Jiang Qin

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Jiang Qin
General of Sun Quan
Born (Unknown)
Died 219[1]
Names
Simplified Chinese 蒋钦
Traditional Chinese 蔣欽
Pinyin Jiǎng Qīn
Wade–Giles Chiang Chin
Courtesy name Gongyi (Chinese: 公奕; pinyin: Gōngyì; Wade–Giles: Kung-i)

Jiang Qin (died 219),[1][2] courtesy name Gongyi, was a military general serving under the warlord Sun Quan in the late Eastern Han Dynasty. He previously served under Sun Quan's elder brother and predecessor, Sun Ce, and participated in various battles throughout his service under the Sun family, including Sun Ce's conquests in Jiangdong, the Battle of Xiaoyao Ford and Lü Meng's invasion of Jing Province.

Service under Sun Ce[edit]

Jiang Qin was a native of Shouchun (壽春), Jiujiang (九江), which is in present-day Shou County, Lu'an, Anhui. He served as an Attendant (給事) under Sun Ce when the latter gained independence from the warlord Yuan Shu. When Sun Ce crossed the Yangtze River to start his conquests of the territories in the Jiangdong region, Jiang Qin was appointed as a "Major of Separate Command" (別部司馬) and placed in command of some troops. He accompanied Sun Ce on the campaigns and assisted in the conquest of Yuzhang (豫章). He was later reassigned as Commandant of Geyang (葛陽尉) and was placed in charge of three counties. During his tenure, he defeated some bandits and was promoted to Commandant of the West (西部都尉).[3]

When the bandits Lü He (呂合) and Qin Lang (秦狼) stirred up trouble in Kuaiji (會稽; present-day Shaoxing, Zhejiang), Jiang Qin led his troops to fight them and succeeded in pacifying the five counties in Kuaiji and captured the two bandit chiefs. For his achievement, he was promoted to "General of the Household Who Attacks the Yue" (討越中郎將) and placed in charge of Jingqu (涇拘) and Zhaoyang (昭陽). Jiang Qin later led 10,000 troops to assist He Qi in suppressing a rebellion in You (黝).[4]

Service under Sun Quan[edit]

Jiang Qin participated in the Battle of Xiaoyao Ford in 214-215 and he fought bravely to defend Sun Quan when the latter was under attack by the enemy general Zhang Liao at the ford. He was promoted to "General Who Rocks Bandits" (盪寇將軍) and Area Commander (督) of Ruxu (濡須) for his achievements. He was later recalled to the Wu capital and was commissioned as "Right Protector of the Army" (右護軍) and given additional responsibilities in the legal court.[5]

In 219, Sun Quan ordered Lü Meng to lead an army to invade Jing Province when its defender Guan Yu (a general under Liu Bei) was away at the Battle of Fancheng. Jiang Qin participated in the campaign and led a naval force at Mian (沔). However, after the victory, Jiang Qin fell sick and died on the way back to Wu. Sun Quan personally donned mourning attire when he attended Jiang Qin's funeral. He also gave 200 taxable households and 200 acres (0.81 km2) of land in Wuhu to Jiang Qin's family.[6]

Anecdotes[edit]

Sun Quan's home visit[edit]

Sun Quan once visited Jiang Qin's house and saw that Jiang's mother had only a light bed-curtain and cotton blankets, while Jiang's wife and concubines wore only simple cloth dresses. Sun Quan was so impressed with Jiang Qin's frugality that he ordered his own household to make silk blankets for Jiang's mother and exchange her curtains for better ones. Jiang Qin's wife and concubines also received silk and embroidered garments.[7]

Incident with Xu Sheng[edit]

Once, when Jiang Qin was stationed in Xuancheng (宣城) and was out fighting rebels at Yuzhang (豫章), Xu Sheng, who was then the Prefect (令) of Wuhu, arrested an officer under Jiang Qin and requested for permission from Sun Quan to have the officer executed. As Jiang Qin was away at that time, Sun Quan denied the request. Xu Sheng had since estranged himself from Jiang Qin. Later, during the Battle of Ruxu in 217, Jiang Qin and Lü Meng were put in charge of military discipline. Xu Sheng was constantly worried that Jiang Qin would find fault with him, but, much to his surprise, Jiang gave him high praise instead, and Xu was very impressed with Jiang's virtue. Jiang Qin became more highly regarded after this incident.[8] Sun Quan later asked Jiang Qin, "Xu Sheng offended you earlier on, but yet now you praise him. You wish to emulate Qi Xi,[notes 1] don't you?" Jiang Qin replied, "I heard that one should not let his personal feuds affect his official duties. Xu Sheng is loyal and hardworking, possesses both courage and talent, and is capable of leading thousands of troops. Now, we've yet to accomplish our great task, so I should help to scout for and recommend talents to serve the state instead of letting my private problems cloud my judgement." Sun Quan was very pleased.[9]

Descendants[edit]

Jiang Qin's son, Jiang Yi (蔣壹), received the title of "Marquis of Xuancheng" (宣城侯) and fought at the Battle of Xiaoting in 221-222 against Liu Bei's forces. He was later despatched to Nan commandery (南郡) to join the Battle of Jiangling but died before participating in the battle. Jiang Yi had no son so his military command was inherited by his younger brother, Jiang Xiu (蔣休). Jiang Xiu was later discharged from service for committing an offence.[10]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Qi Xi (祁奚) was a politician in the Jin state during the Spring and Autumn Period. He once recommended Xie Hu (解狐), whom he had a personal feud with, to assist Duke Dao of Jin.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b The Sanguozhi mentioned that Jiang Qin died of illness on his way back to Wu after participating in Lü Meng's invasion of Jing Province in 219. Quote from Sanguozhi vol. 55: (權討關羽,欽督水軍入沔,還,道病卒。)
  2. ^ de Crespigny, Rafe (2007). A biographical dictionary of Later Han to the Three Kingdoms (23–220 AD). Brill. p. 377. ISBN 978-90-04-15605-0. 
  3. ^ (蔣欽字公弈,九江壽春人也。 ... 孫策之襲袁術,欽隨從給事。及策東渡,拜別部司馬,授兵。與策周旋,平定三郡,又從定豫章。調授葛陽尉,歷三縣長,討平盜賊,遷西部都尉。) Sanguozhi vol. 55.
  4. ^ (會稽冶賊呂合、秦狼等為亂,欽將兵討擊,遂禽合、狼,五縣平定,徙討越中郎將,以涇拘、昭陽為奉邑。 ... 賀齊討黝賊,欽督萬兵,與齊并力,黝賊平定。) Sanguozhi vol. 55.
  5. ^ (從征合肥,魏將張遼襲權於津北,欽力戰有功,遷盪寇將軍,領濡須督。後召還都,拜津右護軍,典領辭訟。) Sanguozhi vol. 55.
  6. ^ (權討關羽,欽督水軍入沔,還,道病卒。 ... 權素服舉哀,以蕪湖民二百戶、田二百頃,給欽妻子。) Sanguozhi vol. 55.
  7. ^ (權甞入其堂內,母踈帳縹被,妻妾布裙。權歎其在貴守約,即勑御府為母作錦被,改易帷帳,妻妾衣服悉皆錦繡。) Sanguozhi vol. 55.
  8. ^ (初,欽屯宣城,甞討豫章賊。蕪湖令徐盛收欽屯吏,表斬之,權以欽在遠不許,盛由是自嫌於欽。曹公出濡須,欽與呂蒙持諸軍節度。盛常畏欽因事害己,而欽每稱其善。盛旣服德,論者美焉。) Sanguozhi vol. 55.
  9. ^ (江表傳曰:權謂欽曰:「盛前白卿,卿今舉盛,欲慕祁奚邪?」欽對曰:「臣聞公舉不挾私怨,盛忠而勤彊,有膽略器用,好萬人督也。今大事未定,臣當助國求才,豈敢挾私恨以蔽賢乎!」權嘉之。) Jiang Biao Zhuan annotation in Sanguozhi vol. 55.
  10. ^ (子壹封宣城侯,領兵拒劉備有功,還赴南郡,與魏交戰,臨陣卒。壹無子,弟休領兵,後有罪失業。) Sanguozhi vol. 55.