||This article possibly contains original research. (September 2007)|
||The examples and perspective in this article deal primarily with the United States and do not represent a worldwide view of the subject. (July 2011)|
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|Jews and Judaism|
The term Jewish right refers to Jews who identify with or support right-wing or conservative causes. The Jewish right is not a monolithic designation. Its application ranges from advocacy of religious morals to conservative politics.
- 1 Jewish religious values and conservatism
- 2 History
- 3 Revisionist Zionism, religious Zionism and the Israeli right
- 4 United Kingdom
- 5 United States (Republican Party)
- 6 See also
- 7 References
Jewish religious values and conservatism
Several movements in Orthodox Judaism can be seen as similar or at least amenable to certain forms of conservatism. For many Orthodox Jews Jewish principles of faith contains belief in a "transcendent moral order", continuity, a tradition of oral law, and requires new statements be compatible with a holy book. These values can be seen as compatible or similar to certain forms of conservatism. According to a Pew Research Center survey the majority of Orthodox Jews in the United States identify as conservative. Although this is a plurality, rather than majority, among those linked to Modern Orthodox Judaism.
Enlightenment and Emancipation
By the late eighteenth century, the Jewish Emancipation efforts tended to occur more among the secular, liberal and left ends of the political spectrum. In relation to this was the Haskalah movement which emphasized Enlightenment values among Jews.
Anti-communism, Anti-Zionism, Fascism
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In the twentieth century, many politicians of the right-wing shared a hostility toward Communism and this hostility had some supporters in the Jewish community. This came either because they viewed Communism as a threat to themselves, society in general, the economy, or all three. In Britain Harold Soref was a member of the Conservative Monday Club and opposed to Communism. In Germany, apostate Lev Nussimbaum had an extremist hostility to Socialism and Communism, favoring monarchism and converting to Islam.
In Italy, a significant minority of Jewish Italians supported both Benito Mussolini and Fascism. It is estimated that in 1938, the year antisemitic laws began in Italy, 10,000 Italian Jews belonged to the Italian Fascist Party. One of the most significant was Aldo Finzi who became a member of the Fascist Grand Council before breaking with Fascism in strong terms. A more "loyal" example was Ettore Ovazza who had been involved in the March on Rome and in 1935 founded the Jewish/Fascist paper La Nostra Bandiera. Despite the unwavering nature of his Fascism, and his staunch Anti-Zionism, in 1943 he would be murdered by the Nazis.
Revisionist Zionism, religious Zionism and the Israeli right
The more nationalistic faction of Zionism, Revisionist Zionism, had some right-wing elements. One of their ideologues, Abba Ahimeir, was influenced by Oswald Spengler. This relates to forms of right-wing politics in Israel that are nationalistic and in some cases expansionist. Yisrael Beiteinu may contain influences from this stream of thought.
Other right-wing parties in Israel have a more religious orientation and are influenced by forms of Religious Zionism. The Jewish National Front states that the "Torah of Israel is the primary source of human morality" although it states openness to secular members. In addition the National Union (Israel) coalition contains Renewed Religious National Zionist Party.
Among the more militant groups Kach and Kahane Chai had some supporters outside Israel, but has since been banned.
Benjamin Disraeli, 1st Earl of Beaconsfield is one of the best known names in British conservative history and although not Jewish by religion (a practicing Anglican), was ethnically Jewish and proud of his Jewishness. In the period of Thatcherism, the Conservative Party courted the British Jewish community. The then Chief Rabbi, Immanuel Jakobovits, was a close ally of Margaret Thatcher and some of Thatcher's cabinet members were Jewish, such as Keith Joseph, Malcolm Rifkind and Nigel Lawson. During the 2000s, Michael Howard, of Jewish background, served a period and fought a general election as leader of the Conservative Party.
United States (Republican Party)
Several Jewish philosophers and politicians would be important to the history of the American Right in the United States. Frank Meyer was a co-founder of the National Review and noted for Fusionism that mixed libertarianism with conservatism. Ralph de Toledano was also an earlier figure for the magazine and wrote for The American Conservative in his final years. Irving Kristol is sometimes seen as a founding figure for neoconservatism. Although not conservative themselves several American advocates of anarcho-capitalism, like Murray Rothbard (a disciple of von Mises), were Jewish and influential on elements of the right.
By the 1980s, Jewish conservatives and right-wingers began to have more organization. In 1985 the Republican Jewish Coalition formed. The group's policy platform objectives include terrorism, national security, United States-Israel relations, US policy concerning the Middle East, immigration, energy policy, education, affirmative action, the Workplace Religious Freedom Act, adoption, crime, taxes, welfare reform, faith-based initiatives, health care, Medicare reform, Social Security reform and government reform.
The following includes any Jewish Republican officeholder since 1900
- Secretary of State of Louisiana Jay Dardenne
- CA Assemblyman Milton Marks
- NY Senator Lee Zeldin
- NY Assemblyman Steve Katz
- Ohio State Treasurer Josh Mandel
- Georgia Attorney General Sam Olens
- Arizona Attorney General Tom Horne
Jewish Republicans include radio talk show hosts Mark Levin, Michael Medved, Michael Savage, and Dennis Prager, as well as Ari Fleischer, Scooter Libby and former Chairman of the Federal Reserve Alan Greenspan.
- Jewish left
- Jewish political movements
- Religious right
- Christian right
- Christian left
- Israeli right-wing politics
- 1 October 2013 Pew Research survey of American Jews, Chapter 6 "Social and Political Views"
- "Benevolence and Betrayal: Five Italian Jewish Families Under Fascism" by Alexander Stille, pg 22
- History of the Holocaust: A Handbook and Dictionary By Abraham J. Edelheit, Hershel Edelheit
- Hazit site
- See also the article on Friedrich Hayek, an ethnically part-Jewish associate of von Mises, for the strong influence of the Austrian school on Thatcher.
- RJC Platform