View From Jhansi Fort towards the city
|Nickname(s): City of Rani Lakshmi Bai
Gateway to Bundelkhand
Capital of Bundelkhand
Heart of Bundelkhand
|Founded by||Raja of Orchha|
|• Mayor||Mrs. Kiran Verma (Bharatiya Janata Party)|
|• SSP||Mr. Kiran S|
|• D.M.||Mr. Anurag Yadav (I.A.S.)|
|Elevation||285 m (935 ft)|
|Population (2011 census)|
|Time zone||IST (UTC+5:30)|
|Sex ratio||♂ 0.892 : ♀ 1.000|
|Avg. summer temperature||47 °C (117 °F)|
|Avg. winter temperature||4.0 °C (39.2 °F)|
Jhansi ( pronunciation (help·info); Hindi: झाँसी; Marathi: झाशी; Urdu: جھانسی) is a historic city of northern India, in the region of Bundelkhand on the banks of the Pahuj or Pushpavati River, in the extreme south of the state of Uttar Pradesh. Jhansi is the administrative headquarters of Jhansi District and Jhansi Division. This district is on the banks of the Betwa River. The original walled city grew up around its stone fort, which crowns a neighbouring rock. The ancient name of this historical city was Balwantnagar. From 1817 to 1854 Jhansi was the capital of the princely state of Jhansi which was ruled by Maratha rajas.
The city is situated between the rivers Pahuj and Betwa between North longitudes 24°11' and 25°57'and East latitudes 78°10'and 79°25'. It has an average elevation of 285 metres (935 feet). It is about 415 kilometres (258 mi) from New Delhi and 292 kilometres (181 mi) from Lucknow, and is called the Gateway to Bundelkhand.
Jhansi is well connected to all other major towns in Uttar Pradesh by road and railway networks. The National Highways Development Project has supported development of Jhansi. Kashmir to Kanyakumari passes through Jhansi as does the East-West corridor; consequently there has been a sudden rush to infrastructure and real estate development in the city. A greenfield airport development has been planned.
- 1 Etymology
- 2 History
- 3 Demographics
- 4 Geography and climate
- 5 Places of interest
- 6 Education
- 7 Cinema Halls/Multiplexes
- 8 World Class Restaurants
- 9 Shopping Malls
- 10 Shopping Markets
- 11 Transport
- 12 Armed forces
- 13 Sport
- 14 Notable people associated with Jhansi
- 15 Jhansi in literature
- 16 See also
- 17 References
- 18 External links
According to a legend the Raja of Orchha was sitting on the roof of his palace with his friend, the Raja of Jaitpur, and asked the latter whether he could discern this new fort that he had built on Bangara hill, and he replied that he could see it 'jhainsi' (meaning rather indistinct). This name 'Jhainsi' in course of time became corrupted to 'Jhansi'. It was one of the most strategically situated forts of central India being built on an elevated rock rising out of the plain and commanding the city and the surrounding country.
In the 18th century the town of Jhansi served as the capital of a Maratha province and later the Princely State of Jhansi from 1804 till 1853, when the territory became a part of British India. Hansari was another princely state near Jhansi, having a revenue of 40000 and a 4 gun salute. Dada Narayan Singh Yadav was a great leader of the Indian National Congress and was on familiar terms with the former Prime Minister of India Mrs. Indira Gandhi.
According to the 2011 census, Jhansi has a population of 8,30,293; [clarification needed] its urban agglomeration a population of 8,30,311[clarification needed]. Of the total population 91.5% are Hindus, 7.5% are Muslims, 0.5% are Christians and the rest 0.5% are Sikhs, Jains and Buddhists, as per 2001 census (religious data for 2011 census as yet not revealed). Jhansi city has 57th rank among the most populated cities of India, according to the 2011 census. The literacy rate of Jhansi is 83.81%, much upper than the national average.
According to the Indian Census of 2001 there were 21,917 people in Jhansi Cantonment, of whom 56% were male and 44% female (men 12,264; women 9,653; children 2,612). The rate of literacy was 76%.
Geography and climate
Jhansi is located at 25.4333 N 78.5833 E. It has an average elevation of 284 metres (935 feet). Jhansi lies on the plateau of central India, an area dominated by rocky relief and minerals underneath the soil. The city has a natural slope in the north as it is on the south western border of the vast Tarai plains of Uttar Pradesh and the elevation rises on the south.
The land is suitable for species of citrus fruit and crops include wheat, pulses, peas, and oilseeds. The region relies heavily on Monsoon rains for irrigation purposes. Under an ambitious canal project (the Rajghat canal), the government is constructing a network of canals for irrigation in Jhansi and Lalitpur and some part of Madhya Pradesh. The trade in agricultural products (including grain and oilseeds) is of great economic importance. The city is also a centre of brassware manufacture.
Being on a rocky plateau, Jhansi experiences extreme temperatures. Winter begins in October with the retreat of the Southwest Monsoon (Jhansi does not experience any rainfall from the Northeast Monsoon) and peaks in mid-December. The mercury generally reads about 4 degrees minimum and 21 degrees maximum. Spring arrives by the end of February and is a short-lived phase of transition. Summer begins by April and summer temperatures can peak at 47 degrees in May. The rainy season starts by the third week of June (although this is variable year to year). Monsoon rains gradually weaken in September and the season ends by the last week of September. In the rainy season, the average daily high temperature hovers around 36 degrees Celsius with high humidity. The average rainfall for the city is about 900 mm per year, occurring almost entirely within the three-and-a-half months of the Southwest Monsoon. In summer Jhansi experiences temperatures as high as 45-47 degrees and in winter the temperatures fall as low as 0-1 degrees (recorded in winter 2011).
|Climate data for Jhansi (1971–2000)|
|Record high °C (°F)||33.8
|Average high °C (°F)||23.3
|Average low °C (°F)||7.4
|Record low °C (°F)||1.2
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||9.2
|Avg. rainy days||0.9||1.0||0.7||0.5||1.3||4.9||12.3||13.1||7.0||1.6||0.5||0.5||44.2|
|Source: India Meteorological Department (record high and low up to 2010)|
Places of interest
The early 17th century fort was made by Raja Bir Singh on top of a hill known as Bangara as an army stronghold. The Karak Bijli tank is within the fort. There is also a museum which has a collection of sculpture and provides an insight into the history of Bundelkhand.
Government Museum; and Rani Mahal
In the Government Museum there are collections of weapons, statues, dresses and photographs that represent the Chandela dynasty and a picture gallery of the Gupta period. There are also terracottas, bronzes, manuscripts, paintings and coins. The museum is closed on Mondays and second Saturday of every month.
The Rani Mahal was the palace of Rani Lakshmi Bai and has now been converted into a museum. It houses a collection of archaeological remains of the period between the 9th and 12th centuries AD.
Other places of interest
Temples: Iskcon Temple, Laxmi Temple; Shri Kali Temple; Karguan Jain Temple.--Christian churches: Shrine of St. Jude Church; St Antony's Cathedral.--Gangadhar Rao-Ki-Chhatri (tomb).--Laxmi Bai Park; Narayan Bagh; Jari Ka Math; Barua Sagar & Fort; Garhmau Lake.
- Bundelkhand University (Shivaji Nagar,Jhansi)
- Rani Lakshmi Bai Central Agricultural University (Grassland, Jhansi)
Agriculture and Food Processing Industries Minister declared the foundation of Rani Lakshmi Bai Central Agricultural University at Jhansi. Rani Lakshmi Bai Central Agricultural University Bill, 2012 was passed by the Parliament last year as informed by the Minister. This bill aims to meet the needs of Bundelkhand region. The jurisdiction of the University will be over Bundelkhand region, with 7 districts in Uttar Pradesh and 6 districts in Madhya Pradesh falling under it. 2 colleges will be established initially at Jhansi. Later, 2 colleges will be set up in Madhya Pradesh. Uttar Pradesh will have colleges for agriculture & horticulture and forestry. Madhya Pradesh will have colleges for veterinary & animal sciences and fisheries. The core objective of the University is to impart education in various fields of agriculture and allied sciences, to boost connections with national and international educational institutes and to undertake research in agriculture and programmes of extension education in Bundelkhand region.
Bundelkhand University is a public university founded in 1975 which has professional, technical and vocational study programmes along with facilities for research. The university has among others these Affiliated Colleges:
- Arya Kanya College (Sipri)
- B.J.J.R. Institute of Law (Jhansi)
- Bipin Bihari College (Jhokan Bagh)
- Bundelkhand Degree College (Gwalior Road)
- Chandra Shekhar Azad Institute of Science & Technology (CSAIST)
- College of Science and Engineering (Amababai)
- Dinedh Patel College
- Sharda Devi Degree College (Jhansi)
- Swami Vivekanand College (Premnagar)
- M D College (Jhansi)
- Simit College (Jhansi)
There are also the CSAIST, Jhansi; SR Group of Institutions, Jhansi; Dr Shri Radhakrishnan Inter College Jhansi.; Lord Mahakaleshwar Inter College.
Maharani Laxmi Bai Medical college Hospital Jhansi was established in 1968, is named after the "Jhansi ki Rani" Maha Rani Laxmi Bai. The aim is to provide medical care to poor people of the region, Bundelkhand. The college admits 100 students each year for medical course and nearly 54 post graduate student in various specialties. College is actively involved in various national health programs, e.g. Maternal and Child health, Integrated Child Development Scheme, Family Welfare, Pulse Polio Immunization program etc.
Campus of Maharani Laxmi Bai Medical college Hospital Jhansi –
The college building spread over a walled area of 380 acres, and this is perhaps the biggest medical college campus in the country. The building grouped into 3 blocks namely administration and teaching block, hospital block, residential block.
- Maharani Laxmi Bai Medical College
- Bundelkhand Govt. Ayurvedic College & Hospital (Gwalior Road)
- Vidyavati College of Pharmacy (Jhansi-Kanpur Highway)
- Paramedical College (Kanpur-Gwalior Bypass)
- Bundelkhand Institute of Engineering & Technology (Hindi: बुन्देलखण्ड अभियान्त्रिकी एवं प्रौद्योगिकी संस्थान ) is a government-funded autonomous engineering college in Jhansi. It is a constituent college of Gautam Buddha Technical University and is recognised by the All India Council for Technical Education. It was established in 1986 by the government of Uttar Pradesh.
- College of Science and Engineering
- Institute of Engineering and Technology, Bundelkhand University.
Polytechnics & ITI
- Govt. Polytechnic Jhansi (Gwalior Road)
- Govt. Mahila Polytechnic, Jhansi (Gwalior Road)
- Baba Saheb Ambedkar Polytechnic, Jhansi (Shivpuri Road)
- Govt. ITI, Jhansi
- Chandra Shekhar Azad Institute of Science & Technology (CSAIST)
- Bipin Behari Post Graduate College (Near Govind Chauraha)
- Government Girls Post Graduate College, (near Kachehri Chauraha)
- Arya Kanya Girls Post Graduate College (Sipri Bazaar)
- Pt. Vasudev Tiwari Girls Degree College (Near Kotwali Shehar, Jhansi)
- College of Science and Engineering (Ambabai, Jhansi)
- Maharani Laxmi Bai Central Agricultural University (Near IGFRI, Grassland, Jhansi)
- ICAR-Indian Grassland & Fodder Research Institute (IGFRI) (the river Pahuj flows through the site of the institute)www.igfri.res.in
- ICAR-Central Agro-Forestry Research Institute (CAFRI)
- Rajya Vidyut Parishad Inter College
- RNS World School (Shivpuri Road Near Pali Phadi Opposite Peetambra Bagh)
- RNS World School Junior (Near Allahabad Bank Crossing)
- St. Stephen's Global School, (Gram Dely, Shivpuri Road, Jhansi)
- Jacob High School, (Sipri Bazar, Jhansi.)
- Pt.Deen Dayal Upadhayaya Vidhya Peeth Inter College (Unnao-Balaji road.)
- Cathedral College, Jhansi
- Dr. B. R. Ambedkar Science Inter College (Khera, Premnagar)
- Janak Inter College (Ambedkar Nagar, Khera, Nagra)
- Don Bosco College (Premnagar)
- Saint Umar Inter College (Premnagar)
- M. S. Rajput Inter College (4 Kamba, Nagra)
- Maharaja Agrasen Saraswati Vidya Mandir (Shivpuri Road, Jhansi)
- Rani Lakshmibai Public School (Cavalry Road, Jhansi Cantt.)
- St Mark's School (Sipri)
- Betwa Nursery School (Sipri)
- St Mark's College, Jhansi (Jhansi Cantt.)
- Kendriya Vidyalaya No.1 (Rana Pratap Marg, Jhansi Cantt, Jhansi)
- Kendriya Vidyalaya No.2 (Near St. Martin Church, Cariappa Marg, Jhansi Cantt, Jhansi)
- Kendriya Vidyalaya No.3 (Gulam Gaus Marg, Railway Colony(W), Jhansi)
- Saraswati Pathshala Industrial Inter College (SPI) (Civil Lines)
- Saraswati Inter College, (Sipri Bazar)
- Sanatan Dharma Kanya Inter College (Sipri Bazar.)
- Lokmanya Tilak Kanya Inter College (Paani Wali Dharamshala, Sheher)
- Aryan junear public school behind atri garden
- H.M.Memorial Girls Inter College(Misson compound)
- Government Inter College, (Gwalior road.)
- Arya Kanya Inter College, (Sipri bazaar.)
- Bipin Bihari Inter College, (Khushipura.)
- L.V.M. Inter College, (Khanderao Gate)
- Village Inter College, (Rajgarh, Jhansi)
- Bhani Devi Goyal Saraswati Vidya Mandir, (Unnao-Balaji road.)
- Saraswati Balika Vidya Mandir (Datia Gate)
- Shri Guru Nanak Khalsa Inter College, (Sipri Bazar)
- Modern Public School, (Kochabhavar, Kanpur Road)
- Christian Inter College, (Jhokan Bagh)
- Sun International School, (R.T.O. Office, Kanpur Road.)
- Nirmala Convent High School (Premnagar)
- Bal Bharti Public School (Isaitola, Premnagar)
- St. Jude's Inter College (Premnagar)
- Gyan Sthaly Public Inter College, (Shivaji Nagar)
- Army Public School, (Jhansi Cantt.)
- BHEL Siksha Niketan, (BHEL, Jhansi)
- St. Xavier's School, (BHEL, Jhansi)
- Zila Parsadiya Gov.Inter college, (BHEL,Jhansi)
- St. Francis' Convent Inter College, (Jhansi Cantt.)
- Jawahar Navodaya Vidyalaya, (Jhansi)
- Pt. Vasudev Tiwari Girls Inter College, (Near Sheher, Kotwali, Jhansi)
- Kidzee Zee School, (Awas Vikas Colony, Shivpuri Road)
- Mount Litera Zee School, (Tubewell Road, Khati Baba)
- Sunny Convent Inter College, (Nandanpura)
- St.Umar Inter College(Premnagar, Nagra)
- Hafiz Siddiqui National Inter College (In front of HDFC Bank, Elite Chauraha)
- Faiz-E-Aam Convent School (Nandanpura)
- St. Mary's Inter College (Masiha Ganj)
- Jai Academy (Shivpuri Road)
- Jai Kids (Civil Lines)
- Mahatma Hansraj Modern School(Shivpuri Road)
- Margaret Leask Memorial English School (C.P. Mission Compound)
- Shemford Futuristic School (Shivpuri Road, Village Deeli)
- Christ the King College, Jhansi.
- Suraj Prasad Govt. Girls Inter College (Sadar Bazar)
- Sheerwood College (Dildar Nagar, Khatibaba)
- Dr. K. G. Dwivedi Inter College, Outside Unnao Gate, Jhansi
∗ Blue Bells public school,rajgarh, jhansi
- Alpine public school,gwalior road, jhansi
- Khilona Multiplex
- Elite Cinema
World Class Restaurants
- Domino's Pizza (Beside New Income Tax Office)
- Pizza Hut (Beside Pramood Petrol Pump)
- Space City Mall (Baghwantpura)-(Under Construction)
- SG Mall (Sadar)
- Galaxy Mall (Shivaji Nagar)
- Siddivinayk Mall Cum Vishal Mega Mart (Near Bus Stand)
- V Mart (Civil Lines)
- City Life (Infront DM'S Office Gate)
- Railway Mall Cum Hotel (Infront Jhansi Junction)-(Under Constraction)
- Khati Baba
- Nagra Bazar
- Sipri Bazar
- Sadar Bazar
- Manik Chowk
- Bada Bazar
- Jawahar Chowk
Jhansi has two radio stations: 92.7 BIG FM and 103.0 AIR FM.
Many national and local newspapers are published in Jhansi both in Hindi and English:
|Dainik Royal Mail||Hindi|
|Jan Seva Mail||Hindi|
|Jan Jan Jagran||Hindi|
The city is well connected to other parts of India by railways and major highways.
Jhansi Junction has its own Division of the Indian North Central Railways. It is well connected by train services to all parts of the country, including four metropolitan cities. There are direct trains to Mumbai, madurai, Delhi, Kolkata (Howrah), Chennai, Bangalore (Bengaluru), Hyderabad, Nagpur, Agra Gwalior, Trivandrum, Indore, Ahmedabad, Udaipur, Pune, Jammu, Jaipur, Lucknow, Bhopal, Mahoba, Khajuraho, Gaya, Jalgaon, Bhusaval, Jabalpur, Kanpur, Allahabad, Gorakhpur, Bandra and other major towns. A list of all train services passing through Jhansi Junction can be found here.
Jhansi Junction is a major railway junction of Indian Railways: a major intercity hub and a technical stoppage for many superfast trains in India. Jhansi has its own division in the North Central Railway zone of Indian Railways. It lies on the main Delhi-Chennai and Delhi-Mumbai lines. The station code is JHS.
The railway station was built by the British in the late 1880s. After a long survey of three places the current site was selected for the station. The station has a massive fort-like building painted in maroon and off white.
The station had three platforms in the beginning. Platform One is 2,525 feet (770 m) long making it the fifth longest in the world so could easily handle two trains at a time. Platforms two and three are also long enoungh to do this. The first Shatabdi Express of India started between New Delhi and Jhansi. Earlier Jhansi used to be a part of Central railways zone headquartered at Mumbai but now comes under NCR headquartered at Allahabad.
Jhansi Junction is linked with many industrial and important cities of India by direct trains like New Delhi, Kanpur, Lucknow, Bhopal, Chennai, Bangalore, Hyderabad, Mumbai, Kolkata, Jammu, Agra, Bhubaneshwar, Ahmedabad, etc.
Jhansi Junction is served by 4 broad gauge routes:
- Jhansi - New Delhi
- Jhansi - Kanpur Central
- Jhansi - Bhopal
- Jhansi - Manikpur
- Jhansi - Shivpuri (Proposed)
Many prestigious Indian Railways trains pass through Jhansi, including the Taj Express, Tamil Nadu Express, Kerala Express, Andhra Pradesh Express, Bhopal Express, Dakshin Express and Pushpak Express.
There is a also an escalators in the Jhansi junction railway station for elderly or incapacitated passengers.
Jhansi Junction has 7 platforms, 4 broad over-bridges. Due to heavy usage, two new platforms are planned, increasing the total to 11. Five pairs of the Rajdhani Express as well as the Bhopal — New Delhi Shatabdi Express pass through Jhansi.Three pairs of Duronto Express also have their technical stoppages at Jhansi. All state Sampark Krantis passing through Jhansi have official stops at Jhansi. In all more than 150 trains stop at Jhansi Junction everyday.
The station also features a restaurant, air-conditioned and non-air-conditioned waiting rooms, a cyber cafe, and tourist information offices of both the Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh governments. Outside the station also there is a passenger complex and canteen.
Jhansi is located at the junction of these National Highways: NH-12A; NH-25; NH-26; NH-75; and NH-76. Thus, Jhansi commands a strategic position in the roadways network as highways in 5 different directions diverge from it.
The proposed north-south and east-west corridors of the Golden-Quadrilateral Highway project pass and cross each other only in Jhansi and the city is also well connected to Kanpur, Lucknow and Madhya Pradesh by road. The four lane national highway is at the last stage of its completion, giving a boom in infrastructure and other sectors in Jhansi and nearby areas;[when?] the greenery near this highway is attractive.
Jhansi Airport is a military aviation base built in the British era used by the Indian army and political visitors. Though there are provisions for private aircraft to land, there are no civil aviation operations. There had been a demand to make it operational for commercial purposes in the 1990s and again in the 2000s. The Uttar Pradesh government announced the construction of an all new civil aviation base to support tourism in Bundelkhand in April 2011. The Indian army maintains an objection to extension of the military aviation. So, the government has examined three different places other than army aviation base for the airport in Jhansi. Gwalior Airport is the nearest airport from Jhansi.
Jhansi district has the headquarters of the 31st Indian Armoured Division of the Indian Army, stationed at Jhansi-Babina. It is an armoured division which has equipment like the T-72 and T-90 tanks, and the BMP-2 armoured personnel carrier.
The Jhansi Cantonment was the site of the accommodation for British civil and military personnel in the period of British rule in India. Within the cantonment is Sacred Heart Church, a Roman Catholic church built early in the 20th century.
Sports stadiums in Jhansi are Major Dhyanchand Stadium; Railway Stadium; and LVM Sports Place.
Notable people associated with Jhansi
- Rani Lakshmibai, queen consort of Maharaja Gangadhar Rao; regent and afterwards queen who led her people in defence of the city against British forces in 1858.
- Vrindavan Lal Verma, an eminent Hindi novelist and playwright.
- Maithili Sharan Gupt, one of the most prominent Hindi poets, also known as Rahtra Kavi.
- Major Dhyan Chand, Indian Army officer and hockey player for the national team of India.
- Dr Saumitra Rawat, an eminent Surgeon, Chairman and Head, Surgical Gastroenterology and Liver Transplant, Sir Ganga Ram Hospital, New Delhi. The Government of India honoured him in 2015 with the award of Padma Shri.
- Abdul Karim (the Munshi), was an Indian Muslim attendant of Queen Victoria. He served her during the final fifteen years of her reign, gaining her maternal affection over that time.
- B. B. Lal, renowned Indian archaeologist.
- Chandra Shekhar Azad, Indian freedom fighter.
- Dr.Bansidhar Panda Pathak,famous Hindi poet.
- Dr. S. M. Bhowmick, famous medical doctor in and around Jhansi who worked for Central Railway from 1952-1980.
- (Rani Mukherjee),renowned Bollywood actress
- Dr.Chandra Pal Singh Yadav (MP Rajya Shaba)
Jhansi in literature
Two novels by John Masters are set in the fictional town of Bhowani. According to the author, writing in the Glossary to the earlier novel, Nightrunners of Bengal, Bhowani is an "imaginary town. To get a geographical bearing on the story it should be imagined to be about where Jhansi really is - 25.27 N., 78.33 E." Nightrunners of Bengal is set during the Indian Rebellion of 1857 at "Bhowani" (the title alludes to the mysterious distribution of "chapatis" to village headmen which preceded the revolt). Bhowani Junction is set in 1946/47 the eve of independence and in both novels the main character is Colonel Rodney Savage, a British army officer and part of a succession of such men from the same family.
Christina Rossetti wrote a short poem about the fate of the Skene family at Jhansi during the Indian Mutiny. It is entitled 'In the Round Tower at Jhansi - 8 June 1857'. It was published in 1862 in the same volume as her more celebrated poem 'Goblin Market'. Some time afterwards, Rossetti discovered that she had been misinformed about husband and wife's suicide pact in the face of a murderous and implacable enemy ('The swarming howling wretches below' the tower walls) which is the poem's subject, but did not delete it from later editions.
- "Literacy rate". Web.archive.org. 16 June 2004. Retrieved 29 April 2012.
- The state was annexed by the British Governor General in 1854; Damodar Rao's claim to the throne was rejected but Rani Lakshmibai ruled it from June 1857 to June 1858.
- "Uttar Pradesh plans to develop Jhansi airport". igovernment.in. 4 January 2011. Retrieved 3 September 2012.
- "Census of India 2001: Data from the 2001 Census, including cities, villages and towns (Provisional)". Census Commission of India. Archived from the original on 16 June 2004. Retrieved 20 February 2013.
- "Jhansi, India Page". fallingrain.com. Retrieved 3 September 2012.
- The Macmillan Encyclopedia; rev. ed. London: Macmillan, 1983; p. 647
- Moore, W. G. (1971) The Penguin Encyclopedia of Places. Harmondsworth: Penguin; p. 371
- "Jhansi Climatological Table Period: 1971–2000". India Meteorological Department. Retrieved April 15, 2015.
- "Ever recorded Maximum and minimum temperatures up to 2010" (PDF). India Meteorological Department. Retrieved April 15, 2015.
- Manjul, Tarannum (1 April 2011). "New airport at Jhansi to boost tourism". indianexpress. Retrieved 3 September 2012.
- "Sacred Heart Church, Jhansi Cantonment". Directorate General Defence Estates. 24 August 2011. Retrieved 7 March 2013.
- Masters, John. Nightrunners of Bengal. (London and New York, 1951). Glossary.
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