Jharkhand

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Jharkhand
झारखण्ड
State
Seal of Bihar & Jharkhand
Seal
Location of Jharkhand  (marked in red) in India
Location of Jharkhand (marked in red) in India
Map of Jharkhand
Map of Jharkhand
Coordinates (Ranchi): 23°21′N 85°20′E / 23.35°N 85.33°E / 23.35; 85.33Coordinates: 23°21′N 85°20′E / 23.35°N 85.33°E / 23.35; 85.33
Country India
Region East India
Established 15 November 2000
Capital Ranchi
Largest city Jamshedpur
Government
 • Governor Syed Ahmed
 • Chief Minister Hemant Soren (JMM)
 • Legislature Unicameral (82 seats)
 • Parliamentary constituency 14
 • High Court Jharkhand High Court
Area
 • Total 79,714 km2 (30,778 sq mi)
Area rank 15th
Population (2011)
 • Total 32,988,134
 • Rank 13th
 • Density 414/km2 (1,070/sq mi)
Time zone IST (UTC+05:30)
ISO 3166 code IN-JH
HDI Increase 0.513 (medium)
HDI rank 24th (2005)
Literacy 67.6% (25th)
Official Language[1] Hindi language
Website http://www.jharkhand.gov.in/

Jharkhand (Jhārkhaṇḍ, pronounced [ˈdʒʱaːrkʰəɳɖ] ( ); Hindi: झारखंड) is a state in eastern India. It was carved out of the southern part of Bihar on 15 November 2000.[2] Jharkhand shares its border with the states of Bihar to the north, Uttar Pradesh and Chhattisgarh to the west, Odisha to the south, and West Bengal to the east. It has an area of 79,710 km2 (30,778 sq mi).

The industrial city of Ranchi is its capital and Dumka is sub capital, Jamshedpur is the largest and the biggest industrial city of the state, while Dhanbad the coal capital of India is the second most populous city.

The name "Jharkhand" means "The Land of Forests".[3] Jharkhand accounts for 40% of the mineral resources of India.

History[edit]

Main article: History of Jharkhand

According to some writers like Gautam Kumar Bera,[4] there was already a distinct geo-political, cultural entity called Jharkhand even before the period of Magadha Empire. Bera's book (page 33) also refers to the Hindu Mythological book Bhavishya Purana. The tribal rulers, some of whom continue to thrive till today were known as the Munda Rajas,[5][6] who basically had ownership rights to large farmlands.[7] During the Mughal period, the Jharkhand area was known as Kukara.

History of Jharkhand The movement for a separate state of Jharkhand is an odyssey spread over a century which is traced back to the early 1900s, when Jaipal Singh, an Indian Hockey captain and Olympian, suggested the idea of a separate state consisting of the southern districts of Bihar. The idea did not become a reality, however, until August 2, 2000, when the Parliament of India passed the Bihar Reorganization Bill to create the state of Jharkhand, carving 18 districts out of Bihar to form Jharkhand state on 15 November 2000. On that day it became the 28th state of India.

According to some historians, there was already a distinct geo-political, cultural entity called Jharkhand even before the period of Magadha Empire. Many scholars now believe that the language used by tribes in the state of Jharkhand is identical to the one used by Harappa people. This has led to a great interest in the deciphering of Harappa inscriptions using rock paintings and language used by these tribes. For a greater part of Vedic age, Jharkhand remained buried. During the age of Mahajanpadas around 500 BC, India saw the emergence of 16 large states that controlled the entire Indian subcontinent. In those days the northern portion of Jharkhand state was a tributary to Magadha (ancient Bihar) Empire and southern part was a tributary to Kalinga (ancient Orissa) Empire. According to legend, Raja Jai Singh Deo of Orissa had declared himself the ruler of Jharkhand in the 13th century.

The Singh Deo's of Orissa have been very instrumental in the early history of Jharkhand. The local tribal heads had developed into barbaric dictators who could govern the province neither fairly nor justly. Consequently, the people of this state approached the more powerful rulers of Jharkhand's neighboring states who were perceived to have a more fair and just governance. This became the turning point in the history of the region wherein rulers from Orissa moved in with their armies and created states that were governed for the benefit of the people and involved their participation, thus ending the barbarism that had marked the region for centuries. The good tribal rulers continued to thrive and were known as the Munda Rajas, and exist to this day. Later, during the Mughal period, the Jharkhand area was known as Kukara. After the year 1765, it came under the control of the British Empire and became formally known under its present title, "Jharkhand" - the Land of "Jungles" (forests) and "Jharis" (bushes).

The colonization of Jharkhand has to mentioned in Jharkhand history. Colonization by the British East India Company resulted in spontaneous resistance from the local people. Almost one hundred years before India’s First War of Independence (1857), adivasis of Jharkhand were already beginning what would become a series of repeated revolts against the British colonial rule. All of these uprisings were quelled by the British through massive deployment of troops across the region.

Role of Birsa Munda in Jharkhand History

Birsa Munda from 1875 to 1900 and Sidho and Kanho are the legendary heroes of the tribal of Jharkhand state who fought against the oppressive rule of the British government. The Birsa Munda movement of 1985-1900 was the most important among early uprisings against exploitation of the original inhabitants by non-tribal landowners and money lenders. Birsa Munda fought for the tribal natural right over forests and land that was mercilessly being acquired by the British for exploitation. After a long fight, Birsa Munda was captured by the British authorities and died in prison. In 1914 the Tana Bhagat resistance movement started which gained the participation of more than 26,000 adivasis, and eventually merged with Mahatma Gandhi's Satyagraha and Civil Disobedience movement. A landmark in the movement was the formation of the Chotanagpur Unnati Samaj in 1915, which acquired political overtones with the demand for a sub-state for the adivasis. The demand was, however, turned down by the Simon commission.

Role of Adivasi Mahasabha in Jharkhand history

The next important step was the formation of the Adivasi Mahasabha, which saw non-tribal coming out openly in support of the movement for the creation of a separate state. Among those who spearheaded the Jharkhand movement was Jaipal Singh, an Oxford - returned tribal Christian who helped the regional aspiration gain national recognition.

The Adivasi Mahasaba was rechristened the Jharkhand party here in 1949 under the leadership of Jaipal Singh. It was with the emergence of this party that the Jharkhand movement became purely political. The Jharkhand party became the largest opposition party in the Bihar Assembly winning all the 32 seats from south Bihar and giving fresh impetus to the government for a separate state. Considering its growing strength, the Congress started efforts for engineering a split in the Jharkhand Party. As a consequence, Jaipal Singh fell into its trap and joined the Congress with his followers in 1963. N. E. Horo, a close associate of Jaipal Singh, however, refused to join the Congress and kept the Jharkhand flag flying. But the loss of the Jharkhand Party veterans, who joined the Congress, proved too much for the pro-statehood forces whose strength steadily eroded in successive elections since 1969.

Role of Jharkhand Mukti Morcha in Jharkhand history

The movement again received a shot in the arm with the emergence of the Jharkhand Mukti Morcha in 1972. The growing strength of the JMM was reflected in the Lok Saba and Assembly elections and the demand for a statehood for the first time shook the corridors of power with the then prime minister of India Mr. Rajiv Gandhi setting up a Committee on Jharkhand Matters(CoJM). In the light of the recommendations by the CoJM, prolonged negotiations between the Centre, the Bihar government and the movement leaders led to the setting up of the Jharkhand Area Autonomous Council (JAAC) in August 1995. It was hailed as a major step towards the creation of Jharkhand.

Buckling under pressure from the JMM members, with whose support the RJD had a majority in the state Assembly, the Bihar government on July 22, 1997, adopted a resolution for the creation of a separate state. In 1998, however, RJD leader Mr. Lalu Prasad Yadav reversed his stand on Jharkhand statehood. The JMM reacted sharply, withdrawing its support to the RJD government.

After the last Assembly election in the state threw up a hung Assembly, RJD's dependence on the Congress extended support on the precondition that RJD will not pose a hurdle to the passage of the Bihar reorganization Bill (Jharkhand Bill). Finally, with the support from both RJD and Congress, the ruling coalition at the Centre led by the BJP which has made statehood its mail poll plank in the region in successive polls earlier, cleared the Jharkhand Bill in the monsoon session of the Parliament this year, thus paving the way for the creation of a separate Jharkhand state.[8]

British rule[edit]

After the year 1765, it came under the control of the British Empire and became formally known under its present title, "Jharkhand"—(jaher-khond) jaher- worship place of kherwar (munda,santal,ho etc.) and khond- area. Some interpret meaning of Jharkhand as the Land of "Jungles" (forests) and "Jharis" (bushes). Located on Chhota Nagpur Plateau and Santhal Parganas, the place has evergreen forests, rolling hills and rocky plateaus with many places of keen beauty like Lodh Falls.

The major part of Milhilaanchal falls under Jharkhand. The subjugation and colonisation of Jharkhand region by the British East India Company resulted in spontaneous resistance from the local people. Almost one hundred years before Indian Rebellion of 1857, adivasis of Jharkhand were already beginning what would become a series of repeated revolts against the British colonial rule:

The period of revolts of the Adivasis to protect their Jharkhand land took place from 1771 to 1900 AD. The first ever revolt against the landlords and the British government was led by Tilka Manjhi,[9] a Santhal leader in Santal tribal belt in 1771. He wanted to liberate his people from the clutches of the unscrupulous landlords and restore the lands of their ancestors. The British government sent its troops and crushed the uprisings of Tilka Manjhi. Soon after in 1779, the Bhumij tribes rose in arms against the British rule in Manbhum, now in West Bengal. This was followed by the Chero tribes unrest in Palamau. They revolted against the British rule in 1800 AD. Hardly seven years later in 1807, the Oraons in Barway murdered their big landlord of Srinagar west of Gumla. Soon the uprisings spread around Gumla. The tribal uprisings spread eastward to neighbouring Tamar areas of the Munda tribes. They too rose in revolt in 1811 and 1813. The Hos in Singhbhum were growing restless and came out in open revolt in 1820 and fought against the landlords and the British troops for two years. This is called the Lakra Kol Risings 1820–1821. Then came the great Kol Risings of 1832. This was the first biggest tribal revolt that greatly upset the British administration in Jharkhand. It was caused by an attempt by the Zamindars to oust the tribal peasants from their hereditary possessions. The Santhal rebellion broke out in 1855 under the leadership of two brothers Sidhu and Kanhu. They fought bitterly against the British troops but finally they too were crashed down. Other notable Adivasi warriors are Jabra Paharia, Veer Budhu Bhagat, Poto Sardar, Telenga Kharia, Phulo-Jhano, Manki Munda, Gaya Munda.

Then Birsa Munda revolt,[10] broke out in 1895 and lasted till 1900. The revolt though mainly concentrated in the Munda belt of Khunti, Tamar, Sarwada and Bandgaon, pulled its supporters from Oraon belt of Lohardaga, Sisai and even Barway. It was the longest and the greatest tribal revolt.[11] It was also the last tribal revolt in Jharkhand. All of these uprisings were quelled by the British through massive deployment of troops across the region.

British Government faced a lot of tribal revolt in Chhota Nagpur Division. Wherever resistance to British rule existed they tried to divide them. The policy of "Divide and rule" was made effective by Lord Curzon, when he was Governor General of India. He carried out Partition of Bengal in 1905, when the Princely states of Gangpur and Bonai of Chota Nagpur States were transferred from the control of Commissioner of Chhota Nagpur Division to Odisha division and Princely states of Jashpur, Surguja, Udaipur, Chang Bhakar and Koriya were transferred from Chhota Nagpur Division to Chhattisgarh Division of Central Provinces, leading to shrinkage of Chhota Nagpur Division. Due to popular resistance to Partition of Bengal, the two Bengals were united in 1912 by Governor General Harding and the province of Bihar—Odisha was created by taking out of Bengal the Bihar division, Chhota Nagpur Division and Odisha division. During this creation Midnapur, Purulia and Bankura remained with Bengal. Thus, whenever there was reorganisation of Provinces, Chhota Nagpur Division lost some area. Thus during British rule, tribal areas, although geographically continuous, were put under different administrations. As a result of this, when India gained independence in 1947 and after the Princely states acceded to Government of India in 1948, the Princely states of magadha were put under Odisha province, Princely states of Jashpur, Surguja, Udaipur, Chang Bhakar and Koriya were put under Madhya Pradesh and Midnapur, Purulia and Bankura were put under West Bengal. Princely states of Gangpur and Bonai were combined together to form Sundergarh District. Princely states of Koriya and Chang bhakar were combined together to form Koriya district and Udaipur was included in Raigarh District.

The 20th century Jharkhand movement may also be seen as moderate movement as compared to the bloody revolts of the 19th century. Having the Chhotanagpur Tenancy Act 1908 to protect their lands, the tribal leaders now turned to socio-economic development of the people. In 1914 Jatra Oraon started what is called the Tana Movement. Later this movement joined the Satyagrah Movement of Mahatma Gandhi in 1920 and stopped giving land tax to the Government. In 1915 the Chhotanagpur Unnati Samaj was started for the socio-economic development of the tribals. This organisation had also political objectives in mind. When the Simon Commission came to Patna in 1928, the Chhotanagpur Unnati Samaj sent its delegation and placed its demand for a separate Jharkhand State for self-rule by the tribals. The Simon Commission however did not accede to the demand for a separate Jharkhand State. Thereafter Theble Oraon organised Kishan Sabha in 1931. In 1935 the Chhotanagpur Unnati Samaj and the Kishan Sabha were merged with a view to acquire political power.

Jharkhand Movement: post-Indian independence[edit]

For almost six decades the movement had been changing colour and strategy to gain a foothold. Gradually, the Jharkhand Party grew politically stronger but the commissions examining the demands for a separate Jharkhand State rejected it one after another. In August 1947 the Thakkar Commission rejected it saying that it would not be beneficial for the Adivasis. In 1948 Dar Commission also examined the demand for a separate Jharkhand state but rejected it on linguistic grounds. Despite these reports of these commissions going negative in nature, Jharkhand Party never lost sight of its ultimate target: a separate state of Jharkhand. Jharkhand Party contested the 1952 elections with a declared aim of strengthening the demand of a tribal homeland and won 32 seats in the Bihar Assembly. In the second General Election in 1957, too, Jharkhand Party won 32 seats and for two terms the party remained the leading opposition party. In 1955 the Report of the State Reorganisation Commission came out. Here, too, the demand for a separate Jharkhand state was rejected. In the third general election in 1962 the party could win only 23 seats in the Bihar Assembly. Personal interests of the Jharkhand leaders started playing upper hands. The following year Jharkhand Party aligned with Congress and Jaipal Singh became a minister in Vinodanand Jha's government in Bihar. With this, the demand for the Tribal Homeland was put into cold storage for nearly a decade.

In the 4th General Election held in 1967 the party had a very poor show. It could win only eight Assembly seats. The party was soon split into several splinter groups each claiming to be the genuine Jharkhand party. These were the All India Jharkhand Party led by Bagun Sumroi, the Jharkhand Party led by N.E. Horo, the Hul Jharkhand Party led by Justin Richard which got further fragmented and came to be called the Bihar Progressive Hul Jharkhand Party and it was led by Shibu Soren. The movement was infused with a new radicalism when Santhal leader Shibu Soren formed the Jharkhand Mukti Morcha (JMM) in league with the Marxist co-ordination Committee in 1972. In its early years, the JMM under Soren's leadership, brought industrial and mining workers mainly non-tribals belonging to Dalit and Backward communities such as Surdis, Doms, Dusadh and Kurmi-Mahtos, into its fold. However Soren's association with the late congress M.P. Gyanranjan brought him close to then prime minister of India, Indira Gandhi, in New Delhi. He won the Dumka Lok Sabha seat in 1972. Irked by Soren's association with the Congress, a few of the younger members of the JMM banded together in Jamshedpur and set up the All Jharkhand Students' Union (AJSU). This did nothing to stunt the growth of the JMM in the 1991 Lok Sabha election where the JMM won six seats.

Panchet Lake, Jharkhand, India.jpg

That year saw the emergence of another foreign educated scholar, Ram Dayal Munda, who reignited the movement by unifying splinter groups among the tribals. Under his guidance the Jharkahnd Coordination Committee was constituted in June 1987, comprising 48 organisations and group including the JMM factions. Due to Munda, Soren, Mandal and AJSU leaders like Surya Singh Besra and Prabhakar Tirkey briefly shared a political platform. But the JMM pulled out of JCC as it felt that 'the collective leadership was a farce'. The JMM/AJSU and JPP successfully orchestrated bandhs, economic blockades in 1988–89. In the interim, BJP came out with its demand for a separate "Vananchal" state comprising 18 districts of Bihar, arguing that demand for a greater Jharkhand is "not practical".

In response, Buta Singh, the then home minister, asked Ram Dayal Munda, the then Ranchi University vice chancellor, to prepare a report on Jharkhand. Munda handed his report in September 1988, advising the Home Ministry to grant 'autonomy' to 'Greater Jharkhand'. In August 1989, the Union Home Ministry formed a committee on Jharkhand Matters (CoJM) to look into the issue. These were followed by further talks between the then Bihar Chief Minister, Satyendra Narayan Sinha, the central government and Jharkhand groups. In September 1989 the COJM submitted its report proposing the alternatives to the formation of a greater Jharkhand, a Union Territory or a Jharkhand general council. In 1995 the Jharkhand Area Autonomous Council (JAAC) was set up after a tripartite agreement was signed by the Union government represented by the then minister of state for home, Rajesh Pilot, the Bihar government represented by the chief minister Lalu Prasad Yadav and Jharkhand leaders like Soren, Munda, Mandal, Besra and Tirkey. Horo did not sign this agreement. He dubbed the JAAC as the 'fraud' and stuck to his demand for Tribal Homeland. So did the AJSU and JPP.

Jharkhand—a separate state[edit]

Jharkhand state was formed on 15 November 2000 after almost half a century of people's movements to evolve a Jharkhandi identity, which disadvantaged societal groups articulated to augment political resources and influence the policy process in their favour. It is the 28th state of India. The Jharkhandi identity and the demand for autonomy was not premised solely on the uniqueness of its tribal cultural heritage but was essentially a fallout of the failure of development policy to intervene in socio-economic conditions of the adivasis and non-adivasis in the region.

The dynamics of resources and the politics of development still influence the socio-economic structures in Jharkhand, which was carved out of the relatively under developed southern part of Bihar. According to the 1991 census, the state has a population of over 20 million out of which 28% is tribal while 12% of the people belong to scheduled castes. Jharkhand has 24 districts, 260 blocks and 32,620 villages out of which only 45% are electrified while only 8,484 are connected by roads. Jharkhand is the leading producer of mineral wealth in the country after Chhattisgarh state, endowed as it is with vast variety of minerals like iron ore, coal, copper ore, mica, bauxite, graphite, limestone, and uranium. Jharkhand is also known for its vast forest resources.

Geography and climate[edit]

Geography[edit]

Most of the state lies on the Chota Nagpur Plateau, which is the source of the Koel, Damodar, Brahmani, Kharkai, and Subarnarekha rivers, whose upper watersheds lie within Jharkhand. Much of the state is still covered by forest. Forest preserves support populations of tigers and Asian Elephants.

Jonha Fall.
Hundru Fall.

Soil content of Jharkhand state mainly consist of soil formed from disintegration of rocks and stones, and soil composition is further divided into:

  1. Red soil, found mostly in the Damodar valley, and Rajmahal area
  2. Micacious soil (containing particles of mica), found in Koderma, Jhumri Telaiya, Barkagaon, and areas around the Mandar hill
  3. Sandy soil, generally found in Hazaribagh and Dhanbad
  4. Black soil, found in Rajmahal area
  5. Laterite soil, found in western part of Ranchi, Palamu,Dumka and parts of Santhal Parganas and Singhbhum

Climate[edit]

There are three well-defined seasons in Jharkhand. The cold-weather season, from November to February, is the most pleasant part of the year. Lowest temperature in Jharkhand lies between -5 °C to 0 °C. High temperatures in Ranchi in December usually rise from about 50 °F (10 °C) into the low 70s F (low 20s C) daily. The hot-weather season lasts from March to mid-June. May, the hottest month, is characterized by daily high temperatures in the upper 90s F (about 37 °C) and low temperatures in the mid-70s F (mid-20s C). Maximum rainfall takes place during the months from July to September that accounts for more than 90% of total rainfall in the state.

Flora and fauna[edit]

State symbols of Jharkhand
Formation day 15 November (Day of
separation from Bihar)
State animal Elephant[12] Elephas maximus (Bandipur).jpg
State bird Koel Asian koel.jpg
State tree Sal[12] Sal (Shorea robusta)- flowering canopy W Picture 117.jpg
State flower Palash[12] STS 001 Butea monosperma.jpg

Jharkhand has a rich variety of flora and fauna. The National Parks and the Zoological Gardens located in the state of Jharkhand present a panorama of this variety.

Betla National Park in the Latehar district, located 8 km away from Barwadih, covers an area of about 250 square kilometres (97 sq mi). The national park has a large variety of wildlife, including tigers, elephants, bisons (which are locally known as gaurs), sambhars, wild boar, and pythons (up to 6.1 metres (20 ft) long), spotted deer(chitals), rabbits and foxes. The mammalian fauna to be seen at Betla National Park also include langurs, rhesus monkeys, blue bulls and wild boars. The lesser mammals are the porcupines, hares, wild cats, honey badgers, Malabar giant squirrels, mongooses, wolves, antelopes etc. In 1974, the park was declared a Project Tiger Reserve.

Part of the reason for the variety and diversity of flora and fauna found in Jharkhand state may be accredited to the Palamau Tiger Reserves under the Project Tiger. This reserve is abode to hundreds of species of flora and fauna,[13] as indicated within brackets: mammals (39), snakes (8), lizards (4), fish (6), insects (21), birds (170), seed bearing plants and trees (97), shrubs and herbs (46), climbers, parasites and semi-parasites (25), and grasses and bamboos (17).

The Hazaribag Wildlife Sanctuary, with scenic beauties, 135 kilometres (84 mi) away from Ranchi, is set in an ecosystem very similar to Betla National Park of Palamu.

Jawaharlal Nehru Biological Park in Bokaro Steel City is the largest Zoological Garden in Jharkhand. It has many animal and bird species, spread over 80 hectares (200 acres), including an artificial waterpark with boating facilities. Another zoo, Birsa Munda Jaiwik Udyan, is also located about 16 km from Ranchi, and a number of mammalian fauna have been collected there for visitors.

Demography[edit]

Main article: Tribes of Jharkhand

Jharkhand has a population of 32.96 million, consisting of 16.93 million males and 16.03 million females. The sex ratio is 947 females to 1000 males. The population consists of 28% tribal peoples, 12% Scheduled Castes and 60% others. The population density of the state is 414 persons per square kilometre of land; it varies from as low as 148 per square kilometre in Gumla district to as high as 1167 per square kilometre in Dhanbad district.

Religion in Jharkhand
Religion Percent
Hinduism
  
68.5%
Islam
  
13.8%
Sarnaism
  
13%
Christians
  
4.1%
Jainism , Buddhism and Sikhism
  
1%
Distribution of religions

As per the 2001 census Hinduism is followed by 68.5% of the population of Jharkhand.Islam is followed by 13.8% of the population and Animisitic Sarna religion is practised by 13% of the population. Christianity with 4.1% of the population is the fourth largest religious community in Jharkhand.Jainism, Buddhism and Sikhism are all practiced making few less than 1%.

Census data since 1881 has shown a gradual decline of tribal population in Jharkhand as against the gradual increase of non-tribal population in the region. The reasons given for this are low birth rate and high death rate among the tribes; immigration of non-tribal peoples in the region; emigration of tribal peoples in the other places; and the adverse effects of industrialisation and urbanisation in the region. Tribal leaders assert, however, that their numbers are not as low as recorded by the census that they are still in the majority and that they remain a demographic force to reckon with.

Few centuries ago, the Jharkhand was extensively covered with the dense sal Jharkhand terrain had always been inaccessible. But with the discovery of its hidden mineral wealth has led to Jharkhand marching towards becoming one of the leading industrialized regions of India. On the one hand, the mine-fields, railways and roadways have gone ahead rapidly, educational and technical institutions have multiplied and the principal towns have become cosmopolitan; while on the other hand, the tribal people of the region have been deprived of their land and the process of indiscriminate exploitation has set in, creating racial, nutritional, cultural and socio-economic problems.

From the first regular Indian census of 1872, tribal denominations of the population have been regularly recorded in some form or the other. The Schedules tribes have been last notified under the Government of India, Ministry of Home Affairs Notification issued under Article 341 (i) and 342 (ii) of the constitution in 1956.

During the first census of 1872 the following 18 tribal communities were listed as the Aboriginal Tribes: (1) Asur, (2) Binjhia, (3) Gond, (4) Ho, (5) Kharia, (6) Kharwar, (7) Khond, (8) Kisan, (9) Korwa, (10) Mal Paharia, (11) Munda, (12) Oraon, (13) Santhal, (14) Sauria Paharia, (15) Savar, (16) Bhumij, (17) Birhor Chero.

Later 4 Tribes were classified as semi-Hinduized aboriginals, viz., (1) Banjara, (2) Bathundi, (3) Chik Baraik and (4) Mahli. As of now the following 30 communities of Jharkhand are listed as the Scheduled Tribes as per details in the state government’s website.

Primitives Tribes: Asur, Birhor, Birajia, Korba, Mal Paharia, Sauriya Paharia, Sabar, Hill Kharia and Parahiya.

Other Tribes: Biga, Banjara, Bathudi, Bedia, Bhumij, Binjhia, Chero, Chik Baraik, Gond, Gorait, Ho, Karmali, Khadia, Kharwar, Khond, Kisan, Kora, Lohra, Mahali, Munda, Oraon and Santhal.

Santhal[edit]

The Santhals are the largest of the Schedule Tribes and are mostly found in the district of Santhal Parganas,which has been named after them. They primarily reside in the cities of Singhbhum, Hazaribagh, Dhanbad, Ranchi, and Palamau. Santhals are numerically the largest tribal group of India, speaking its own tongue-Santali, which is allied to the Mundari language. Racially and culturally Santhals are closely related to other Mundari or Austric tribe of Chotanagpur. Besides agriculture and hunting, they are famous for their skillful dances and the music. The Santhal women give sufficient proof of the aesthetic sense by drawing simple and artistic designs and patterns on the walls of their huts. The Santhals have the institution of ‘Bithala’, which is a form of severe punishment including excommunication.

Oraon[edit]

The Oraons are a Dravidians tribe (Roy 1915) and form a second major tribe next to Santhals in Jharkhand. They live in the districts of the Ranchi, Palamau, Singhbhum, Hazaribagh, Santhal Parganas, and also in the neighbouring states. According to the tradition, Konkan is said to be the original home of the Oraon. They migrated from the West coast of India to North India through river valleys, and settled down as agriculturists and landowners in the Shahabad districts of Bihar. When further driven by the successive hordes of newer races, they took shelter on the Rohtas Plateau, which they fortified, but even this fortress they had to leave. It is said that the Cheros probably drove them out. When they left Rohtas the Oraons got divided into two groups. One branch, known as ‘Male’, proceeded under a chief northwards along the Ganges valley and eventually occupied the Rajmahal hills. The other branch under the chief’s younger brother marched southeastwards up to the north Koel river and settled down in Palamau and northwest of Ranchi districts, then occupied by the Mundas. The Mundas gradually retreated to the southern and eastern part of the plateau. The most important social institution of the Oraon is the ‘Dhumkuria’, the youth Dormitory.

Munda people[edit]

Numerically the Mundas are one of the strongest Kolarian tribe (Roy, 1912) inhabitting Chotanagpur. Of all the tribes taken together, they stand next in strength to the Santhals and the Oraons. Munda people speak Mundari. The main concentration of the Mundas, primarily an agriculturist tribe, is in the district of Ranchi, Singhbhum, Hazaribagh, Palamau, Dhanbad, and Santhal Parganas. Ethnically they are Proto-Austroids and speak the Mundari dialect of the Austro-Asiatic family (Prasad 1961). Mostly Munda people follow the Sarna religion, believing in a god called Singbonga. However one-fourth of them have adopted Christianity. The Akhra or the dancing ground is characteristic of the Mundas. It is veritable open hall, not only for the dance, but also for the meetings of the village panchayats (the parha). The agriculture makes the base of their economic life and hence all their activities are directed towards it throughout the year. The sub-tribes are probably the result of inter-tribe marriages with the neighbouring tribes. A Munda may not marry a woman of his own sect. Totems have very great value and restrictions are respected.

Ho[edit]

The Hos constitute one of the major constituents of the tribal population but unlike the more numerous tribes, they are almost exclusively confined to the district of Singhbhum. They say that they are of the same family as the Mundas and came from Chotaa Nagpur. They are chiefly concentrated in Kolhan (Singhbhum). Like Mundas, the Hos believe in Sing-Bonga as the Supreme Being and creator of the Universe. The Hos are in the rapid transition process and their predominantly agricultural economy is being replaced by the industrial economy

Kharia[edit]

A primitive Kolarian tribe (Russell and Hira Lal 1916), the Kharias are divided into three sub-tribes, namely the Hill, Dudh and Dhelki Kharias.So far as their manners and customs are concerned, they are three separate and distinct branches of the Kharia tribe. Marriage among them does not take place. The Hill Kharias are a most primitive community, depending upon forest resources such as collection of honey, edible roots, herbs and fruits. The other sections of the Kharias have taken to plough cultivation and are economically better off than the Hill Kharias. They are distributed in the districts of Ranchi, Singhbhum, Santhal Parganas, Hazaribagh, Dhanbad, and Palamau. The language spoken by them is known as Kharia, which is a branch of Munda family of languages.

Bhumij[edit]

The Bhumij tribe inhabits a plain on Chotanagpur plateau encircled on three sides by the Singhbhum hills, hill ranges of Lohardaga, Hazaribagh and Manbhum; and a hill range whose highest peak is known as Ajodhya.

They are primarily agriculturists. Risley (1891) believes that they are nothing more than a branch of the Mundas who have spread eastwards and speak a corrupt mixture of Oriya and Bengalis as well as Hindi. They dwell in the districts of Singhbhum, Santhal Parganas, Ranchi, Dhanbad and Hazaribagh. They also live on the banks of the river Swarnrekha.

Factors in population change[edit]

Industrialization and urbanisation were other factors for rapid demographic change in Chhotanagpur (the present Jharkhand state) between 1881 and 1951. Immigration of labourers from Gaya, Munger, West Bengal and Madhya Pradesh for the mining of mica in Koderma and Giridih and coal in Dhanbad and Jharia was seen to the extent of 12% and 38.6% respectively in the early decades of 20th century. Similarly as many as 50% of the unskilled labourers and the majority of the skilled labourers came from north Bihar, Odisha, West Bengal, Bombay and Uttar Pradesh to work at the iron and steel industries of Jamshedpur. Along with the immigration of majority Indian people to Jharkhand, there also started the emigration of tribal peoples to the tea plantations in Assam and West Bengal.

The demographic changes continued in Jharkhand more rapidly after independence, ironically through the very process of planned development in the country. Central water commission's report in 1994 reveals that 90 major dams were built in Jharkhand since 1951. Apart from these major dams, 400 medium size dams and 11,878 minor dams were built in the region. There are 79 major industries and factories in the region. These development projects benefited mainly those belonging to the formal economy but deprived tribal communities, especially those belonging to informal economy and dependent on the natural resources for a livelihood. About three million people were displaced and affected by development projects like dams, industries, mines, wildlife sanctuaries, defence establishments, airstrips, housing colonies and infrastructural development like roads and railways. About 90% of the displaced were part of tribal communities.

Religion[edit]

Most members of the scheduled tribes of Jharkhand follow the animistic Sarna religion. Sarna is the Mundari and Santali word for ‘Sacred Grove’. Sarna involves belief in a great spirit called the Sing Bonga. Tribal belief holds the world to be inhabited by numerous spiritual beings of different kinds. Tribal communities consider themselves as living and doing everything in close association with these spirits. Rituals are performed under the groves of Sal trees called Sarna (also called Jaher), where Bonga is believed to appear or express himself.

Santhal, Munda, Ho, Oraon and many other tribes strongly believe in one God, the Supreme Being, the Great Spirit, the Great One, the Creator, the Mighty Spirit,who is eternal, omnipresent, omniscient and omnipotent,who rules over the entire universe.Oraons call this great spirit.Munda and Ho tribes call him "Singbonga" ,Oraons call him " Dharmesh" whereas Santal call him "Marangburu".

Munda Belief

Munda people are one of the first inhabitants of Jharkhand.They follow the Sarna religion, believing in a God called Singbonga. Singbonga(सिंगबोंगा), the God of Mundas is neither the sun nor does he dwell in the sun ,though he is in heaven.In the primordial times the creator was called Haram(हड़म) and the same Haram(हड़म) is known as Singbonga(सिंगबोंगा) , who is the God of the Mundas.He is eternal, omnipresent, omniscient and omnipotent.In sacrifices he is commonly praised as the one who separated land and see , set the course of sun and moon , and created man.Haram(हड़म) is referred to as God , who provides all good while Singbonga(सिंगबोंगा) is often related to worship.

Mundari legend of the creation of the earth

At the beginning of Time, the face of the Earth was covered over with water. Sing-Bonga, brooded over the waters and the first beings that were born were a kachua or tortoise, a karakom or crab, and a lenda or leech.

Sing-Bonga commanded these first-born of all animals to bring Him a lump of clay(hasa) from out of the depths of the primeval Ocean.The tortoise and the crab by turns tried their skill, but in vain.

The persistent leech, however, met with better success.It succeeded in fishing out a bit of clay from underneath the deep.And with clay,sing-Bonga made this Ote-Disum, this beautiful earth of ours.And,at His bidding, the Earth brought forth trees and plants, herbs and creepers, of manifold varities.Sing-Bonga next filled the earth with birds and beasts of all sorts and sizes.

And now happened the most memorable incident of all.The bird Hur* or Swan laid an egg.And out of this egg came forth a boy and a girl the first human beings.These were the progenitors of the Horo Honko---the sons of men, as Mundas still style themselves.***[Hur bird is said to lay its egg secretly in a Jir or Jovi(marshy ground).and the common belief among the Mundas is that a Hur will not lay more than one egg in its life time.The most solemn oath of the Mundas of old was, it is said, by Hur Jarom( the egg of Hur or Swan).]

The first human pair, however, were innocent of the relation of the sexes.So,Sing-Bonga pointed out to them certain vegetable roots and taught them the secret of making ili or rice-beer therewith.And the first pair,since remembered as Tota Haram and Tota Buri brewed ili as directed, and drank their fill.And the ili tasted very sweet and it inflamed their passions.And in due course they were blessed with offspring.Three sons were born to them, one after another.And these were named repectively Munda, Nanka and Rora.

All this happened at a place named Ajam-garh* .On their parent's death, the sons wandered about over the face of the earth--- over hills and dales, through forests untrodden by the feet of man and over fields unworn by the plough.***[Some Mundas explain the name of this place as "Adamgarh (आदमगढ़) or Adambakri(आदम-बकड़ि) ", the graden of Adam.]


Oraon belief and rituals

According to Oraon's philosophy, the lord Dharmesh is the most powerful and most important deity. He is responsible for the creation of our universe including our ancestors besides acting as our protector. In fact the whole world (Universe) is regulated by a superpower that is Dharmesh in Kurukh which simply means the almighty, he is also called Mahaedeo. The great one Dharmesh’s purity demands that he be offered sacrifices only of things that are white. Hence he is given sacrifices of white goats, white fowls, white gulainchi flowers, white cloth, sugar, milk, etc. White is the sacred colour of Oraon tribe, in fact it is true for most adivasis.

Among the many important deities, the Chala-pacho Devi (Sarna Devi) is among the most important and most respected deity. The Gram Devi Chala-Pachho is a caring Old age lady with beautifully flowing white hair. It is believed that the Sal tree is the holy abode of the Sarna Devi, the mother goddess that protects and nurtures the Oraon tribe and others. On the occasion of Sarhul festival, the Pahan conducts special puja of the Devi. According to Sarna Dharam, the Devi lives in the wooden soop of Pahan kept at Chala-Kutti place, the auspicious place at Pahan’s home. At Kutti place, one stick made up of Saal wood or Bamboo Wood is fixed on the ground, on this respected wooden soop called Sarna-Soop, the Sarna-Devi resides.

Oraons perform rituals under the Sal trees at a place called ‘Sarna Sthal’, it is also known as ‘Jaher’ (sacred grove); it resembles a small forest patch. In Oraons’ villages, one can easily find the sacred religious place the ‘Sarna Sthal’ that has holy Sal trees and other trees planted at the site. Sometimes the Jaher are located inside the nearby forest area and not in the village.

This Sarna Sthal (Jaher) is a common religious place for the whole village and almost all the important socio-religious ceremonies of the village take place at this place only. These ceremonies are performed by the whole village community at a public gathering with the active participation of village priests known as ‘Pahan’. The chief assistant of village priest is called ' Nayke ' or ‘Pujaar’ or ‘Panbhara’.

The Sarna people do not have a written code of moral law. Their idea of right and wrong comes from their tradition.

Tradition is their measure of truth. Their way to salvation is the tribe. Oraon tribe is primarily skilled agriculturists, most of the prayers revolved around getting good harvest and well being of their domestic animals. Thus the round of rituals connected with the agricultural cycle, along with life-cycle rituals for birth, marriage and death, it involves offering prayers to the spirits and to the deceased ancestors, with the active assistance of the Pahan.

It is true that the Oraons believe that their lives are greatly influenced by the natural surroundings, gods-goddesses, supernatural forces, spirits and many unknown and mysterious forces, including the souls of their deceased ancestors, who look after their tribe’s interests. Surrounded by the natural world, it is instinctive for adivasi to name their benevolent gods and goddesses on the forests, hills, sun, water, rains, fires, light, etc. The gods and goddess are independent of the material world but he has dominion over the entire universe. They are omniscient, omnipresent, eternal, and compassionate; they always try to help out the humanity. The religion of Oraon is based on their belief in nature and its supernatural power. They have Nature Deities and the Spirits, both divided into broad categories of Benevolent and Malevolent. According to the belief of the Oraon community, the world is inhabited by numerous spiritual beings of different kind; and the Oraons consider themselves as living and doing everything in close association with these supernatural beings. The ancestors’ spirits called Pitar (Benevolent) and the Iatar (Malevolent), who are also worshipped. According to Oraons’ religious belief, their dead – ancestors’ souls (atma or aikh or naad) reside in Patal Lok, below the earth’s surface. Newly deceased persons’ souls do not want to leave their homes and want to stay close to their family members. Therefore, the Oraons pray to their deceased family member’s soul to join the family of Pitar (Pach-Balar) at Patal Lok or else it may unite with the family of Iatar and create troubled for not only the immediate family but also the other denizens of the village.

The highly respected Chandi Devi is only worshipped by unmarried male youngsters for achieving success in hunting expeditions. For married male folks, the worshipping of goddess is strictly prohibitated. Among the nature gods, the important one is the Pahaar Raja (Paat-Naad) is considered to be the lord of all the naad belonging to a village; he keeps all these deceased’s souls under his control. It is believed that he resides in nearest mountain situated near the village and protects all the villagers from the diseases, natural calamities, etc. Another nature god is the tree named ‘Mui-Chitkha’, also known as Hazi-Peepar or Baindaa Peepar. It is generally found in almost all the Oraon villages. According to Oraons’ believe, this tree is directly linked to the clouds in the sky, responsible for the rainfall. The village women folks forming a group perform the special puja as per traditions, praying for the rainfalls; the wish is generally granted within couple of days.

Social Institutions

Dhankothis (or Grain-golas) was an old Oraon tribe institution that disappeared into thin air. It had deep roots in the Adivasi economy and formed an important aspect of Adivasi culture. The Village Council used to run these. For Dhankothis, each cultivator contributed a small quantity of paddy per acre of land towards their share capital of Dhankothi, where they stored food-items, for rainy days and other exigencies.

One institution that has survived the ravage of time is weekly Bazaar or Haat, in these weekly markets, the people from the neighbouring villages within a radius of 5 to 10 miles, assemble to participate in all kinds buying and selling activities, few items were bartered too. Weekly Haat was more like a modern day club or a shopping mall, where people meet their friends, eat, drink, and make merry.

Every Adivasis living in nearby village eagerly looked forward to these weekly Haat, almost everyone used to turn in their best attire with special preparation like washing, cleaning and dressing them. No doubt, more often than not, even the marriages were negotiated and the cupid used to find its naive victims in these weekly Haat, buzzing with boundless energy, unbridled laughter of innocent Adivasis.

According to our age-old traditions, the marriages have to take place in the season in which people do not have much agricultural work. It takes place between January and April. Besides having leisure from agricultural pursuits, the house are also full of food-grains and it is easy to invite a large number of people on this occasion of marriage feast.

In the ‘lota-panni’ ceremony that precedes marriage, the boy’s guardians have to make substantial presents to the girls and her family, for the respect that they accord to bride who is joining their family post marriage. The bride price has to be given and this is known as ‘Dali-Dhiba’.

Marriage is considered a joyous occasion for the exchange of gifts not only between the couples but also between the families in which marriage is taking place and the kin group of which it is part. When one gets an invitation to attend the marriage of his relative or friends it is the usual practice to take two pots containing four seers of rice beer, some rice, pulses and vegetables.

It is customary for married girls in a village to receive gifts from their parents-in-law on the occasions of Karma, Sarhul and other festivals. On festivals, the gifts are exchanged between friends who form pacts of friendship such as Sahiya, etc. Even at the time of funerals, to help the grieving family, the community used to bring whatever they could afford to help the deceased’s family to help them in their time of grieving.

The Jharkhand was never an exclusive abode of an Oraon tribe, for many centuries, many different types of Tribes shared their home at Jharkhand without ever indulging in blood-spattered war with each other. Amidst extended period as sovereign units and their peaceful existence during these few thousand years, almost each tribe residing in Jharkhand developed their unique language, art and culture. But these different Adivasi tribes shared a common thread, likes their unwavering worshipping of their nature gods and their forefathers’ religion, also known as Sarna religion.

The houses in the villages were built mostly of wood, bamboos and leaves of trees. In fact, the vast majority of houses are built of mud and the roofs are tiled. On the walls of some of these houses, it is common to find drawings of human beings, horses, elephants and men riding horses, a row of men dancing, etc. Most people keep their clothes and other possessions in a bamboo basket called ‘harka’. Most of the people live in spacious houses. Almost all the houses have a courtyard and a verandah on all sides. In all oraon houses, one can find a trident and a religious Sarna flag fixed at the courtyard. Most of the houses had separate sheds for cattle located in one corner of the house. The cattle had separate doors built especially for them. Each room of the house is smeared daily with white soil and cow dung to keep it clean.

In almost every Oraons’ villages, one can easily find one or more Akhra (dancing place). Often in each tola of a village, one can find a separate Akhra. We have rich collection of song and related dance traditions; these vary according to the seasons and occasions. In these joyous community festivities, dominated by songs and dance routines, everyone in the village, come together to participate at these akhra, irrespective of their age, gender, and economic status.

One more Oraons’ institution called Dhumkuria were kind of bachelors’ dormitories that worked as a kind of finishing school for the younger generation of Oraon in a village. It has completely disappeared, as it came under vicious attack led by negative propaganda by the people who wanted to attack our society.

The ‘Handia’ drink has an important place in the social system of the Oraons. Whenever a feast is to be given on the birth of a child, marriage or in connection with the funeral, large stocks of Hanria is very important item. It is a cheap drink and in the past it used to add valuable vitamin to our diet. This traditional drink Hanria is prepared by using simple fermentation process and ingredients like rice or mahua, etc.; it is low in alcohol content and only after consuming large quantities can one become intoxicated. This popular drink can be easily prepared in the home by means of a very simple fermentation process.

Languages[edit]

The state of Jharkhand is one of the linguistically most diverse regions of the subcontinent and is home to languages from three families − Munda (Austro- Asiatic),Indo-Aryan (Indo-European) and Dravidian.Indo-Aryan languages have had an enormous impact on the Munda languages especially with respect to syntax and the lexicon.It is also generally assumed that the Munda languages for their part have − at least in some distant past − affected the Indo-Aryan languages.Convergence between Munda languages and Indo Aryan languages continues to this day in Jharkhand and that this influence operates in both directions, with the Munda languages often influencing Indo-Aryan laguages in regions where speakers of Munda languages are found in large numbers.

The level of bi- and multi lingualism is relatively high in Jharkhand atleast in South-Western Jharkhand.In this region most speakers of the native Munda languages are also fluent in Indo-Aryan languages like Hindi and Sadri.Speakers of Santali which is spoken further to the east, are often more familiar with Bengali than with Hindi or Sadri.

Munda languages include Santali, Mundari, Ho, Kharia, Bhumij.Santali is spoken predominantly in Dumka, Jamtara, Pakur, Sahibganj and in parts of East Singhbhum and Saraikela-Kharsawan distrcits. Mundari is spoken mainly in Khunti and parts of Ranchi, West Singhbhum, Gumla, Simdega and Latehar districts. Ho is mainly spoken in West Singhbhum and Saraikela-Kharswan districts. These three languages can be considered as sister languages as all of them are grammatically similar and 80%–90% of the words used are same.

Indo-Aryan languages include Sadri, Khortha, Kurmali and Panchpargania.Sadri is the lingua franca for much of the western and central Jharkhand and is used on daily basis by the speakers of a number of the munda and dravidian laguages.Sadri varies considerably in terms of monosyntax dependding on the native language of the person speaking it.

Dravidian languages include Kurukh, Korwa and Malto.Kurukh is spoken predominantly in Gumla and Lohardaga.

Culture[edit]

Being a tribal dominated state, nature has been given utmost importance in every sphere of life and culture. Branches of sacred trees are brought and ceremonially planted in the courtyards. Devotees then worship these tree parts associated with gods/goddesses. Karma puja, Jitia Puja, Sarhul are a few examples. Poush Mela or Tusu Fair is a significant occasion celebrated during the Makar Sankranti wherein brightly coloured excellently decorated symbolic artefacts of folk deity are carried by the People. This is a folk harvesting festival. Tusu is a folk belief, not about any God or Goddess, but about a sweet little girl of the tribal folk. The festival takes place as new crops are harvested. The entire festival is a very colourful one. It takes the shape of the all-around festive mood of the tribal people, where everyone takes part.

Festivals[edit]

In whole Chotanagpur Plateau Region, among the local people the Karam Festival is celebrated with great pomp and show.

Among the Oraon Tribe, the Karam festival is one of the most important festivals and holds a very important place in their social and religious life. It is usually celebrated 15 days after the Kunwaar-Shukl-Paksh. After the fixation of the date for the festival, the local population start their preparation; for instance, they start buying the culinary-items to prepare traditional dishes, new clothes for the occasion, etc. Besides, for the Karam-Puja, they buy oil, Sindoor, Daliya, et al. Being a very important community festival of the region, it is celebrated by the entire Oraon and other local communities of the region; now in its modern day re-embodiment, the festivity has spread far and wide, from the rural to the urban ambience, and from Chotanagpur to other parts of country.

On the occasion of the festival, the Boys and the Girls are given extraordinary treatment and due importance by their respective families. The families, their mother and father, give them special “Karam-clothes” to their child (or children), these clothes signify the unmarried status of the Boys and the Girls of the family.

One of the most interesting aspects of these special clothes given as gift is that these Karam-clothes are hand-woven by the mother and father for their child, after hours of hard-works. It signifies, the clothes save them from the bad influence and the habits. The Karam and these Karam-Clothes are considered very auspicious. It is also believed that the children are offered to Karam, for the showering of its constant guidance and blessings to the child, in fact the entire family. The festival of Sohrai is another interesting festival which is celebrated around Diwali.

Cuisine[edit]

Jharkhandis have a cuisine in which spices are rarely used and rice is the staple diet. They prepare different dishes of rice, different types of Rotis, Litti Chokha, Pani puri, Pittha, Dhuska, Dudhauri, kera-dudhauri, etc. Dhuska is a famous dish of Jharkhand cooked with mashed rice and pulses and served with either aaloo dum or mutton curry; kera-dudhauri is a famous dish prepared with milk, rice, ghee and gur. In many parts of Jharkhand including Panch Pargana area (Bundu, Rahe, Sonahatu, Silli, Angara, Arki and Tamar Blocks of Ranchi & Khunti districts) a special food item "Charpa" is prepared by frying mashed rice mixed with spicy vegetable preparations; hence the name follows viz. Sembi Charpa, Egg Charpa and many more depending upon the ingredient vegetable source.

Jharkhandis use different types of flowers as vegetables, such as the flowers of drum-stick, August and Jhirool. Use of Sag, i.e. leaves of different shrubs and other small plants, is perhaps another peculiarity of Jharkhandi food. Commonly used sags are Palak, Beng, Kataei, Gendhari, Saranti, Sunsunia, Koinar, methi, bhathua, Sarso and chana. "Maad Jhor" which a nutritious substitute for Daal is prepared by boiling saag in starch left after cooking rice. The same is made more delicious by adding flavour of Garlic fried in mustard oil (Tadka/Phodan in local language). Many vegetables and leaves are dried and stored for use out of season, and the same are consumed in the form of "Maad Jhor". In many village markets of Jharkhand you can easliy see women selling powdered dried leaves or other dried food items.

One more interesting food item is dried Mushrooms (various types of edible fungi) which is dried and stored when mushrooms are found abundantly during rainy season in the forests and/or sparsely populated remote villages. Fresh mushrooms (Khukhdi/Chhatu in local language) are given local names depending upon their place of origin/growth viz. Bala Chhatu, Jamun Khukhdi etc. are consumed in dry fried form (without spices) or with spicy curry/gravy.

Another rare food item found in Chotanagpur region of Jharkhand is 'Rugda'. It grows naturally and are found in muddy fields of Chotanagpur region.It is considered a vegetable and is available during start of monsoon season for a very short period. It is believed that lightning effects its growth. Rugdas are small round balls with hard outside shell and very soft filling inside. It is generally prepared with curry cooked with spices and plenty of onion and is a delicacy just like chicken or mutton curry.

Local alcoholic drinks include rice beer, originally known as Handiya, named after the vessel (earthen pot) used to make it. Handiya is culturally associated with native i.e. Tribals as well as Sadan, as this drink is consumed by both men and women, on social occasions like marriage and other festivals. Another common liquor is called Mahu, made from fruit/flowers of the "Mahua" tree (Madhukam Indicum).

There are many foods that are a part of the traditional cuisine that are also known for their medicinal values, like Kurthi (Horse gram), which is used like a kind of pulses and is considered a cure for kidney stones and is also recommended for fast recovery after childbirth. Fruits such as Jackfruit, Blackberry, Mango and Litchi are found in abundance.

Administrative districts[edit]

The state was formed with 18 districts, which were formerly part of south Bihar. Some of these districts were reorganised to form 6 new districts, namely, Latehar, Saraikela Kharsawan, Jamtara, Sahebganj, Khunti and Ramgarh. Presently, the state has 24 districts:Ranchi, Lohardaga, Gumla, Simdega, Palamu, Latehar, Garhwa, West Singhbhum, Seraikela Kharsawan, East Singhbhum, Dumka, Jamtara, Sahebganj, Pakur, Godda, Hazaribag, Chatra, Koderma, Giridih, Dhanbad, Bokaro, Deoghar, Khunti and Ramgarh. One interesting things about Jharkhand, Most of district touches with any other states border but only Lohardagga and Khunti districts which is not touched with any border.

Government and politics[edit]

Jharkhand have currently 14 MPs and 81 MLA. Jharkhand is currently under the Chief Minister Mr. Hemant Soren after, Arjun Munda of the Bharatiya Janata Party, resigned as the eighth Chief Minister of Jharkhand, from 13 July 2013.

Jagannathpur Temple

Jharkhand have many parties politics like national and regional e.g., INC, AAP, BJP, JMM, JVM, AJSU, RJD, JD(U), CPI(M),etc. are the major party. http://www.mapsofindia.com/assemblypolls/jharkhand/election-results.html

Naxal insurgency[edit]

Jharkand has been at the centre of the Naxalite-Maoist insurgency. Since the uprising of the Naxalites in 1967, 6,000 people have been killed in fighting between the Naxalites and counter-insurgency operations by the police, and its paramilitary groups such as the Salwa Judum.[16]

Despite having a presence in almost 7.80% of India's geographical area[17] (home to 5.50% of India's population), the state of Jharkand is part of the "Naxal Belt" comprising 92,000 square kilometres,[17] where the highest concentrations of the groups estimated 20,000 combatants[18] fight. Part of this is due to the fact that the state harbours a rich abundance of natural resources, while its people live in abject poverty and destitution.[19] The impoverished state provides ample recruits for the communist insurgents, who argue that they are fighting on behalf of the landless poor that see few benefits from the resource extractions.[19] As the federal government holds a monopoly on sub-surface resources in the state, the tribal population is prevented from staking any claim on the resources extracted from their land.[19] In response, the insurgents have recently begun a campaign of targeting infrastructure related to the extraction of resources vital for Indian energy needs, such as coal.[17]

In response to the growing influence of the insurgents, the Indian government has recently[when?] enacted a scheme by which free mobile phones would be handed out in exchange for villagers' cooperation with security forces—although intelligence officials express concern at the possibility of misinformation, and the difficulty in determining villagers from rebels.

On 5 March 2007, Sunil Mahato, a member of the national parliament, was shot dead by Naxalite rebels while watching a football match on the Hindu festival of Holi near Kishanpur, 160 km (99 mi) east of the state capital, Ranchi.[16] His wife, Suman Mahato, the Jharkhand Mukti Morcha candidate, won the Jamshedpur Lok Sabha by-election in September 2007. Mahato defeated her nearest rival, Dinesh Sarangi of the Bharatiya Janata Party, by a margin of 58,816 votes.

[16]

Economy[edit]

Jharkhand's gross state domestic product for 2011 is estimated at $21.7 billion at current prices. Since it is rich in minerals, the state per capita income is likely to increase in the coming years. Industralised cities like Jamshedpur and Dhanbad have very high per capita income.

Jharkhand has a concentration of some of the country’s highly industrialised cities such as Jamshedpur, Dhanbad, Ranchi, Bokaro Steel City and Ramgarh. It also has several firsts in India, including:

Pantaloons Ranchi

Major industrial units[edit]

Bokaro Steel Plant
  • Bokaro Steel Plant, Bokaro.
  • Electrosteel Plant, Bokaro.
  • SAIL Refractory Unit, Bokaro.
  • Chandrapura Thermal Power Station, Chandrapura, Bokaro.
  • Tenughat Thermal/Hydro Power Station, Bokaro.
  • Bokaro Thermal Power Station, Bokaro Thermal, Bokaro.
  • CAPTIVE POWER PLANT, KATHARA, BOKARO
  • Indian Explosive Limited, Gomia, Bokaro
  • Jay Pee Cement, Bokaro.
  • Ashok Industries, Bokaro Industrial Area.
  • BMW Steel, Bokaro.
  • Bokaro Power Supply Co. Pvt. Ltd.,Bokaro
  • Imperial Chemical Industries,Gomia,Bokaro
  • Kargali Coal Washery,CCL,Kargali,Bokaro
  • Kathara Coal Washery,CCL,Kathara,Bokaro
  • Bokaro Timber Seasoning Plant, BIADA,Bokaro
  • Dugda Coal Washery,BCCL,Dugda,Bokaro
  • HIndustan Steel Works Construction Limited,HSCL,Bokaro
  • Ratan Industries,Balidih,Bokaro
  • Inox Air Products, Bokaro
  • ONGC, Talgaria, Bokaro
  • Udaya Vijaya Steel Pvt. Ltd.,BIADA,Bokaro
  • Hanuman Alloy Apex Pvt. Ltd.,BIADA,Bokaro
  • Sundaram Steels Pvt. Ltd.,BIADA,Bokaro
  • Indian Oil Bottling Plant,BIADA,Bokaro
  • Royal Steel Pvt. Ltd.,Chas,Bokaro
  • Kalyaneshwari Ispat Udyog Pvt. Ltd.,BIADA,Bokaro
  • Hindustan Petroleum Corporation Limited,Bokaro
  • Swang Coal Washery, CCL, Bokaro
  • Water Treatment Plant, Bokaro
  • Eastern India Cement works, BIADA, Bokaro
  • Data Alloy Pvt Ltd, BIADA, Bokaro
  • Associated Plates & vessels, BIADA Bokaro
  • Tata Steel Plant, Jamshedpur.
  • Metalsa, Seraikella, Jamshedpur.
  • Tata Power, Jojobera, Jamshedpur.
  • Tayo Rolls Limited, Gamharia, Jamshedpur.
  • Tata Pigment, Jugsalai, Jamshedpur.
  • Timken India Limited, Jamshedpur.
  • Tata Robins Fraser, Jamshedpur.
  • Auto Cluster, Adityapur, Jamshedpur.
  • Tata Yodogawa limited, Adityapur, Jamshedpur.
  • Hindustan Coca Cola Beverages Private Limited, Gamharia, Jamshedpur.
  • Tata Motors, Jamshedpur.
  • Usha Martin Industries Limited, Adityapur, Jamshedpur.
  • Tata Rayrson, Jamshedpur.
  • Telaiya Hydro Power Station, Telaiya, Damodar Valley Corporation
  • Turamdih Gold Mine, Musabani, Jamshedpur.
  • Tata Cummins, Jamshedpur.
  • Tata Growth Shops, Gamharia, Jamshedpur.
  • JMT Auto Limited, Adityapur, Jamshedpur.
  • TRF Limited, Jamshedpur.
  • Tata Consulting Engineers, Jamshedpur
  • UCIL, Sundernagar, Jamshedpur.
  • Lafarge Cement, Jamshedpur.
  • Adhunik Alloyes Limited, Kandra, Jamshedpur.
  • Jamshedpur Utilities & Services Company Limited, Jamshedpur.
  • BOC Gases, Burmamines, Jamshedpur.
  • Hindustan Copper Limited, Ghatsila, Jamshedpur.
  • Praxair Gas, Sakchi, Jamshedpur.
  • Tinplate, Jamshedpur.
  • Concast Cement, Hata, Jamshedpur.
  • Steel Strip Wheels, Jamshedpur.
  • Jindal Steel and Power Limited, Potka, Jamshedpur.
  • Adhunik Power and Natural Resources Limited, Kandra, Jamshedpur.
  • Heavy Engineering Corporation, (HEC Ltd., Dhurwa), Ranchi.
  • Patratu Thermal Power Station, Ramgarh.
  • Jindal Steel Plant,Balkudra, Patratu,Ramgarh.
  • Usha Martin, Ranchi.
  • Central Coalfields Limited, Ranchi
  • Central Mine Planning & Designing Institute Limited (CMPDI), Ranchi
  • Metallurgical and Engineering Consultancy (MECON) Limited, Ranchi
  • Sun-Tech, NABL accredited Laboratory as per ISO/IEC 17025:2005 at Ranchi by Govt. of India
  • Abhijeet Group at Thermal Power Plant and Steel Plant at Chandwa, Saraikela
  • Essar power Ltd. at Chandwa
  • Jay Solar Systems at Dhanbad
  • Maithon Power Limited, Dhanbad
  • Usha Martin,Dhanbad
  • ACC Cement, Dhanbad
  • FCI,sindri, Dhanbad
  • Bharat Coking Coal Limited, Dhanbad
  • Eastern Coalfields Limited, Dhanbad
  • Indian Iron And Steel Company,Dhanbad
  • Tata Steel(coal division ),Dhanbad
  • Maithon Hydro Power Station, Maithan, Dhanbad.
  • Panchet Hydro Power Station, Panchet, Damodar Valley Corporation, Dhanbad.
  • NetSanchar.Net, Dhanbad
  • Auroma Coke Ltd, Gobindpur,Dhanbad
  • Hindustan Malleables & Forgings Ltd,Dhanbad
  • CASTRON TECHNOLOGIES PVT LTD,Dhanbad
  • ANUP MALLEABLES PVT.LTD.,GOVINDPUR,Dhanbad
  • SHAKTI CAST PVT. LTD.,Govindpur,Dhanbad
  • Bharat Earth Movers Limited,Dhanbad

Upcoming mega projects[edit]

  • Supreme Office Systems, Ranchi
  • UIDAI Project
  • Karanpura Super Thermal Power Project (3x660 MW)(NTPC),Hazaribagh
  • Tilaiya Ultra Mega Power Project,Reliance(3960MW),Hazaribagh
  • Tilaiya Power Project (5000 MW), Koderma.
  • ArcelorMittal Steel Plant (12 ml/t), Bokaro.
  • Posco Steel Plant (1.5 ml/t), Bokaro.
  • Posco Steel Plant (12 ml/t).
  • Tata Steel Plant (12 ml/t), near Jamshedpur.
  • Bokaro Power Plant (500 MW).
  • SAIL Greenfield Plant (12 ml/t), Bokaro/Manoharpur.
  • Software Technology Park, Jamshedpur and Bokaro.
  • SAIL Plant (6 ml/t), Sindri,Dhanbad
  • Rishta Polymer Industries Pvt. Ltd., Hazaribag

Jharkhand has several towns and innumerable villages with civic amenities. Urbanization ratio is 24.1% and the per capita annual income is US$726.8.[20] Jharkhand also has immense mineral resources: minerals ranging from (ranking in the country within bracket) from iron ore (1st), coal(3rd), copper ore (1st), mica (1st), bauxite (3rd), Manganese, limestone, china clay, fire clay, graphite (8th), kainite (1st), chromite (2nd), asbestos (1st), thorium (3rd), sillimanite, uranium (Jaduguda mines, Narwa Pahar) (1st) and even gold (Rakha Mines) (6th) and silver and several other minerals. Large deposits of coal and iron ore support concentration of industry, in centres like Jamshedpur,Dhanbad, Bokaro and Ranchi. Tata Steel, a S&P CNX 500 conglomerate has its corporate office in Jharkhand. It reported a gross income of INR. 204,910 million for 2005. NTPC will start coal production from its captive mine in state in 2011–12, for which the company will be investing about Rs 1,800 crore.[21]

Education[edit]

The literacy rate in Jharkhand is 67.63% (2011). As per the 2011 census conducted by Government of India the official literacy rate for the state was 67.63% (Male: 78.45%; Female: 56.21%) with 9 districts above the average literacy rate:[22][23]

  1. Ranchi: 77.13% (Male: 85.53%; Female: 68.20%)
  2. East Singhbhum (Jamshedpur): 76.13% (Male: 84.51%; Female: 67.33%)
  3. Dhanbad: 75.71% (Male: 85.68%; Female: 64.70%)
  4. Ramgarh: 73.92% (Male: 83.51%; Female: 63.49%)
  5. Bokaro: 78.48% (Male: 84.50%; Female: 61.46%)
  6. Hazaribagh: 70.48% (Male: 81.15%; Female: 59.25%)
  7. Saraikela Khasawan: 68.85% (Male: 81.01%; Female: 56.19%)
  8. Kodarma: 68.35% (Male: 81.25%; Female: 54.77%)
  9. Lohardaga: 68.29% (Male: 78.62%; Female: 57.86%)
  10. Deoghar: 66.34% (Male: 79.13%; Female: 53.39%)
Main building of ISM,Dhanbad

Jharkhand has a network of government and privately run schools, although standards of teaching vary considerably from place to place, as also from school to school.

After formation of new state, Jharkhand Education Project Council (JEPC) has been implementing four projects for spread of elementary education namely DPEP, SSA, NPEGEL, KGBV. Hence works have been accomplished in the state towards achieving the goal of UEE but due to slow pace, the target of hundred percent enrolment and retention of children in schools is not yet attained.[24] JAC Result 2014: Jharkhand Board (JAC) Class 10th 2014 result declared - Check here.

Jharkhand has made primary education so accessible that 95% of children of ages 6–11 are enrolled in school, as opposed to 56% in 1993–94, so this will likely to improve literacy a great deal. Some of the better known schools which operate chain of school nationally and regionally are Jawahar Navodaya Vidyalaya, DAV Hehal, St. Thomas School, Delhi Public School, Oxford Public School, De Nobili School, Kendriya Vidyalaya, Chinmaya Public School, Loyola school, Sacred Heart School, St. Xavier's, Shishu Mandir, Surendranath centenary School, etc. Students from Jharkhand have proved themselves on national as well as international level. Students from the state have always ranked well in almost all the national level competitive exams.[25]

Schools[edit]

Loyola School, Jamshedpur is one of the oldest school in Jharkhand which is established in 1947. The institution was established in 1947 by the Society of Jesus (Jesuits), a Roman Catholic religious order founded by St. Ignatius Loyola in 1540.

The medium of instruction in schools is Hindi/English with English/Hindi/Sanskrit/Bengali/Oriya as second language. After 10 years of schooling, students can join 2 years of Intermediate course (or +2 courses) in Arts, Science and Commerce. This is followed by 3 years of degree courses (graduation)or 4 years of Engineering/Agriculture/Medicine degree. On May 2008, Jharkhand became the first in India to introduce free haircuts for poor students. 40,000 barbers will be employed with a monthly salary of 1000 rupees (25 US dollars) which will cost the state government 40 million rupees (1 million US dollars).[26]

Polytechnic Institutes / Colleges[edit]

List of Polytechnic Institutes / Colleges in Jharkhand giving Post 10th Diploma in Engineering Courses . Following list of Government polytechnic colleges having affiliation to State Board of Technical Education Jharkhand, Ranchi are available in Jharkhand, India for studying Diploma courses.

  • Govt Polytechnic, Ranchi
  • Govt Polytechnic, Dhanbad
  • Govt Polytechnic ( Mining Institute) Dhanbad
  • Govt Polytechnic (Mining Institute) Bhaga, Dhanbad
  • Govt Polytechnic, Khutri
  • Govt Polytechnic, Kodarma
  • Govt Polytechnic, Latehar
  • Govt Polytechnic, Dumka
  • Govt Polytechnic, Adityapur
  • Govt Polytechnic, Kharsawan
  • Govt Women Polytechnic,Ranchi
  • Govt Women Polytechnic, Jamshedpur
  • Govt Women Polytechnic, Bokaro

list of private polytechnic colleges are available in Jharkhand

  • K.K. Polytechnic, Govindpur, Dhanbad
  • Al-Kabir Polytechnic, Jamshedpur, Jharkhand
  • Hazaribag College Of Dental Science and Hospital, Hazaribag
  • Indian Institute of Pharmacy, Mango, Jamshedpur
  • Singhbhum Homeopathic Medical College and Hospital, Jamshedpur
  • surya institute of technical education,gamharia, 9031203355, jamshedpur
  • Centre for Bio-Informatics, Hingoo, Ranchi
  • Institute of Science & Management Pundag, Institutional Area Ranchi
  • Ranchi College of Pharmacy, Ranchi

Universities and colleges[edit]

List of State Govt Universities in Jharkhand Jharkhand has 5 universities  :

  • Ranchi University
  • Birsa Agricultural University at Ranchi,
  • Sidhhu Kanhu University at Dumka and
  • Vinova Bhave University in Hazaribagh.
  • kolhan university, chaibasa,

St.Columba's College, Hazaribagh is a renowned and the oldest college in the state established in 1859 by the Dublin University Mission. A scion of Dublin University Mission, Ireland, since 1899, has a glorious trajectory of excellence in imparting higher education, running a long gamut of 110 years towards the fulfilment of great tasks and realization of noble ideals, blazing the trail for great evocative innovations in the field of education, with distinction of being premier Degree College of Eastern India. The college started off with its affiliation from Calcutta University in 1899 as Grade 'B' College. But it was soon upgraded in 1904 to Grade 'A' College on the merit of its spectacular performance and excellence. In the year 1906-1907, it was anointed as "St. Columba's College", the present name, after the name of the famous Irish Saint Columba.

In 1952, the college became a part of Bihar University and 12 years hence in 1964, St. Columba's College became a constituent unit of Ranchi University, which came into existence in 1960. Continuing its unending glorious journey, it turned into a glaring constituent unit of Vinoba Bhave University, Hazaribag, Jharkhand, in 1992. Meanwhile the college took a leaf of Post Graduate affiliation from University Grants Commission, New Delhi, in 1987.

The Xavier School of Management (XLRI), in Jamshedpur, has consistently been ranked among the best private business schools in India.

Jharkhand has a number of engineering and management colleges:

Among which BIT Mesra, NIT Jamshedpur and ISM Dhanbad are among top 15 technical colleges in the country.

  • B.I.T Sindri is the best Govt Engg college in Jharkhand ( Jharkhand Govt.) with annual intake of about 800 students in B.tech.

It has been ranked one all over INDIA in terms of RETURN ON INVESTMENT and overall ranking of 27 all over INDIA.

  • St Xavier's College, Ranchi, most reputed college in the state of Jharkhand was started in Ranchi by the Jesuits, on 3 July 1944.
  • ISM Dhanbad, established in 1926, is the most reputed engineering institute of Jharkhand. Admission to it is through IIT-JEE, the toughest engineering entrance examination in India. This institute attracts students from all over the country. It functions under MHRD, Govt of India.
  • Xavier Labour Relations Institute,(XLRI), Jamshedpur is one of the best business school in India. It has been consistently ranked among the best private business school in India.
  • XLRI- Xavier School of Management
  • Indian Institute of Management(IIM) A recent development, the Government of India has set up an at Ranchi under the mentorship of IIM Calcutta. IIM Ranchi offers programmes in management, human resource management and a research fellowship in management. The State Government has allocated land for the same near Birsa Agricultural University, Kanke. It has been ranked as the best emerging B-School in India by multiple agencies.

There are three medical colleges in Jharkhand namely

  • Xavier Institute of Social Service (XISS) at Ranchi is also one of oldest business school well known for its Personnel management and Rural Development courses.[27] XISS ranked 6th in East and 31st in all India—Outlook MDRA B-Schools Ranking 2010 and Business Today in 2010 ranked XISS on 36th position in all India.
  • National University of Study and Research in Law, Ranchi(NUSRL) was established in year 2010 by Government of Jharkhand as the fourteenth national law university of India. NUSRL is currently functioning out of a temporary campus in BIT, Mesra. It was formally inaugurated by the Chief Justice of Jharkhand High Court and Supreme Court Judge designate Gyan Sudha Mishra on 26 April 2010, in the Birla Institute of Technology-Mesra campus. NUSRL is established to develop a holistic perspective of legal education in all its ramifications particularly advocacy, judicial and legal institutional services, legislations, law reforms and all the research in these
  • Central University of Jharkhand (www.cuj.ac.in) was established in the year 2009 as the first Central University in the state of Jharkhand. It currently offers Integrated Programs in Business Administration, Mass Communication, Languages, Applied Sciences, Engineering and Technology Program along with Master and Doctoral Programs. The Central University is currently based in a picturesque temporary campus at Brambe, 25 km from Ranchi town on the Ratu - Lohardaga Road. The permanent campus is coming up at Chri - Manatu. The founder Vice Chancellor of the University is Prof. D T Khathing, an eminent Physicist and a Professor from NEHU, Shillong.
  • Redeemer Institute of Management And Technology (RIMT)[28] was established in 2011 in Munirka,New Delhi.In February 2012 RIMT have opened there branch in Ramgarh, Jharkhand.RIMT affiliated from Eastern Institute for Integrated Learning in Management University and Karnataka State Open University. RIMT College is organized by Redeemer Engisoft Private Limited (An ISO 9001:2008 Certified Organization).[29]

Health[edit]

On account of salubrious climate, Jharkhand, particularly its capital Ranchi, has been like a health resort. As far back as 1918, facilities were set up for treatment of mentally challenged.[30] European Mental Hospital was established along with Indian Mental Hospital. Today they are called Central Institute of Psychiatry and Ranchi Institute of Neuro-psychiatry and Allied Sciences respectively. In certain areas of Jharkhand, poverty and consequent malnutrition have given rise to diseases like tuberculosis (TB). In fact, TB has assumed epidemic proportions in certain areas of the state. For management and treatment of such TB, Itki TB Sanatorium, Ranchi, established in 1928 has been doing exemplary work as a premier institute for clinical and programmatic management of TB. The Itki TB Sanatorium is well equipped and accredited by Government of India for quality assurance and Culture and Drug Sensitivity Testing for M.TB. It provides free of cost treatment for TB as well as Drug resistant TB. Likewise, in the field of treatment of cancer, Tata Main Hospital, Jamshedpur,[31] is rendering pioneering work. In the same way Bokaro General Hospital equipped with modern facilities for the treatment Cancer and heart related problems with capacity of 1100 beds one of the largest in eastern India.

Although several public and private health facilities are available in the state, overall infrastructure for dispensing health related services require improvements. An exception is the famous Tata Motors Hospital which is an example of an ISO 14001 and 18001 certified hospital with DNB teaching facilities.

Ranchi, the capital has witnessed a sharp growth in the number of hospitals. Hospitals like Orchid Medical Centre have introduced world class healthcare services to the people of the state. However in rural areas facilities are still scarce and reliant on foreign aid projects (such as Traditional Healthcare in Datom) for the establishment of clinics

Fluoride in groundwater presents a public health problem in Jharkhand. A recent survey led by the Birla Institute of Technology, Mesra, Ranchi in collaboration with UNICEF in the northwest districts of Palamau and Garhwa found fluoride levels above the drinking WHO drinking water guidelines.[32] Excessive amounts of fluoride in drinking water can lead to dental fluorosis, prevalent bone fractures, and skeletal fluorosis, an irreversible disabling condition.[33] Some work has focused on combating fluorosis through increased calcium intake by consuming local plants.[34] Researchers at Princeton University and the Birla Institute of Technology, Mesra, Ranchi are currently investigating defluoridation options, while performing an epidemiological survey to assess the extent of fluoride linked health problems and the impact of future interventions.[35][36]

Almost 80% of Jharkhand's people are farmers, although it contains 40% of India's mineral reserves it has some of India's poorest people, in Summer 2009 the state was threatened by drought, with people criticising the government for not providing food aid or assistance.[37]

Veterinary[edit]

Jharkhand has a diverse domestic animal population, including local and crossbred cattle, black Bengal goat, chhotanagpuri sheep, murrah and local buffalo, broilers and ducks of many varieties. The state Veterinary department runs Veterinary Dispensaries located throughout Jharkhand and posts Touring Veterinary officers, Block Animal Husbandry Officers, Touring Veterinary officers (mobile), Assistant Poultry Officers and Veterinary Surgeons to support the agricultural industry.

The state has a Veterinary College located at Kanke, Ranchi.

Sports[edit]

Cricket, Hockey and football are popular games with the people of Jharkhand. Jharkhand has given some brilliant players like Jaipal Singh, a former Indian hockey captain and Olympian and Manohar Topno, Birendra Lakra and his brother Bimal Lakra, currently playing for the Indian Hockey team. Jaipal Singh was the captain of the hockey team that won the first gold medal for India in Olympic games 1928 at Amsterdam. Mahendra Singh Dhoni who is the captain of Indian cricket team and led the Indian Cricket Team to ICC Cricket World Cup Glory on 2 April 2011 ending a 28-year wait to repeat the feat achieved by former Indian captain Kapil Dev in 1983 at Lords, England. Another rising cricketer from Jharkhand is Varun Aaron, India's fastest bowler and Saurabh Tiwary, left hand hard hitting batsman of India who represented Mumbai Indians from the 2008 Indian Premier League and currently playing for Royal Challengers Bangalore. He was one of the key batsmen in the Indian team that won the 2008 U/19 Cricket World Cup in Malaysia. Ashunta Lakra, sister of Vimal Lakra is the Indian Hockey Captain currently.And one of the emerging sport personality is Deepika Kumari, a young Indian athlete who competes in the event of Archery. She won gold medal in the 2010 Commonwealth games in the women's individual recurve event. Some of major stadiums in Ranchi are:

  • JSCA International Cricket Stadium, Ranchi - Cricket
  • Birsa Munda Athletics Stadium Mega Sports Complex, Ranchi - Athletics
  • Shiekh Bhikhari Administrative Block, Mega Sports Complex, Ranchi - Fencing, Karate- Do
  • Veer Budhu Bhagat Aquatic Stadium, Mega Sports Complex, Ranchi - Aquatics
  • Harivansh Tana Bhagat Indoor Stadium, Mega Sports Complex, Ranchi - Volleyball, Basketball, Wrestling
  • Astroturf Hockey Stadium, Morhabadi, Ranchi - Hockey (Men & Women)
  • Birsa Munda Football Stadium, Morhabadi, Ranchi - Football (Men), Rugby 7s
  • Thakur Vishwanath Shahdeo Indoor Stadium, Mega Sports Complex, Ranchi - Wushu, Badminton, Table Tennis
  • R. K. Anand Lawn Bowl Greens, Namkum, Ranchi - Lawn Bowls, Judo
  • Ganpat Rai Indoor Stadium, Mega Sports Complex, Ranchi - Taekwondo, Gymnastics, Handball
  • Albert Ekka Stadium, Mega Sports Complex, Ranchi - Kabbadi, Kho-Kho
  • Sidho Kanhu Velodrome Stadium, Mega Sports Complex, Ranchi - Cycling
  • Tikait Umrao Shooting Range, Mega Sports Complex, Ranchi - Shooting
  • Tennis Stadium, Mega Sports Complex, Ranchi - Tennis

An International Cricket stadium with an indoor stadium and a practice ground has been constructed. This international stadium will host an International Match between India and England on 19 January 2013.[38] Apart from that, this stadium will also host two IPL 6 matches for KKR and Celebrity Cricket League Matches for Bhojpuri Dabanggs. A Tennis Academy, which was inaugurated by Sania Mirza and Shoaib Malik, also runs besides the Cricket stadium.[39] Ranchi is among six cities in Hockey India League to be played in January 2013. Ranchi franchise was bought by Patel-Uniexcel Group and the team named Ranchi Rhinos.[40] Ranchi is also famous for being the hometown of World Cup winning Captain of Indian Cricket team, Mahendra Singh Dhoni. India's ace archer Deepika Kumari, gold medal winner of Commonwealth Games 2010 and current world no.1 rank holder, also hails from Ranchi.[41]

Media[edit]

  • Electronic media ETV Bihar/Jharkhand broadcasts Jharkhand-related news on a popular program called Johar Jharkhand at 7:30 am and 7:30 pm.
  • Print media include the Hindi newspapers, namely, Prabhat Khabar, Hindustan and Dainik Jagran, Dainik Bhaskar and Jharkhand Jagran published from the state capital, Ranchi and available in almost all parts of the state. English newspapers like The Pioneer,[42] the Times of India and the Hindustan Times are published from Ranchi and are available across Jharkhand. "Hindi Hain Hum" Hindi news paper is published from New Delhi available all over Jharkhand, Other important Indian newspapers in Hindi, English and local languages are also available in bigger cities by the afternoon and after a day’s delay in smaller towns. Most of the national magazines in Hindi and English are regularly available in bigger cities and at other places where supply may be arranged through newspaper vendors. The internet media like jharkhandmirror[43] and newswings[44] are also available.
  • Johar Disum Khabar[45] is only fortnightly newspaper published in local tribal & regional language from Ranchi. A monthly magazine "Johar Sahiya" is also published in the state's popular regional language Nagpuri-Sadri."Jharkhandi Bhasha Sahitya Sanskriti Akhra"[46] also a multilingual quarterly magazine in tribal & Regional languages of Jharkhand.
  • There are also many lesser known news website like BiharAndJharkhand.com[47] ranchiexpress.com[48] and a more recent news website JHnews.co.in.[49] These websites have been made exclusively keeping in mind the needs of Jharkhand.
  • Ranchi and Jamshedpur have around five radio stations and All India Radio is available throughout the state. In 2007, private FM Channels have also started operation in the state. Doordarshan, the national television broadcaster, is also available in almost all parts of the state. Bigger cities in Jharkhand are served by all television channels available in India and channels are received through cable. In some interior regions, channels are received via satellite dishes.
  • Landline telephone connectivity is provided by BSNL, Tata Indicom and Reliance Communications and covers almost all parts of the state. Cellular service, covering all major centres of the state, is provided by Vodafone, Airtel (GSM Service), Aircel, BSNL, Idea Cellular and Reliance Communications and also by Tata Indicom and Reliance Infocomm (CDMA Service). Internet connectivity is available in all the districts.
  • ETV News is one of the round-the-clock electronic media being aired from Jharkhand.[50] www.bhaskar.com/jharkhand/
  • Naxatra News Hindi is another round the clock regional channel of Jharkhand.[51] www.naxatranewshindi.com
  • Dainik Bhaskar News[52]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Languages of Jharkhand". 
  2. ^ "Jharkhand – At a Glance". 
  3. ^ . mongabay.com http://www.mongabay.com/history/india/india-jharkhand_movement.html. Retrieved 10 October 2013.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  4. ^ Gautam Kumar Bera (2008). The unrest axle: ethno-social movements in Eastern India. Mittal Publications. pp. 32–35. ISBN 978-81-8324-145-8. 
  5. ^ "Munda Rajas". Retrieved 10 October 2013. 
  6. ^ jharkhandstatenews http://www.jharkhandstatenews.com/arjun-munda-unveils-ancient-tribal-rajas-statue-in-pithoria/ |url= missing title (help). Retrieved 10 October 2013. 
  7. ^ J.B. Hoffmann (1984). A missionary social worker in India. Editrice Pontificia Università Gregoriana. p. 54. ISBN 978-88-7652-539-1. 
  8. ^ http://www.traveljharkhand.com/jharkhand-tourism/jharkhand-overview/jharkhand-history.html
  9. ^ "Freedom Struggle". Wesanthals.tripod.com. 14 November 2000. Retrieved 2010-07-18. 
  10. ^ Birsa Munda and His Movement 1874–1901: A Study of a Millenarian Movement in Chotanagpur, by Kumar Suresh Singh. Oxford University Press, 1983
  11. ^ emerging jharkhand times impact awards- Advertising agencies in ranchi - public relations of jharkhand- information about jharkhand - event management companies in ranchi. Emergingjharkhand.com (2012-04-12). Retrieved on 2013-07-28.
  12. ^ a b c "State animals, birds, trees and flowers" (PDF). Wildlife Institute of India. Archived from the original on 4 March 2009. Retrieved 5 March 2012. 
  13. ^ "Birds and animals found in the forest of the Palamau district". Official website of the Palamau district. Retrieved 2009-04-05. 
  14. ^ "Census Population" (PDF). Census of India. Ministry of Finance India. Retrieved 2008-12-18. 
  15. ^ "Jharkhand". Office of the Registrar General and Census Commissioner. 18 March 2007. Retrieved 2008-07-23. 
  16. ^ a b Bhaumik, Subir (5 February 2009). "Cell phones to fight India rebels". BBC News. Retrieved 6 May 2010. 
  17. ^ a b c "Rising Maoists Insurgency in India". Global Politician. 15 January 2007. Retrieved 2010-07-18. 
  18. ^ Maoists who menace India, New York Times, 17 April 2006
  19. ^ a b c 9 Aug 2006 (9 August 2006). "Hidden civil war drains India's energy". Asia Times Online. Retrieved 2010-07-18. 
  20. ^ "Jharkhand". India Brand Equity Foundation. Retrieved 2014-01-28. 
  21. ^ "NTPC eyes 20K crore thermal plant in MP". business.rediff.com. Retrieved 27 Oct 2010. 
  22. ^ Dr. Arun C. Mehta. "District-specific Literates and Literacy Rates, 2001". Educationforallinindia.com. Retrieved 2011-11-12. 
  23. ^ "National Family Health Survey, 1998–99: Fact Sheet, Jharkhand, Section: Basic Socio-Demographic Features of Jharkhand". p. 3. 
  24. ^ Sanjay Pandey (16 October 2007). "The poor state of girl child education in Jharkhand State". MyNews.in. 
  25. ^ Sanjiv Shekhar (26 May 2009). "Many clear IIT-JEE in Jharkhand". TNN. 
  26. ^ Tewary, Amarnath (13 May 2008). "South Asia | Free haircuts for India students". BBC News. Retrieved 2011-11-12. 
  27. ^ "Xavier Institute of Social Service, Ranchi – 834001, Jharkhand, India". Xiss.ac.in. Retrieved 2011-11-12. 
  28. ^ "Redeemer Institute of Management And Technology, Ramgarh – 829122, Jharkhand, India". rimt.in. Retrieved 2012-05-18. 
  29. ^ "Redeemer Engisoft Pvt Ltd, Ramgarh – 829122, Jharkhand, India". rimt.in. Retrieved 2012-03-13. 
  30. ^ Central Institute of Psychiatry, Ranchi.
  31. ^ "Welcome to Tata Memorial Centre". Tatamemorialcentre.com. 1 January 2004. Retrieved 2010-07-18. 
  32. ^ "Fluoride alert for groundwater" The Telegraph, Calcutta, Friday 11 January 2008
  33. ^ Khandare, AL; Harikumar, R; Sivakumar, B (2005). "Severe bone deformities in young children from vitamin D deficiency and fluorosis in Bihar-India". Calcified tissue international 76 (6): 412–8. doi:10.1007/s00223-005-0233-2. PMID 15895280. 
  34. ^ "Fluoride Toxicity in Jharkhand State of India," Disability News India[dead link]
  35. ^ "Fluoride alert for groundwater," The Telegraph, Calcutta, Friday 11 January 2008.[1]
  36. ^ MacDonald, L. "Water and Health:An effective, sustainable treatment strategy to halt the fluorosis endemic in rural villages of Jharkhand State, India"
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