos and Other Jewish Communities." Judaica Philatelic. Accessed June 20, 2011.
  17. ^ Richard C. Lukas, Out of the Inferno: Poles Remember the Holocaust, University Press of Kentucky 1989 - 201 pages. Page 13; also in Richard C. Lukas, The Forgotten Holocaust: The Poles Under German Occupation, 1939-1944, University Press of Kentucky, 1986, Google Print, p.13.
  18. ^ Gunnar S. Paulsson, "The Rescue of Jews by Non-Jews in Nazi-Occupied Poland," Journal of Holocaust Education, Vol.7, Nos.1&2, 1998, pp.19-44. Published by Frank Cass, London.
  19. ^ a b Peter Vogelsang & Brian B. M. Larsen, "The Ghettos of Poland." The Danish Center for Holocaust and Genocide Studies. 2002.
  20. ^ Warsaw Ghetto, United States Holocaust Memorial Museum (USHMM), Washington, D.C.
  21. ^ a b Ghettos, United States Holocaust Memorial Museum
  22. ^ François Furet, Unanswered Questions: Nazi Germany and the Genocide of the Jews. Schocken Books (1989), p. 182; ISBN 0-8052-4051-9
  23. ^ "A letter from Timothy Snyder of Bloodlands: Two genocidaires, taking turns in Poland". The Book Haven. Stanford University. December 15, 2010. Retrieved April 25, 2011. 
  24. ^ Tomasz Sommer (2010). "Execute the Poles: The Genocide of Poles in the Soviet Union, 1937-1938. Documents from Headquarters". Warsaw: 3S Media. p. 277. ISBN 83-7673-020-7. Retrieved April 25, 2011. 
  25. ^ a b First Jewish ghetto established in Piotrkow Trybunalski: October 8, 1939 at the Wayback Machine (archived January 6, 2009). Yad Vashem The Holocaust Martyrs' and Heroes' Remembrance Authority.
  26. ^ Maciej i Ewa Szaniawscy, "Zagłada Żydów w Będzinie w świetle relacji" (Extermination of Jews in the light of testimony).  (Polish) According to 1946 research by Wojewódzka Żydowska Komisja Historyczna in Katowice, wrote Maciej i Ewa Szaniawscy, there were around 30,000 Jews in Będzin following the invasion, including those who came in from neighbouring settlements. Between October 1940 and May 1942, the first 4,000 Jews were deported. In May 1942 additional 2,000 and in August, 5,000 more. Deportations between August 1942 and mid June 1943 amounted to additional 5,000. On 22 June 1943 the next transport of 5,000 Jews departed to Auschwitz, and finally, between 1–3 August 1943, the remaining 8,000 were sent away. The dispersed Jews who stayed, amounting to 1,000 persons, were deported between early October 1943 and July 1944. In total, about 28,000 Jews are believed to have been deported from the Będzin Ghetto. This information however, is not confirmed by the two main sources of the remaining data nor the Jewish Historical Institute, listing only 7,000 victims.
  27. ^ Będzin in the Jewish Historical Institute community database. Warsaw.
  28. ^ Iwona Pogorzelska, Bodzentyn od 1869 roku do niepodległości. Polska.pl. Accessed June 16, 2011.
  29. ^ "Getto w Łowiczu," at Miejsca martyrologii, Wirtualny Sztetl. Instytut Adama Mickiewicza.  (Polish)
  30. ^ "Cmentarz żydowski w Mogielnicy (Jewish cemetery in Mogielnica)," at Kirkuty.xip.pl.
  31. ^ Angelika Lasiewicz-Sych, "An Essay of Traces of the Past," published in Kultura Współczesna nr 4 (38) 2003
  32. ^ a b Piotrków Trybunalski – Getto w Piotrkowie Trybunalskim. Virtual Shtetl. Museum of the History of the Polish Jews. Accessed July 1, 2011.
  33. ^ "Brześć – History". Virtual Shtetl, Museum of the History of Polish Jews. p. 12. Retrieved July 15, 2011. 
  34. ^ a b Yitzhak Arad, Belzec, Sobibor, Treblinka: The Operation Reinhard Death Camps. Indiana University Press. "Appendix A." Page 395.
  35. ^ "Życie za Życie" (Righteous of Ciepielów who paid the ultimate price)." Urząd Gminy w Ciepielowie.  (Polish). Accessed July 6, 2011.
  36. ^ "Ćmielów – Historia," Muzeum Historii Żydów Polskich Wirtualny Sztetl (Museum of the History of the Polish Jews). Accessed July 6, 2011.
  37. ^ Geoffrey P. Megargee, Christopher Browning, Martin Dean (2012). "Gniewoszów". The United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Encyclopedia. Indiana University Press. pp. 224–225. ISBN 0-253-35599-0. Retrieved April 9, 2012. 
  38. ^ a b The Hrubieszow Genealogy Group. ShtetLinks Project. Accessed June 30, 2011.
  39. ^ "Getto w Iwacewiczach". Virtual Shtetl. Museum of the History of Polish Jews. Retrieved April 11, 2012. 
  40. ^ (Polish) Getta tranzytowe w dystrykcie lubelskim (Transit ghettos in Lublin district). Pamięć Miejsca. Retrieved April 12, 2012.
  41. ^ "Izbica. History". Virtual Shtetl. Museum of the History of Polish Jews. pp. 3 of 6. Retrieved April 12, 2012. 
  42. ^ The 90th session of the Senate of the Republic of Poland. Stenograph, part 2.2. A Report by Leon Kieres, president of the Institute of National Remembrance, for the period from July 1, 2,000 to June 30, 2001. Donald Tusk presiding. See statement by Senator Jadwiga Stokarska.  (Polish)
  43. ^ Kraków – History. Page 3. Virtual Shtetl, Museum of the History of Polish Jews. Accessed July 12, 2011.
  44. ^ a b Jack Kugelmass, Jonathan Boyarin, Zachary M. Baker, From a ruined garden: the memorial books of Polish Jewry, United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Accessed June 27, 2011.
  45. ^ Jack Fischel, The Holocaust, Greenwood Publishing Group, 1998, pg. 58; in Google Books.
  46. ^ a b c "Treblinka Death Camp Day-by-Day," at Holocaust Education & Archive Research Team (www.HolocaustResearchProject.org). Accessed June 30, 2011.
  47. ^ "Osiek. History of Jewish community". Virtual Shtetl. Museum of the History of Polish Jews. Retrieved April 8, 2012. 
  48. ^ Geoffrey P. Megargee, Christopher Browning, Martin Dean. "Pionki by Jolanta Kraemer". The United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Encyclopedia. Indiana University Press. pp. 278–279. ISBN 0-253-35599-0. Retrieved April 10, 2012. 
  49. ^ Piotr Berghof, "Radoszyce, wspomnienie o żydowskich mieszkańcach miasteczka."  (Polish). Accessed June 27, 2011.
  50. ^ Słonim – History. Jewish community. Virtual Shtetl. Museum of the History of Polish Jews.  (Polish) Accessed July 7, 2011. The prewar Polish city of Słonim was overrun by the Red Army in September 1939 and confiscated as part of Western Belarus. The influx of refugees from Nazi-occupied Poland increased its Jewish population to 27,000. Over 1,000 were deported to Siberia by the NKVD. Following German invasion of USSR, the ghetto was set up in August 1941, but mass executions began already on 17 July (1,200 men shot just outside the city). A second shooting action took place on 14 November 1941 with 9,000 killed. The ghetto was burned to the ground with all its inhabitants between 29 June and 15 July 1942 following a revolt. Only about 500 managed to escape.
  51. ^ a b Shmuel Spector, Geoffrey Wigoder (2001). The Encyclopedia of Jewish Life Before and During the Holocaust. NYU Press. p. 1255. ISBN 0-8147-9356-8. Retrieved June 29, 2011. 
  52. ^ "Tarnobrzeg. Warto zobaczyć" (Tarnobrzeg worth seeing), Wydawnictwo Bezdroża. Accessed June 27, 2011.
  53. ^ Wadowice – Historia. Wirtualny Sztetl.  (Polish). Accessed June 27, 2011.
  54. ^ "Chronology of Vilna Ghetto," at Vilnaghetto.com without additional confirmation of quantitative data. Accessed June 24, 2011.
  55. ^ "The Deportation of the Zabludow Jews to Treblinka Death Camp." 2003 Tilford Bartman, Jerusalem, Israel.
  56. ^ Geoffrey P. Megargee, Christopher Browning, Martin Dean. "Radom Region by Jolanta Kraemer". The United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Encyclopedia. Indiana University Press. pp. 355–356. ISBN 0-253-35599-0. Retrieved April 9, 2012. 
  57. ^ Daniel Blatman. Translated from the Hebrew by Judy Montel (Summer 2003). "Zwolen". Pinkas HaKehillot, Polen, Volume VII (Jerusalem: Yad Vashem, 1999), pages 187-189. Kielce-Radom SIG Journal Volume 7, Number 3. pp. 8–9. 
  58. ^ "The History of Miedzyrzec Podlaski." Association of Immigrants of Mezritch Depodalsia Area in Israel. Accessed July 5, 2011.
  59. ^ "Mezritch (Międzyrzec) Podlaski in the Jewish sources." Association of Immigrants of Mezritch Depodalsia. Accessed June 16, 2011.
  60. ^ Przysucha, województwo Mazowieckie, Polska. Haapalah Index and Source Database. Accessed July 5, 2011.
  61. ^ Przysucha – History. Virtual Shtetl. Museum of the History of Polish Jews. Accessed July 5, 2011.
  62. ^ Gmina Sucha Beskidzka, powiat suski. Targeo.  (Polish). Accessed June 27, 2011.
  63. ^ Stefan Krakowski, Tomaszow Mazowiecki, Jewish Virtual Library. Accessed June 24, 2001.
  64. ^ Philipp Ther, Ana Siljak (2001). Redrawing nations: ethnic cleansing in East-Central Europe, 1944-1948. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 138. ISBN 0-7425-1094-8. Retrieved May 11, 2011. 
  65. ^ Devorah Hakohen, Immigrants in turmoil: mass immigration to Israel and its repercussions... Syracuse University Press, 2003 - 325 pages. Page 70. ISBN 0-8156-2969-9
  66. ^ Arieh J. Kochavi, Post-Holocaust politics: Britain, the United States & Jewish refugees, 1945-1948. Page 15. The University of North Carolina Press. ISBN 0-8078-2620-0 Accessed June 20, 2011.