Jhang

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This article is about the city. For other uses, see Jhang (disambiguation).
Jhang
جھنگ
City
Shrine (Darbar) of Sultan Bahoo, Sufi Saint, well-known at national & international levels
Shrine (Darbar) of Sultan Bahoo, Sufi Saint, well-known at national & international levels
Jhang is located in Pakistan
Jhang
Jhang
Location of Jhang in Pakistan
Coordinates: 31°16′05″N 72°19′05″E / 31.268°N 72.318°E / 31.268; 72.318Coordinates: 31°16′05″N 72°19′05″E / 31.268°N 72.318°E / 31.268; 72.318
Country Pakistan
Province Punjab
Population (1998)
 • Total 387,418
Time zone PST (UTC+5)
Postal code 35200
Calling code 47

Jhang (Urdu: جهنگ‎, Punjabi: جھنگ) is the capital city of Jhang District, in the state of Punjab, Pakistan. It is situated on the east bank of the Chenab river, about 210 km (130 mi) from Lahore, about 70 km (43 mi) from Faisalabad, about 160 mi (257 km) from Multan, and about 35 km (22 mi) from Gojra. According to the 1998 census of Pakistan, it had a population of 387,418 being 20th in the list of most populous cities .[1]

History[edit]

Trimmu Head where Jhelum and Chenab meet in Jhang

Jhang District was agricultural region with forests during the Indus Valley Civilization. The Vedic period is characterized by Indo-Aryan culture of the Punjab region. Prominent tribes included the Kambojas, Daradas, Kaikayas, Madras, Pauravas, Yaudheyas, Malavas and Kurus. After overrunning the Achaemenid Empire in 331 BCE, Alexander marched into present-day Punjab region with an army of 50,000. The Multan was ruled by Maurya Empire, Indo-Greek kingdom, Kushan Empire, Gupta Empire, White Huns, Kushano-Hephthalites and Shahi kingdoms.

In 997 CE, Sultan Mahmud Ghaznavi, took over the Ghaznavid dynasty empire established by his father, Sultan Sebuktegin. In 1005 he conquered the Shahis in Kabul in 1005, and followed it by the conquests of the northern Punjab region. Qutb Shah, was the General in army of Mahmud Ghazni. The Delhi Sultanate and later Mughal Empire ruled the region. The Punjab region became predominantly Muslim due to missionary Sufi saints whose dargahs dot the landscape of Punjab region. Hazrat Sultan Bahoo is the descendent of Qutb Shah. Tribal history holds that Qutb Shah and his sons married local women who converted to Islam from Zoroastrianism. Qutb Shah's sons are said to have settled in different regions of the Punjab, including his elder son Muhammad Shah Or Khokhar[2], settled by Chenab.

The area was inhabited at the time of Alexander the Great, but the present city of Jhang is said to have been founded in the twelfth century by Jalaluddin Surkh-Posh Bukhari. Its first inhabitants were Nauls who were his followers or murids. It was then destroyed by the river and re-founded during the reign of Aurangzeb by Mehboob Alam – called Shah Jewna – who asked his followers to settle again in that area in 1402. Under Mughal rule, the city flourished and was notable for commerce and trade. After the decline of the Mughal Empire, the Sikh invaded and occupied Jhang.

Under the British Raj, the towns of Jhang and Maghiana, lying two miles (3.2 km) apart, became a joint municipality, then known as Jhang-Maghiana.[3]

Jhang-Maghiana became a municipality in 1867.[citation needed] The income during the ten years ending 1902–3 averaged Rs. 46,800 and the expenditure Rs. 44,200; in 1903-4 the income was Rs. 49,700 mainly derived from octroi. Maghiana lies on the edge of the highlands, overlooking the alluvial valley of the Chenab, while the older town of Jhang occupies the lowlands at its foot.[3]

Most popular landmark of Jhang District at national and international levels
Trimmu

Commerce declined in Jhang, which was no longer considered a place of importance. Maghiana, however, had a considerable trade in grain and country cloth, and manufactured leather, soap, locks and other brass-work.[citation needed] Maghiana also contained a civil hospital and Courts, whilst Jhang had a high school and a dispensary.[3] The population in 1901, according to the 1901 census of India, was 24,001 of whom 12,316 were Hindus and 11,684 were Muslims.

The predominantly Muslim population supported Muslim League and Pakistan Movement. After the independence of Pakistan in 1947, the minority Hindus and Sikhs migrated to India while the Muslim refugees from India settled in the Jhang.

Notable landmarks[edit]

  • Shrine (Darbar) of SHAH SADIQ NEHANG BUKHARI, Shorkot
  • Shrine (Darbar) of Sultan Bahoo One of most prominent Sufi saints and most popular landmark in Jhang District.
  • Shrine of Baba Hazrat Rodu Sultan
  • Shrine of Mai Baap Hazrat Sultan Bahoo, Shorkot
  • Astana Alia Darbar Mehboob Alam (popularly known as shah jewna)
  • Darbar Sufi Saint Hazrat Sheikh Ali
  • Darbar Sufi Saint Hazrat Faqeer Syed Noor Ahmad Hashmi (popularly known as baba noor shah)Kot sigh sing
Heer Ranjha's Grave in Jhang
Notable people ==
  • Dr. Abdus Salam and Dr Lal Chand Lal. Both Pakistani to win a Nobel prize and considered a major contributor in modern theoretical physics.
  • Sultan Bahoo, Prominent scholar, vibrant Persian and Punjabi Poet, and one of the greatest Sufi Saints of all times.
Jinnah Hall Jhang
  • Air Commodore Imtiaz Bhatti Sitara-i-Jurat, Sitara-i-Imtiaz(Military), Sitara-i-Basalat, P.A.F.(R), Former Ambassador/High Commissioner of Pakistan for Burundi, Madagascar, Malawi and Tanzania
  • Aleem Dar ICC World Class Empire ( ICC Elite umpire panel)
  • Tariq Saleem Dogar, Former Inspector General of Police (IGP) Punjab, Former DG Anti-Corruption
  • Majeed Amjad
  • Muhammad Tahir-ul-Qadri, Islamic Scholar and Politician
  • Syeda Abida Hussain, Politician (Former Federal Minister and Pakistani Ambassador to the United States)

Geography[edit]

Jhang is situated at the junction of two rivers Jhelum and Chenab, where a headworks named Tareemon had been ercted. It is situated on the left banks of both rivers. Jhang is the capital city of Jhang District located at the coordinates 31.30677 N, 72.32814 E.

Climate[edit]

Climate of Jhang has extreme summer and extreme winter like most areas of Pakistan, it has four seasons. While Monsoon showers in months of June, July, August and September. Temperature usually falls below zero in extreme winter.

Demographics[edit]

Historical population
Year Pop. ±%
1981 289,991 —    
1998 189,721 −34.6%
Source: [4]

According to the 1981 census of Pakistan, the population of Jhang was 1,970,944 with the 434,495 housing units in Jhang. In the 1998 census, population of Jhang was 2,834,545, with an annual growth rate of 2.16%. The male population was 1,474,099 (52.00%) and the female population was 1,360,446 (48.00%). Languages mostly spoken in Jhang are Punjabi and Urdu. Jhang is a Muslim city with Sunni and Shia communities.

Administration[edit]

District Jhang is divided into four Tehsils, Jhang, Shorkot, Ahmad Pur Siyal and, 18 hazari.Jhang Saddar is the administrative center of Jhang tehsil (a subdivision of the district), the tehsil itself is divided into 55 Union councils.[5]

Education[edit]

There are two University campuses catering the needs of city

Jhang contains many schools and colleges

Language[edit]

The native language is Punjabi, with the Jhangvi dialect primarily spoken. Urdu is also spoken in educational institutions.

Culture[edit]

Jhang is the burial place of Heer and Ranjha, of Punjabi folklore. Punjabi folk dances such as Jhummar and Sammi are from this area. Jhummar is a dance for men while Sammi is danced by women. Traditionally men wear turbans and dhotis (like a kilt) though in recent years people have started wearing the national dress which is Shalwar Qameez. Historically there was a considerable weaving industry in Jhang, but this has since declined.

Punjabi folk dances such as Jhummar and Sammi originated in Jhang District. The district also originated a well-known form of folk music known as "Dhola", or "Jhang da Dhola". Another important dance in Jhang is called "Dharees", a traditional folk dance on weddings or other parties.

Street sports are important in Jhang District and include tent pegging (naiza baazi), kabaddi, volleyball, cricket and football (soccer).

In the past, women wove cloth with spinning wheels – known as Teeyan and Trinjan – but now that the area is industrialised the practice is no longer common.

The northwestern Jhang District, particularly the area at the west bank of the Jhelum River, is somewhat different in its culture because it is more influenced by the Thalochi culture emanating from the neighbouring districts of Mianwali and Bhakkar .

Jhang District has a dominant Muslim population and a small number of Ahmadiyya. There is a sizeable Christian minority also. Among the majority Sunnis, the Barelvi school of thought has a major influence. Dr. Tahir-ul-Qadri is a prominent religious scholar and politician who represents this view of Islam. Maulana Haq Nawaz Jhangvi was another prominent and controversial leader from Jhang who created Anjuman-e-Spahe-e-Sohaba (A.S.S), which the United Nations has now banned.[citation needed]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

External links[edit]