Shrine (Darbar) of Sultan Bahoo, Sufi Saint.
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Jhang (Urdu: جهنگ, Punjabi: جھنگ) is the capital city of Jhang District, in the state of Punjab, Pakistan. It is situated on the east bank of the Chenab river, about 210 km (130 mi) from Lahore, about 70 km (43 mi) from Faisalabad, about 160 mi (257 km) from Multan, and about 35 km (22 mi) from Gojra. According to the 1998 census of Pakistan, it had a population of 387,418 being 20th in the list of most populous cities .
Jhang District was agricultural region with forests during the Indus Valley Civilization. The Vedic period is characterized by Indo-Aryan culture of the Punjab region. Prominent tribes included the Kambojas, Daradas, Kaikayas, Madras, Pauravas, Yaudheyas, Malavas and Kurus. After overrunning the Achaemenid Empire in 331 BCE, Alexander marched into present-day Punjab region with an army of 50,000. The Multan was ruled by Maurya Empire, Indo-Greek kingdom, Kushan Empire, Gupta Empire, White Huns, Kushano-Hephthalites and Shahi kingdoms.
From the beginning of the 7th century Rajput kingdoms dominated Eastern portions of Pakistan and northern India. In 997 CE, Sultan Mahmud Ghaznavi, took over the Ghaznavid dynasty empire established by his father, Sultan Sebuktegin, In 1005 he conquered the Shahis in Kabul in 1005, and followed it by the conquests of some western Punjab region. Eastern Regions of Punjab from Multan to the Rawalpindi in north (Including region of present-day Jhang) remained under Rajput rule until 1193. The Delhi Sultanate and Mughal Empire later ruled the region. The Punjab region became predominantly Muslim due to missionary Sufi saints whose dargahs dot the landscape of Punjab region. Hazrat Sultan Bahoo is the descendent of Qutb Shah. Tribal history holds that Qutb Shah and his sons married local women who converted to Islam from Zoroastrianism. Qutb Shah's sons are said to have settled in different regions of the Punjab, including his elder son Muhammad Shah Or Khokhar, settled by Chenab.
The area was inhabited at the time of Alexander the Great, but the present city of Jhang is said to have been founded in the twelfth century by Jalaluddin Surkh-Posh Bukhari. Its first inhabitants were Nauls who were his followers or murids. It was then destroyed by the river and re-founded during the reign of Aurangzeb by Mehboob Alam – called Shah Jewna – who asked his followers to settle again in that area in 1402. Under Mughal rule, the city flourished and was notable for commerce and trade. After the decline of the Mughal Empire, the Sikh Empire invaded and occupied Jhang.
Jhang-Maghiana became a municipality in 1867. The income during the ten years ending 1902–3 averaged Rs. 46,800 and the expenditure Rs. 44,200; in 1903-4 the income was Rs. 49,700 mainly derived from octroi. Maghiana lies on the edge of the highlands, overlooking the alluvial valley of the Chenab, while the older town of Jhang occupies the lowlands at its foot.
Commerce declined in Jhang, which was no longer considered a place of importance. Maghiana, however, had a considerable trade in grain and country cloth, and manufactured leather, soap, locks and other brass-work. Maghiana also contained a civil hospital and Courts, whilst Jhang had a high school and a dispensary. The population in 1901, according to the 1901 census of India, was 24,001 of whom 12,316 were Hindus and 11,684 were Muslims.
The predominantly Muslim population supported Muslim League and Pakistan Movement. After the independence of Pakistan in 1947, the minority Hindus and Sikhs migrated to India while the Muslim refugees from India settled in the Jhang.
- Shrine (Darbar) of Shah Sadiq Nehang Bukhari, Shorkot
- Shrine of Sultan Bahoo, a prominent Sufi saint. A popular landmark in Jhang District.
- Sultan Bahoo (ca 1628 – 1691), saint, founder of the Sarwari Qadiri Sufi order
- Abdus Salam, Nobel laureate in physics
- Aleem Dar, cricketer and umpire. Member of the International Cricket Council Elite umpire panel
- Abida Hussain, politician, former Federal Minister and Ambassador to USA
- Faisal Saleh Hayat, politician, former Federal Minister
- Syed Ali Raza, President and Chairman of the National Bank of Pakistan
- Muhammad Tahir-ul-Qadri, Sufi scholar Sufi scholar and former professor of international constitutional law at the University of the Punjab
- Mariam Hasan, player for Pakistan national women’s cricket team
- Majeed Amjad, Urdu poet
- Mumtaz Hussain, director and film maker in Hollywood.
- Shahbaz Younis, Lawyer at International Court of Arbitration.
Jhang is situated at the junction of two rivers Jhelum and Chenab, where a headworks named Tareemon had been ercted. It is situated on the left banks of both rivers. Jhang is the capital city of Jhang District located at the coordinates 31.30677 N, 72.32814 E.
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Climate of Jhang has extreme summer and extreme winter like most areas of Pakistan, it has four seasons. While Monsoon showers in months of June, July, August and September. Temperature usually falls below zero in extreme winter.
According to the 1981 census of Pakistan, the population of Jhang was 1,970,944 with the 434,495 housing units in Jhang. In the 1998 census, population of Jhang was 2,834,545, with an annual growth rate of 2.16%. The male population was 1,474,099 (52.00%) and the female population was 1,360,446 (48.00%). Languages mostly spoken in Jhang are Punjabi and Urdu. Jhang is a Muslim city with Sunni and Shia communities.
District Jhang is divided into four Tehsils, Jhang, Shorkot, Ahmad Pur Siyal and, 18 hazari.Jhang Saddar is the administrative center of Jhang tehsil (a subdivision of the district), the tehsil itself is divided into 55 Union councils.
There are two University campuses catering the needs of city
- Lahore College for Women University (Jhang campus)
- University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences (Jhang campus)
Jhang contains many schools and colleges
Jhang is the burial place of Heer and Ranjha, of Punjabi folklore. Punjabi folk dances such as Jhummar and Sammi are from this area. Jhummar is a dance for men while Sammi is danced by women. Traditionally men wear turbans and dhotis (like a kilt) though in recent years people have started wearing the national dress which is Shalwar Qameez. Historically there was a considerable weaving industry in Jhang, but this has since declined.
Punjabi folk dances such as Jhummar and Sammi originated in Jhang District. The district also originated a well-known form of folk music known as "Dhola", or "Jhang da Dhola". Another important dance in Jhang is called "Dharees", a traditional folk dance on weddings or other parties.
Street sports are important in Jhang District and include tent pegging (naiza baazi), kabaddi, volleyball, cricket and football (soccer).
In the past, women wove cloth with spinning wheels – known as Teeyan and Trinjan – but now that the area is industrialised the practice is no longer common.
The northwestern Jhang District, particularly the area at the west bank of the Jhelum River, is somewhat different in its culture because it is more influenced by the Thalochi culture emanating from the neighbouring districts of Mianwali and Bhakkar .
Jhang District has a dominant Muslim population and a small number of Ahmadiyya. There is a sizeable Christian minority also.
- 1998 census of Pakistan
- H.A. Roz (1911), p. 29
- Jhang-Maghiana article in the Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 14, p. 134.
- "Demography of Jhang". Pakistan Census. Retrieved 17 August 2011.
- Tehsils & Unions in the District of Jhang – Government of Pakistan