Lower Yangtze Mandarin

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Lower Yangtze Mandarin
Xiajiang Guanhua
Region Huai and Yangzi Rivers
Native speakers
(no estimate available)
Sino-Tibetan
Hanzi
Language codes
ISO 639-3
ISO 639-6 juai
Glottolog jing1262[1]
{{{mapalt}}}
Jianghuai is in pale blue

Lower Yangtze or Xiajiang Mandarin,[2][3][4][5][6][7] also called Jiang-Huai Mandarin[8] after the Yangtze (Jiang) and Huai Rivers,[9] is one of the most divergent of the Mandarin dialects, as it neighbors the Wu, Hui, and Gan Chinese languages.

Features and location[edit]

67 million people speak Jianghuai Mandarin. Some features of Jianghuai Mandarin include retention of Middle Chinese syllable-final stops.[10]

The Portuguese Chinese Dictionary (PCD) written by missionaries during the Ming dynasty categorized several Jianghuai dialects with rounded finals. The eastern and southeastern variants of Jianghuai contain these rounded finals, Nanjing dialect, on the other hand, is located in another group.[11]

Lower Yangtze Mandarin is spoken in parts of Anhui and Hubei provinces north of the Yangtze, as well as some areas of Jiangsu[12][13] north of the river,[14] most notably in the former capital of Nanjing, as well as Jiujiang in Jiangxi province. It is one of the few Mandarin dialects to retain the entering tone (ru sheng 入聲) of Middle Chinese (as a final glottal stop) like the Jin dialect,[15] and for this retention of the entering tone Jianghuai is compared to its non-Mandarin neighbors to the south. The retension of the rusheng is considered a unique feature of Jianghuai which sets it apart from other the other Mandarin dialects.[16] It has largely lost initial n, replacing it with l.

Some Jianghuai dialects have five tones due to the preservation of the tone of Middle Chinese, more than four toned Standard Mandarin which lost the tone.[17]

In Jianghuai, verbs which meant "to share, to gather, to mix, to accompany" gave rise to disposal markers which mean "and, with" similar to 跟 gen.[18]

Jiangsu province contains the border in which Jianghuai and Northern Mandarin are split.[19]

Jianghuai Mandarin shares some characteristics with Ming dynasty Southern Mandarin.[20]

Peking opera got its start in parts of Anhui and Hubei which spoke this dialect.

Literary and colloquial readings[edit]

The existence of literary and colloquial readings (文白异读), is a notable feature in Jianghuai Mandarin.

Example Colloquial Reading Literary Reading Meaning Standard Mandarin Pronunciation
tɕia tɕiɪ oblique ɕiɛ
tiɪʔ tsəʔ pick tʂai
kʰɪ tɕʰy go tɕʰy
ka tɕy cut tɕy
xa ɕia down ɕia
xoŋ xən across xəŋ
æ̃ iɪ̃ strict ian
kʰuɛ kua hang kua
sən tən crouch tuən
kaŋ xoŋ rainbow xoŋ

Relations to other dialects[edit]

A linguist named Cheng evaluated the extent of relationship between dialects by using Pearson's correlation coefficients. The result was that Eastern dialects of Jianghuai "cluster", with the Xiang and Gan dialects when using a 35 world list, while Northern and Southern Mandarin were nowhere in the cluster with Eastern Jianghuai, while Northern and Southern were supposedly "genetic" relatives of Jianghuai Mandarin.[21]

Jianghuai originally included the Huizhou dialect, but it is currently classified separately from Jianghuai.[22]

Jianghuai Mandarin shares an "old literary layer" as a stratum with southern dialects like Minnan, Hakka, Gan, and Hangzhou dialects, which it does not share with Northern Mandarin. Sino Vietnamese also shares some of these characteristics. The stratum in Minnan specifically consist of Zeng group and Geng group's "n" and "t" finals when an "i" initial is present.[23][24]

A professor of Chinese at Rutgers University, Richard Vanness Simmons, claims that the Hangzhou dialect, rather than being Wu as it was classified by Yuen Ren Chao, is a Mandarin dialect closely related to Jianghuai Mandarin. Hangzhou dialect is still classified under Wu. Chao had developed a "Common Wu Syllabary" for the Wu dialects. Simmons claimed that had Chao compared Hangzhou dialect to the Wu syllabary and Jianghuai mandarin, he would have found more similarities to Jianghuai.[25]

Some works of literature produced in Yangzhou, such as Qingfengzha, a novel, contain Jianghuai Mandarin. People in Yangzhou identified by the dialect they speak, locals spoke the dialect, as opposed to sojourners, who spoke dialects like Huizhou or Wu. This led to the formation of identity based on dialect. Large amounts of merchants from Huizhou lived in Yangzhou and effectively were responsible for keeping the town afloat.[26]

67 million people speak Jianghuai Mandarin. Some features of Jianghua Mandarin include retention of Middle Chinese syllable final stops. Like Wu, the glottal stop has superseded the original Middle Chinese p, t, k, and three-way place contrast has also gone extinct.[27]

Some Chinese linguists like Ting have claimed that Jianghuai is mostly Wu containing a superstratum of Mandarin.[28]

The linguist Dan Xu suggested that Jianghuai Mandarin is an intermediary with Standard Mandarin and Wu dialect regarding the occurrence of postpositions in Chinese dialects.[29]

The Chinese Academy of Social Science was behind the separation of the Hui dialects from the Jianghuai Mandarin dialects in 1987.[30]

Hefei, and other Jianghuai mandarin dialects, along with Taiyuan and other Jin dialects has gone through the process of a glottal stop replacing consonant endings.[31] While most Mandarin dialects and the Wenzhou dialect have completely dropped Middle Chinese stop endings such as p, t, k, Jianghuai Mandarin, Jin, and Wu dialect converted them into a glottal stop.[32] Having a single entering tone with a glottal stop is shared by Jin, Mandarin, and Wu dialects.[33]

Vocalic distinctions are more common in Jianghuai Mandarin than the Jin Chinese.[34][35]

The linguist Matthew Y. Chen noted that since the CVq syllables which are related to Middle Chinese ton IV are preserved in Jianghuai Mandarin that splitting Jin Chines from Mandarin on the basis that Middle Chinese tone IV was preserved in Jin made no sense. He did note that there was a separate reason to split Jin from Northern Mandarin, since it has a unique tone sandhi.[36]

When Jianghuai Mandarin and Wu were compared to dialects from China's southeastern coast, it was concluded "that chain-type shifts in Chinese follow the same general rules as have been revealed by Labov for American and British English dialects."[37]

Comparison to other Mandarin dialects[edit]

Jianghuai Mandarin is related to the other dialects of Mandarin.[38][39] Jianghuai Mandarin belongs to the Mandarin supergroup, and is one of the eight Mandarin subgroups. The other seven subgroups of Mandarin are "Northeastern, Beijing, Beifang, Jiaoliao, Zhongyuan, Lanyin, Southwestern"[40] Other linguists classify Jin, Jianghuai, Northeastern, Northern, and Southwestern as five groups of Mandarin.[41] Some linguists use three major groups to classify Mandarin, in total eight subdialects are included in the three major groups, one of which is Jianghuai.[42] Linguists used the stopped tone category's reflexes to classify Mandarin into its various different groups. The most often accepted groups include Jianghuai as one of them, the other being Central Plains and Southwestern Mandarin.[43] Another scheme classifies Northern, Northwestern, Southwestern, and Jiang-huai Mandarin into 4 groups of Mandarin.[44][45]

Jianghuai (eastern) Mandarin and Northern Mandarin do not share many words; frequently many Jianghuai Mandarin words have no Northern Mandarin cognates, besides cognates that do exist between the two Mandarins have multiple forms.[46]

The Rugaohua dialect of Jianghuai does not follow the T3 sandhi rule which most other Mandarin dialects follow, with T3 being absent from it. Linguists speculate that the Beijing dialect also eliminated T3 sandhi, but it was resurrected for modern Standard Mandarin (Putonghua).[47][48]

Nanjing Jianghuai Mandarin has preserved the glottal stop as a final and separates the entering tone unlike Northern Mandarin or Southwestern Mandarin, like Northern Mandarin, it keeps the retroflex initials.[49] In Jianghuai Mandarin, the n sound does not exist, being pronounced as L; the opposite occurred in Southwestern Mandarin, where now only the n sound is present while L merged into it. Northern Mandarin on the other hand, keeps both n and L separate. Jianghuai, like Northern Mandarin, also separates the F and X sound in "xu", while in Southwestern Mandarin, X merged into f so that it is pronounced as "fu". In Jianghuai, əŋ has "merged" into iŋ, while the opposite has occurred in Southwestern Mandarin, Northern Mandarin keeps both as separate sounds.[50]

The two finals ŋ and n are the only ones that exist in dialects of Mandarin. The final stops merged into a glottal stop in Jianghuai Mandarin, while in the majority of southwestern Mandarin they are completely eliminated, Northern and Northwest Mandarin have undergone both changes in their varieties of dialects. Nanjing Mandarin is an exception to the normal occurrence of the i, y and u medials in Mandarin, along with is eastern Shanxi and some southwest Mandarin dialects.[51]

Verbs meaning giving function as a passive agent marker or a disposal construction direct object marker in the Zhongyuan, Jianghuai, and southwestern Mandarin. This is also shared by the grammatization of gei (给) in Standard Mandarin, since all four are Mandarin dialects.[52]

When Chinese people were subjected to listening to various dialects such as Northern Mandarin (Yantai dialect), Standard Mandarin (Putonghua), and Jianghuai Mandarin (Rugao dialect of Jiangsu), "cross dialectal" differences appeared in their reactions.[53]

Prominence[edit]

Jianghuai Mandarin was possibly the native tone of the founding Emperor of the Ming dynasty, Zhu Yuanzhang and many of his military and civil officials.[54]

The "Guanhua koine" of the early Ming era was based on Jianghuai Guanhua (Jianghuai Mandarin). Western missionaries and Korean Hangul writings of the Ming Guanhua and Nanjing dialect showed differences, which pointed to the Guanhua being a koine and mixture of various dialects strongly based on Jianghuai.[55]

In Matteo Ricci's "Dicionário Português-Chinês", words in this dictionary documenteed the Ming dynasty Mandarin. A number of words appeared to be derived from Jianghuai Mandarin dialect, such as "pear, jujube, shirt, ax, hoe, joyful, to speak, to bargain, to know, to urinate, to build a house, busy, and not yet."[56]

Some linguists have studied the influence which Nanjing Jianghuai Mandarin had on Ming dynasty guanhua/Mandarin.[57] Although the early Ming dynasty Mandarin/Guanhua was a koine based on Nanjing dialect, it was not entirely identical to it, with some non Jianghuai characteristics being found in it. Francisco Varo advised that to learn Chinese one must acquire it from "Not just any Chinese, but only those who have the natural gift of speaking the Mandarin language well, such as those natives of the Province of Nan king, and of other provinces where the Mandarin tongue is spoken well.[58]

Jianghuai Mandarin, along with Northern Mandarin, formed the standard for Baihua before and during the Qing dynasty up till its replacement by modern Standard Mandarin. This Baihua was used by writers all over China regardless of the dialect they spoke. Chinese writers who spoke other dialects had to use the grammar and vocabulary of Jianghuai and Northern Mandarin in order for the majority of Chinese to understand their writing, by contrast, Chinese who did not speak southern dialects would not be able to understand a Southern dialect's writing.[59]

Jianghuai also influenced the Beijing dialect. The Beijing dialect was not only influenced by various northern dialects, but also from Jianghuai.[60]

Dialect has also been used as a tool for regional identitity and politics in the Jiangbei and Jiangnan regions. While the city of Yangzhou was the center of trade, flourishing and prosperous, it was considered part of Jiangnan, which was known to be wealthy, even though Yangzhou was north of the Yangzi river. Once Yangzhou's wealth and prosperity were gone, it was then considered to be part of Jiangbei, the "backwater". After Yangzhou was removed from Jiangnan, its residents decided to no longer speak Jianghuai Mandarin, which was the dialect of Yangzhou. They instead replaced Mandarin with Wu and spoke Taihu Wu dialects. In Jiangnan itself, multiple subdialects of Wu fought for the position of prestige dialect.[61]

History of expansion[edit]

Evidence from the Eastern Han dynasty period suggests the southern dialects included Jianghuai.[62]

During the Han dynasty, Old Chinese was divided into dialects, one of them was called "Chǔ-Jiāng-huái", 憐 lián meant "to love" in this dialect.[63]

The original dialect of Nanjing was the Wu dialect in the Eastern Jin. After the Wu Hu uprising, the Jin Emperor and many northern Chinese fled south. The new capital of Eastern Jin was created at Jiankang, where modern day Nanjing is today, it was during this time that the Nanjing dialect started to transform into Jianghuai Mandarin from Wu. Further events, such as Hou Jing's rebellions during the Liang dynasty and the Sui dynasty invasion of the Chen dynasty resulted in Jiankang's destruction, during the Ming dynasty, Ming Taizu relocated southerners from below Yangzi and made Nanjing the capital, and during the Taiping Rebellion, Taiping rebels seized Nanjing and made it the capital of the Taiping Kingdom, the fighting resulted in the loss of the population of Nanjing. These events all played in role in forming the Nanjing dialect of today.[64]

Immigrants from Northern China during the middle of the Song dynasty moved south, bringing a speech type from which Northern Wu and Jianghuai reading patterns both derive from, these northern immigrants almost totally took over from the original inhabitants on the Yangtze's northern bank.[65] Jiang-huai, like other dialects of Chinese has two forms for pronouncing words, the Bai (common, vulgar), and the Wen (literary), the Bai forms appear to preserve more ancient forms of speech dating from before the mass migration in the Song dynasty which brought in the wen pronunciations.[66]

During the Ming dynasty Wu speakers moved into Jianghuai speaking regions, influencing the Tairu and Tongtai dialects of Jianghuai.[67]

In the Ming and Qing dynasties Jianghuai speakers moved into Hui dialect areas.[68]

Jianghuai Mandarin is currently overtaking Wu dialect as the language of multiple counties in Jiangsu. An example of this is Zaicheng Town in Lishui County, both Jianghuai and Wu dialect were spoken in several towns in Lishui, with Wu being spoken by the greater amount of people in more towns than Jianghuai. The Wu dialect is called "old Zaicheng Speech", while Jianghuai dialect is called "new Zaicheng speech", with Wu dialect being driven rapidly to extinction. Only old people use it to talk to relatives. The Jianghuai dialect was present there since about a century, even though all the surrounding areas around the town are Wu speaking. Jianghuai was always confined inside the town itself until the 60's, in the present it is overtaking Wu.[69]

Subdialects[edit]

It is divided into three main branches, with several subbranches:

  • Hongchao dialects 洪巢片
    The largest and most widespread branch of Jianghuai Mandarin, mostly concentrated in Jiangsu and Anhui provinces, with smaller minorities in Zhejiang province. It is divided into the Western Huai dialects and the Eastern Huai dialects, with the Western Huai dialects being the more numerous of the two.
  • Huangxiao dialects 黃孝片
    Mostly spoken in eastern Hubei province and northern Jiangxi, particularly the area around Jiujiang.
  • Isolates
    • Junjiahua 軍家話 - A variety of Jianghuai Mandarin brought to Hainan and the rest of coastal Southeastern China during the Ming dynasty by soldiers from Jiangsu, Anhui and Henan during the reign of Hongwu Emperor. Mostly spoken in small pockets throughout Guangdong, Guangxi, Hainan and Fujian provinces.

Of unclear placement in the classification above:

The Wuchang, Wuhan, and Tianmen dialects are spoken around the Chang-jiang lakes.[73]

Taixing dialect.[74][75] Taixing dialect uses the character "na" for "disposal construction".[76]

Anqing dialect.[77]

Tongcheng dialect (桐城话)[78]

"Tongdao, Ningyuan, Longshan, Yizhang, Zhijiang" are also all Jianghuai Mandarin dialects.[79]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Lower Yangtze Mandarin". Glottolog 2.2. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. 
  2. ^ Jane Garry, Carl R. Galvez Rubino (2001). Jane Garry, Carl R. Galvez Rubino, ed. Facts about the world's languages: an encyclopedia of the world's major languages, past and present (illustrated ed.). H.W. Wilson. p. 146. ISBN 0-8242-0970-2. Retrieved 23 September 2011. Under this scheme, Northwestern is renamed Lanying and Xiajiang is called Jianghuai. What is controversial in this scheme is that the dialects spoken in Shangxi and Inner Mongolia have been culled out of the Northwestern Mandarin and a 
  3. ^ Margaret Mian Yan (2006). Introduction to Chinese dialectology. Volume 22 of LINCOM studies in Asian linguistics. LINCOM Europa. p. 60. ISBN 3-89586-629-6. Retrieved 23 September 2011. and Jianghuai Guanhua tLHUIfIS ( Jianghuai Mandarin/Eastern Mandarin), or Xiajiang Guanhua TOUHS (Lower Yangtzi or Eastern Mandarin) (Yuan Jiahua 1960; Zhan Bohui 1981; Norman 1988)  (the University of Michigan)
  4. ^ Margaret Mian Yan, Jennifer Li-chia Liu (1997). Interactions I: a cognitive approach to beginning Chinese. Volume 1 of Interactions I-II: A Cognitive Approach to Beginning Chinese. Indiana University Press. p. 3. ISBN 0-253-21122-0. Retrieved 23 September 2011. Mandarin (the official language) Hf 15 Guanhua: Northern Mandarin ^b^"B"IS Beifang Guanhua 68.0 Hebei, Shanxi, Shaanxi, ... Jiangsu Eastern Mandarin "F ?XT =T fj§ Xiajiang Guanhua Southwestern Mandarin ffijiL JOst XInan Guanhua Sichuan 
  5. ^ Albrecht Klose (2001). Sprachen der Welt (2 ed.). De Gruyter. p. 256. ISBN 3-598-11404-4. Retrieved 23 September 2011. Jiangxia Guanhua. Lower Yangze Mandarin. Unterer Jangtse-Mandarin, Eastern Mandann, Yangze River Mandarin, Yangtze- Hual Jingpaw — Jingpho Jingpho — Katschinisch Jingpho - ST ribetoburmanlsch, Katschinisch - Myanmar (Burma),  (the University of Michigan)
  6. ^ Doris L. Payne, Immanuel Barshi (1999). Doris L. Payne, Immanuel Barshi, ed. External possession. Volume 39 of Typological studies in language. John Benjamins Publishing Company. p. 197. ISBN 90-272-2941-4. Retrieved 23 September 2011. Sinitic languages can thus be classified into three main groups following Norman (1988): A. Northern group I. Northern Chinese (Mandarin) (i) Northern (ii) Northwestern (iii) Xiajiang or Lower Yangtze dialects (iv) Southwestern 
  7. ^ simplified Chinese: 下江官话; traditional Chinese: 下江官話; pinyin: xiàjiāng guānhuà
  8. ^ simplified Chinese: 江淮官话; traditional Chinese: 江淮官話; pinyin: jiānghuái guānhuà
  9. ^ Joshua A. Fogel (2004). Joshua A. Fogel, ed. The role of Japan in Liang Qichao's introduction of modern western civilization to China. Volume 57 of China research monographs. Institute of East Asian Studies, University of California Berkeley, Center for Chinese Studies. p. 251. Retrieved 23 September 2011. (northwest Mandarin), xinan guanhua ( southwest Mandarin), and jianghuai guanhua (Huai and Yangzi River Mandarin)  (the University of Michigan)
  10. ^ Sun-Ah Jun (2005). Sun-Ah Jun, ed. Prosodic typology: the phonology of intonation and phrasing, Volume 1 (illustrated ed.). Oxford University Press. p. 236. ISBN 0-19-924963-6. Retrieved 23 September 2011. 
  11. ^ Ming studies, Issue 56. Ming studies. 2007. p. 110. Retrieved 23 September 2011. group, to which Nanjingese belongs. Rounded finals, on the other hand, are found in the eastern and southeastern Jiang-Huai dialects. The PCD language patterns with dialects of this type here. Let us now consider one more set of 
  12. ^ Andrew Simpson (2007). Andrew Simpson, ed. Language and national identity in Asia (illustrated ed.). Oxford University Press. p. 143. ISBN 0-19-926748-0. Retrieved 23 September 2011. Guizhou Jiang-Huai Mandarin Jiangsu, Anhui, Hubei Jin 45 Shanxi Wu 70 Shanghai, Southern Jiangsu, Zhejiang Hui 32 
  13. ^ Maria Kurpaska (2010). Chinese language(s): a look through the prism of The great dictionary of modern Chinese dialects. Volume 215 of Trends in linguistics: Studies and monographs (illustrated ed.). Walter de Gruyter. p. 67. ISBN 3-11-021914-X. Retrieved 23 September 2011. 
  14. ^ Youguang Zhou (2003). The historical evolution of Chinese languages and scripts. Volume 8 of Pathways to advanced skills. National East Asian Languages Resource Center, Ohio State University. p. 15. ISBN 0-87415-349-2. Retrieved 23 September 2011. (4) Jiang-Huai secondary topolect (Jiang-Huai Mandarin and Lower Yangtze Valley/ Xiajiang Mandarin) is mainly used along the two banks of the Yangtze River in Anhui Province, the northern part of the Yangtze River in Jiangsu Province  (the University of California)
  15. ^ Maria Kurpaska (2010). Chinese language(s): a look through the prism of The great dictionary of modern Chinese dialects. Volume 215 of Trends in linguistics: Studies and monographs (illustrated ed.). Walter de Gruyter. p. 74. ISBN 3-11-021914-X. Retrieved 23 September 2011. 
  16. ^ Maria Kurpaska (2010). Chinese language(s): a look through the prism of The great dictionary of modern Chinese dialects. Volume 215 of Trends in linguistics: Studies and monographs (illustrated ed.). Walter de Gruyter. p. 191. ISBN 3-11-021914-X. Retrieved 23 September 2011. 
  17. ^ John H. McWhorter (2007). Language interrupted: signs of non-native acquisition in standard language grammars (illustrated ed.). Oxford University Press. p. 129. ISBN 0-19-530980-4. Retrieved 23 September 2011. For example, many Mandarin dialects have more than four tones. Hangzhou has no fewer than seven, such that it was previously classified as a Wu dialect ( Simmons 1992; Baxter 2000, 106–8). In the Jiang-Huai region five-tone dialects are not uncommon, with six-tone ones reported on the Northern/Central boundary (Norman 1988, 194). These represent a retention of one of the original four tones of Middle Chinese (the rù tone), as distinguished from the more common Mandarin trait of having lost this tone while collapsing the two-way register distinction between the three others into a four-tone contrast not contingent upon register 
  18. ^ Felix K. Ameka, Alan Charles Dench, Nicholas Evans (2006). Felix K. Ameka, Alan Charles Dench, Nicholas Evans, ed. Catching language: the standing challenge of grammar writing. Volume 167 of Trends in linguistics: Studies and monographs (illustrated ed.). Walter de Gruyter. p. 469. ISBN 3-11-018603-9. Retrieved 23 September 2011. Comitatives > Disposal markers, eg cognates and synonyms of ka in Min dialects, t'ung11 and lau11 in Hakka dialects, tse 45 in Shaoxing (Wu); G N in Jiang-Huai Mandarin dialects, all with the comitative meanings 'and, with' which can be 
  19. ^ Fang yan, Issues 1-4. 1989. p. 157. Retrieved 23 September 2011. SO The boundary between Jianghuai Mandarin and Northern Mandarin in northren JiangsQ Bao Phonetic differences and similarities among the dialects A glossary of idioms in the Shanghai dialect (I)泊幻叮血 gandLoY 私叩吃 LIR 勺呂 L 怕  (the University of Michigan) [1]
  20. ^ 中央硏究院. 第2屆國際漢學會議論文集編輯委員會, 中央硏究院 (1989). 中央硏究院第2屆國際漢學會議論文集: 中華民國七十五年十二月廿九日至卅一日, Volume 2, Part 1. 中央硏究院. p. 223. Retrieved 23 September 2011. Therefore, we might interpret the RES ts, ts', s as reflecting a phonological feature of the Southern Mandarin dialect of the Ming dynasty. This feature is also found among the modern Jiang-Huai dialects such as YC. It might also be a reflection of the dialect features of MH and AM.  (the University of California)
  21. ^ Royal Society (Great Britain), JSTOR (Organization) (2005). Proceedings, Volume 272, Pages 877-1304. Royal Society of London. p. 1017. There is much conflict between and within Mandarin and Wu, which do not cluster for the 35 and 100 wordlists (figure 2). For the 35 wordlist, the Eastern Jianghuai Mandarin dialects (Yingshan, Wuhan) cluster with their geographical neighbours Xiang and Gan, but do not cluster with their putative genetic northern and southern Mandarin relatives.  (the University of Michigan)
  22. ^ Barbara F. Grimes, Joseph Evans Grimes, Summer Institute of Linguistics (2000). Barbara F. Grimes, Joseph Evans Grimes, Summer Institute of Linguistics, ed. Ethnologue, Volume 1 (14 ed.). SIL International. p. 404. ISBN 1-55671-103-4. Retrieved 23 September 2011. Formerly considered to be part of the Jianghuai dialect of Mandarin, but now considered by many to be a separate major variety of Chinese. Dialects are reported to differ greatly from each other. Different from the Huizhou dialect of  (the University of Michigan)
  23. ^ Cambridge Scientific Abstracts, Inc. Internet Database Service (2007). Linguistics and language behavior abstracts: LLBA., Volume 41, Issue 4. Sociological Abstracts, Inc. p. 1541. Retrieved 23 September 2011. We point out that in fact this stratum is an old literary layer in Minnan dialects. We find it also exists in Hakka-gan dialects, the Hangzhou dialect. South East Mandarins, & Jianghuai Mandarins extensively. In Sino-annamite. there are  (the University of Michigan)
  24. ^ University of California, Berkeley. Project on Linguistic Analysis (2007). Journal of Chinese linguistics, Volume 35. Project on Linguistic Analysis. p. 97. Retrieved 23 September 2011. We find it also exists in Hakka-gan dialects, Hangzhou dialect, South East Mandarins, Jianghuai Mandarins extensively. In Sino-annamite, there are some similarities to Minnan dialects. Basing on our new findings, we believe that in Song 
  25. ^ David Prager Branner (2006). David Prager Branner, ed. The Chinese rime tables: linguistic philosophy and historical-comparative phonology. Volume 271 of Amsterdam studies in the theory and history of linguistic science: Current issues in linguistic theory (illustrated ed.). John Benjamins Publishing Company. p. 206. ISBN 90-272-4785-4. Retrieved 23 September 2011. Had Chao developed a syllabary for the Jiang-Huai Mandarin dialects with a diagnostic power and representativeness comparable to that of his Wu Syllabary, and had he placed Hangzhou in that context, he most surely would have discovered 
  26. ^ Lucie B. Olivová, Vibeke Børdahl, Nordic Institute of Asian Studies (2009). Lucie B. Olivová, Vibeke Børdahl, ed. Lifestyle and entertainment in Yangzhou (Issue 44 of NIAS studies in Asian topics, Nordisk Institut for Asienstudier København) (illustrated ed.). NIAS Press. p. 184. ISBN 87-7694-035-7. Retrieved 23 September 2011. Some grammatical features of Yangzhou dialect are shared with Jianghuai Mandarin . Others may be of more limited usage but are used in Dingyuan County (the setting of Qingfengzha), which belongs to the same subgroup of Jianghuai 
  27. ^ Sun-Ah Jun (2005). Sun-Ah Jun, ed. Prosodic typology: the phonology of intonation and phrasing, Volume 1 (illustrated ed.). Oxford University Press. p. 236. ISBN 0-19-924963-6. Retrieved 23 September 2011. Across the Mandarin-speaking world, Mandarin is in contact with many other varieties of Chinese, as well as of non-Chinese languages. This contact increases the variability even more. For example, the Jianghuai varieties share many 
  28. ^ Sun-Ah Jun (2005). Sun-Ah Jun, ed. Prosodic typology: the phonology of intonation and phrasing, Volume 1 (illustrated ed.). Oxford University Press. p. 233. ISBN 0-19-924963-6. Retrieved 23 September 2011. 
  29. ^ Dan Xu (2008). Dan Xu, ed. Space in languages of China: cross-linguistic, synchronic and diachronic perspectives (illustrated ed.). Springer. p. 65. ISBN 1-4020-8320-3. Retrieved 23 September 2011. Examples of such markers include 阿[a/ia/ua/ka/0a] (at, to; perfective and durative marker) in the Taixing dialect, Jianghuai Mandarin (cf. Li R. 1957),倒[ tno] (at, to; durative marker) 
  30. ^ Xiao-bin Ji, Eric Dalle (2003). Xiao-bin Ji, Eric Dalle, ed. Facts about China (illustrated ed.). H.W. Wilson. p. 70. ISBN 0-8242-0961-3. Retrieved 23 September 2011. For this reason, the Chinese Academy of Social Science suggested in 1987 that two new groups, the Jin and the Hui, be separated from the northwestern and the Jiang-Huai Mandarin subgroups. Distinctive Features: Mandarin dialects are  (the University of California)
  31. ^ Margaret Mian Yan (2006). Introduction to Chinese dialectology. Volume 22 of LINCOM studies in Asian linguistics. LINCOM Europa. p. 82. ISBN 3-89586-629-6. Retrieved 23 September 2011. (Jianghuai Mandarin/Eastern Mandarin), or Xiajiang Guanhua TOUHS (Lower Yangtzi or Eastern Mandarin) (Yuan  (the University of Michigan)
  32. ^ Margaret Mian Yan (2006). Introduction to Chinese dialectology. Volume 22 of LINCOM studies in Asian linguistics. LINCOM Europa. p. 99. ISBN 3-89586-629-6. Retrieved 23 September 2011.  (the University of Michigan)
  33. ^ Margaret Mian Yan (2006). Introduction to Chinese dialectology. Volume 22 of LINCOM studies in Asian linguistics. LINCOM Europa. p. 236. ISBN 3-89586-629-6. Retrieved 23 September 2011.  (the University of Michigan)
  34. ^ 國立清華大學 (Hsin-chu shih, Taiwan) (2003). Tsing Hua journal of Chinese studies, Volume 33, Issue 1. 清華學報社. p. 243. Retrieved 23 September 2011. ancient entering tonal category (often with a glottal stop ending), its vocalic distinctions have been largely reduced to two or at most three vowels in the Ru-tone words— a far cry from the Jianghuai Mandarin dialects where more vocalic distinctions are retained. Another characteristic feature of Jin-yu is the ubiquitous -i- glide in the rhyme categories De, Mo, and Mai: *-ie?. 
  35. ^ Qing hua xue bao, Volume 33. 2003. p. 243. Retrieved 23 September 2011. This dialect is at once conservative and innovative in that while preserving the ancient entering tonal category (often with a glottal stop ending), its vocalic distinctions have been largely reduced to two or at most three vowels in the Ru-tone words— a far cry from the Jianghuai Mandarin dialects where more vocalic distinctions are retained.  (the University of Michigan)
  36. ^ Matthew Y. Chen (2000). Tone Sandhi: patterns across Chinese dialects. Volume 92 of Cambridge studies in linguistics (Issue 92 of Studies in Linguistics) (illustrated ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 92. ISBN 0-521-65272-3. Retrieved 23 September 2011. Having preserved MC tone IV hardly justifies setting up Jin as a distinct dialect group: after all, it is well known that the south-eastern branch of Mandarin (ie the so-called Jiang-huai branch) is characterized precisely by its retention of CVq. 
  37. ^ École des hautes études en sciences sociales, École pratique des hautes études (France). Section des sciences économiques et sociales (1985). Revue bibliographique de sinologie, Volume 3. Editions de l'Ecole des hautes études en sciences sociales. p. 180. Retrieved 23 September 2011. Diachronic evidence from Wu dialects and Jiang-Huai Mandarin dialects on the one hand and from Southeast China coastal area dialects on the other hand (all dialect material drawn from other authors) show that chain-type shifts in Chinese follow the same general rules as have been revealed by Laboc for American and British English dialects, such as: 1. peripheral vowels rise: 2. non-peripheral vowels usually fall: 3. back vowels move to  (Indiana University)
  38. ^ Grant D. McConnell, Tan Ke Rang (1997). The Written Languages of the World: a Survey or the Degree and Modes of Use: China. Volume 4 of Langues Ecrites du Monde Series. Les Presses de l'Université Laval. p. 41. ISBN 2-7637-7433-4. Retrieved 23 September 2011.  (the University of Michigan)
  39. ^ Ming Chao Gui (2001). Yunnanese and Kunming Chinese: a study of the language communities, the phonological systems, and the phonological developments. Volume 28 of LINCOM studies in Asian linguistics. Lincom Europa. p. 6. ISBN 3-89586-635-0. Retrieved 23 September 2011. 
  40. ^ Keith Brown, Sarah Ogilvie (2008). Keith Brown, Sarah Ogilvie, ed. Concise encyclopedia of languages of the world (illustrated ed.). Elsevier. p. 214. ISBN 0-08-087774-5. Retrieved 23 September 2011. The first branching-out from the trunk is the two major supergroups: Mandarin and non- Mandarin.Mandarin includeseight subgroups:North- eastern, Beijing, Beifang,Jiaoliao,Zhongyuan,Lanyin, Southwestern, and Jianghuai 
  41. ^ Yudong Chen, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (2007). A comparison of Spanish produced by Chinese L2 learners and native speakers---an acoustic phonetics approach. ProQuest. p. 3. ISBN 0-549-46403-4. Retrieved 23 September 2011. Mandarin is the biggest dialect family and can be further divided into 5 major subdialect groups: the northern dialect, the northeastern dialect, the Jin dialect, the southwestern dialect and the Jianghuai dialect. 
  42. ^ David Levinson, Karen Christensen, ed. (2002). Encyclopedia of Modern Asia: Malaysia to Portuguese in Southeast Asia. Volume 4 of Encyclopedia of Modern Asia (illustrated ed.). Charles Scribner's Sons. p. 33. ISBN 0-684-31245-X. Retrieved 23 September 2011. Within the Mandarin family, there are three main divisions comprising eight subdialects: (1) Southern Mandarin includes the Yangtze (Jianghuai guanhua) and Southwestern (Xinan guanhua) subdialects; (2) Central Mandarin includes the  (the University of Michigan)
  43. ^ E. K. Brown, Anne Anderson (2006). E. K. Brown, Anne Anderson, ed. Encyclopedia of Language & Linguistics: Sca-Spe. Volume 11 of Encyclopedia of Language & Linguistics (2, illustrated ed.). Elsevier. p. 394. ISBN 0-08-044367-2. Retrieved 23 September 2011. Mandarin has the largest geographic spread and population, and can be subdivided into as many as eight subgroups (see Li 1987; cf. Ho, 2003), based largely on the reflexes of the stopped tone category. Of these, the Southwestern (Sichuan, Yunnan, Guizhou), Central Plains, and Jianghuai ( Southeastern) groups are generally recognized. One variety of Mandarin  (the University of Michigan)
  44. ^ Ping Chen, Nanette Gottlieb (2001). Ping Chen, Nanette Gottlieb, ed. Language planning and language policy: East Asian perspectives (annotated ed.). Psychology Press. p. 53. ISBN 0-7007-1468-5. Retrieved 23 September 2011. They are Mandarin, Yue (Cantonese), Wu, Xiang, Hakka, Gan, and Min; the non- Mandarin dialects are also called Southern dialects. Mandarin itself is composed of four major varieties: Northern, Northwestern, Southwestern, Jiang-Huai (cf. 
  45. ^ International Pragmatics Association (2002). Pragmatics: quarterly publication of the International Pragmatics Association, Volume 12. The Association. p. 187. Retrieved 23 September 2011. Southwestern Jianghuai Mandarin Mandarin Mandarin Mandarin Labials Plain apicals Apical Sibilants Retro flexe s  (the University of Michigan)
  46. ^ Leo J. Moser (1985). The Chinese mosaic: the peoples and provinces of China (illustrated ed.). Westview Press. p. 104. ISBN 0-86531-085-8. Retrieved 23 September 2011. Differences Between Eastern Mandarin and Standard Chinese In addition to the variations among cognates, as shown in the list, many common words and phrases in Eastern Mandarin are not at all cognate to those in Northern Mandarin  (the University of Michigan )
  47. ^ Ohio State University. Computer and Information Science Research Center, Ohio State University. Dept. of Linguistics (2001). Working papers in linguistics, Issue 55. Computer and Information Science Research Center, The Ohio State University. p. 26. Retrieved 23 September 2011. But it is not the case that all current Mandarin dialects preserve this sandhi rule. For example, it is no longer in my dialect, Rugaohua, a Jianghuai Mandarin dialect. We may speculate that a certain generation of Rugaohua speakers  (Indiana University)
  48. ^ Keith Johnson (2001). Elizabeth V. Hume, ed. Studies on the interplay of speech perception and phonology (Issue 55 of Working papers in linguistics). Ohio State University, Dept. of Linguistics. p. 26. Retrieved 23 September 2011. But it is not the case that all current Mandarin dialects preserve this sandhi rule. For example, it is no longer in my dialect, Rugaohua, a Jianghuai Mandarin dialect. We may speculate that a certain generation of Rugaohua speakers 
  49. ^ Graham Thurgood, Randy J. LaPolla (2003). Graham Thurgood, Randy J. LaPolla, ed. The Sino-Tibetan languages. Volume 3 of Routledge language family series (illustrated ed.). Psychology Press. p. 129. ISBN 0-7007-1129-5. Retrieved 23 September 2011. 3 THE REGIONAL CHARACTERISTICS OF MANDARIN DIALECTS Mandarin dialects can be divided into three regions: Northern Mandarin, Southwestern Mandarin and Jiang- Huai Mandarin. With Putonghua, the Chengdu dialect and the Nanjing dialect as 
  50. ^ Graham Thurgood, Randy J. LaPolla (2003). Graham Thurgood, Randy J. LaPolla, ed. The Sino-Tibetan languages. Volume 3 of Routledge language family series (illustrated ed.). Psychology Press. p. 130. ISBN 0-7007-1129-5. Retrieved 23 September 2011. 
  51. ^ Jerry Norman (1988). Chinese (illustrated, reprint ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 193. ISBN 0-521-29653-6. Retrieved 23 September 2011. In the southwestern dialects they are totally lost in most areas; in the Jiang- Huai region (eastern Mandarin) they have mostly merged as glottal stop. In northwestern and northern Mandarin both types of development can be found. 
  52. ^ École des hautes études en sciences sociales. Centre de recherches linguistiques sur l'Asie orientale (2008). Cahiers de linguistique: Asie orientale, Volume 37, Issues 1-2. Centre de recherches linguistiques sur l'Asie orientale, École des hautes études en sciences sociales. p. 7. Retrieved 23 September 2011. Get 'give' in Beijing and beyond / CLAO 37(2008) 3-42 Standard Mandarin exhibits patterns of the central linguistic zone with respect to the grammaticalization of gei then naturally follows from the fact that Zhongyuan, Jiang-Huai and  (the University of Michigan)
  53. ^ University Microfilms, University Microfilms International (2005). Dissertation abstracts international: The humanities and social sciences. University Microfilms International. Retrieved 23 September 2011. Cross-dialectal as well as age differences were observed among Chinese listeners in Experiments BJ , RG and YT using natural speech stimuli from Putonghua, Rugao (a Jianghuai Mandarin dialect, Jiangsu Province) and Yantai (a Northern 
  54. ^ Ming studies, Issue 56. Ming studies. 2007. p. 107. Retrieved 23 September 2011. The first Ming emperor, Zhu Yuanzhang t^tcSj!, and a large number of his civil and military officials hailed from the Yangtze watershed and spoke dialects of the southern Mandarin or Jiang-Huai type, to which the dialect of Nanjing [2]
  55. ^ Ming studies, Issue 56. Ming studies. 2007. p. 108. Retrieved 23 September 2011. missionary transcriptions and of fifteenth century Korean Guanhua transcriptions in the Hangul alphabet, the two syllable types are clearly distinguished. Guanhua and Nanjingese were clearly different here. Thus, we may suspect that the early Ming Guanhua koine was in reality a linguistic amalgam of some sort, though it certainly had deep roots in the Jiang -Huai dialects. In 1421 the Ming political and administrative capital was moved from [3]
  56. ^ Michele Ruggieri, Matteo Ricci, John W. Witek (2001). John W. Witek, ed. Dicionário Português-Chinês. Volume 3 of Documenta (Instituto Português do Oriente) Volume 3 of Documenta (Biblioteca Nacional Macau). Biblioteca Nacional Portugal. p. 208. ISBN 972-565-298-3. Retrieved 23 September 2011. Words for pear, jujube, shirt, ax, hoe, jorful, to speak, to bargain, to know, to urinate, to build a house, busy, and not yet are those typical of the Chiang-Huai or Southern dialects, not the Northern Mandarin dialect. 
  57. ^ 何大安 (2002). 第三屆國際漢學會議論文集: 語言組. 南北是非 : 漢語方言的差異與變化. Volume 7 of 第三屆國際漢學會議論文集: 語言組. Zhong yang yan jiu yuan di san jie guo ji han xue hui yi lun wen ji. Yu yan zu. 中央硏究院語言學硏究所. p. 27. ISBN 957-671-936-4. Retrieved 23 September 2011. to consider how it may have been influenced by possible relationships and interactions with the Jiang-Huai dialects of the Nanking area. This, in our view , should be done by first undertaking historical studies of these dialects  (the University of California)
  58. ^ 何大安 (2002). 第三屆國際漢學會議論文集: 語言組. 南北是非 : 漢語方言的差異與變化. Volume 7 of 第三屆國際漢學會議論文集: 語言組. Zhong yang yan jiu yuan di san jie guo ji han xue hui yi lun wen ji. Yu yan zu. 中央硏究院語言學硏究所. p. 27. ISBN 957-671-936-4. Retrieved 23 September 2011. Reading system definitely possesses features which are not typical of the Jiang-Huai group as a whole (Coblin Ms. 1,3)/ Careful reading of early descriptions tends to confirm this conclusion. For example, Varo's association of his Mandarin phonology with Nankingese was not absolute and unequivocal. We should recall his counsel that Guanhua be learned from "natives of the Province of Nan king, and of other provinces where the Mandarin tongue is spoken well" [emphasis added]. We find a similar view in Morrison's accounts. On the one hand he says in his dictionary (1815:xviii), "The pronunciation in this work, is rather what the Chinese call the Nanking dialect, than the Peking.  (the University of California)
  59. ^ Ping Chen (1999). Modern Chinese: history and sociolinguistics (illustrated ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 82. ISBN 0-521-64572-7. Retrieved 23 September 2011. This is true not only of writers from the Jiang-Huai and Northern Mandarin areas , but also of writers from the other dialect ... Speakers of dialects other than Jiang- Huai or Northern Mandarin had to conform to the grammatical and 
  60. ^ Dingxu Shi (2004). Peking Mandarin. Volume 377 of Languages of the world: Materials. LINCOM EUROPA. p. 2. Retrieved 23 September 2011. It is most likely that a new dialect was formed on the basis of these members of the Northern Dialect, especially the Jianghuai Mandarin which was spoken in the Nanking area. If the population did not undergo drastic changes in later  (the University of Michigan)[4]
  61. ^ Dorothy Ko (1994). Teachers of the inner chambers: women and culture in seventeenth-century China (illustrated, annotated ed.). Stanford University Press. p. 21. ISBN 0-8047-2359-1. Retrieved 23 September 2011. With the exclusion of Yangzhou came the denigration of its dialect, a variant of Jianghuai "Mandarin" (guanhua). The various Wu dialects from the Lake Tai area became the spoken language of choice, to the point of replacing guanhua in... 
  62. ^ W. South Coblin (1983). A handbook of Eastern Han sound glosses. Chinese University Press. p. 25. ISBN 962-201-258-2. Retrieved 23 September 2011. 343). This may indicate that Jiang-Huai was still part of the southern dialect area in late EH times. 4. Northern Dialects: These are the dialects of the You area and correspond to the northern dialects of the FY system 
  63. ^ Axel Schuessler (2007). ABC etymological dictionary of old Chinese. University of Hawaii Press. p. 354. ISBN 0-8248-2975-1. Retrieved 23 September 2011. 
  64. ^ Maria Kurpaska (2010). Chinese language(s): a look through the prism of The great dictionary of modern Chinese dialects. Volume 215 of Trends in linguistics: Studies and monographs (illustrated ed.). Walter de Gruyter. p. 161. ISBN 3-11-021914-X. Retrieved 23 September 2011. 
  65. ^ University of London. School of Oriental and African Studies (2002). Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London, Volume 65. The School. p. 536. Retrieved 23 September 2011. Where ordinary Jiang-Huai forms match the Northern Wii reading pronunciations, it is because they have a common origin in the speech types brought south by the mid-Song period northern immigrants. North of the Yangtze, where the indigenous population had been effectively replaced by newcomers, only the northern forms normally survive. South of the River, the northern forms becamea literary stratum in Wu grafted onto the older indigenous pronunciation  (the University of Michigan)
  66. ^ University of London. School of Oriental and African Studies (2002). Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London, Volume 65. The School. p. 534. Retrieved 23 September 2011. It is noticeable, however, that across the Jiang- Huai speaking area there is a fairly homogeneous layer of what appear to be older forms, preserved in the popular or bai 白 pronunciations of certain common words. These contrast with literary or wen 文 forms that pattern more consistently with other syllable types in the broader lexicons of the dialects in question. We may guess that these bai forms are in fact substrate survivals of the underlying speech varieties found in the belt before the mid-Song inundation  (the University of Michigan)
  67. ^ University of London. School of Oriental and African Studies (2002). Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London, Volume 65. The School. p. 541. Retrieved 23 September 2011. For example, the eastern-most languages of the Tairu or Tongtai branch saw significant immigration from Wu-speaking areas in early Ming times, while in the same period the Huang-Xiao area on the western flank of the family was inundated  (the University of Michigan)
  68. ^ Hilary Chappell (2004). Hilary Chappell, ed. Chinese grammar: synchronic and diachronic perspectives (illustrated, reprint ed.). Oxford University Press. p. 17. ISBN 0-19-927213-1. Retrieved 23 September 2011. According to Hirata, however, Hui is composed of many layers: its dialects are spoken in an area originally occupied by the Yue i* tribe, suggestive of a possible substrate, later to be overlaid by migrations from Northern China in the Medieval Nanbeichao period and the Tang and Song dynasties. This was followed by the Jiang-Huai Mandarin dialects of the migrants who arrived during the Ming and Qing periods, and more recently by Wu dialects in particular, acquired by peripatetic Hui merchants who have represented an active 
  69. ^ Journal of Asian Pacific communication, Volume 16, Issues 1-2. Multilingual Matters. 2006. p. 336. Retrieved 23 September 2011. In Chinese dialectology, Lishui County is divided by the boundary between Jiang-Huai dialect and Wu dialect. In administrative distribution, eleven towns of the county lie in the Wu Dialect area and five in the Jiang-Huai Dialect area. The former includes 72.2% of the county's population; the latter 17.8% (Guo, 1995). The county seat is Zaicheng Town, also called Yongyang Town. The language varieties spoken in areas surrounding the town all belong to Wu dialect. Two varieties are spoken in the town, "the old Zaicheng Speech" and "the new Zaicheng Speech". The former is a variety of Wu Dialect, and the latter a Jiang-Huai Mandarin Dialect. The old dialect is disappearing. Its speakers, a minority of elders, use the variety only among family members. According to some interviewees over sixty years old, the new dialect has been spoken in the town area for about one hundred years. Before the 1960's, the new dialect was used only inside the town, which served as the county seat, therefore, it is called "Town Speech" or "Lishui Speech".  (the University of Michigan)
  70. ^ Anna Wierzbicka (2002). Cliff Goddard, Anna Wierzbicka, ed. Meaning and universal grammar: theory and empirical findings. Volume 60 of Studies in language Amsterdam / Companion series Volume 1 of Meaning and Universal Grammar (illustrated ed.). John Benjamins Publishing Company. p. 244. ISBN 90-272-3063-3. Retrieved 23 September 2011. Table 5.1: Five main Mandarin dialect groupings Northern Mandarin Hebei, including Greater Beijing; ... Gansu; Qinghai; Ningxia Northwestern Mandarin areas of Gansu; Xinjiang and Ningxia dialects Jiang-Huai or Xiajiang Nanjing 
  71. ^ Maria Kurpaska (2010). Chinese language(s): a look through the prism of The great dictionary of modern Chinese dialects. Volume 215 of Trends in linguistics: Studies and monographs (illustrated ed.). Walter de Gruyter. p. 160. ISBN 3-11-021914-X. Retrieved 23 September 2011. 
  72. ^ Maria Kurpaska (2010). Chinese language(s): a look through the prism of The great dictionary of modern Chinese dialects. Volume 215 of Trends in linguistics: Studies and monographs (illustrated ed.). Walter de Gruyter. p. 67. ISBN 3-11-021914-X. Retrieved 23 September 2011. 
  73. ^ David Dalby, David Barrett, Michael Mann (1999). David Barrett, Michael Mann, Observatoire linguistique, ed. The linguasphere register of the world's languages and speech communities, Volume 2. Published for Observatoire Linguistique by Linguasphere Press/Gwasg y Byd Iaith. p. 559. ISBN 0-9532919-0-1. Retrieved 23 September 2011. "upper-yangtze mandarin" ^transition to jiang- huai "mandarin" ©Chang-jiang lakes (Wuchang... Wuhan+ Tianmen)... 
  74. ^ Chaofen Sun, ed. (1997). Studies on the history of Chinese syntax (Issue 10 of Journal of Chinese linguistics: Monograph series). Journal of Chinese Linguistics,. p. 219. Retrieved 23 September 2011. the north of Jiangsu Province, near the Yangtze river. The Taixing dialect belongs to Jiang Huai Mandarin. It contains a morpheme with three allomorphs, a, nga and ga. As discussed in detail in Li (1957), the morpheme is used in a way similar to zhu, namely as a preposition meaning dao or or zai (depending 
  75. ^ Graham Thurgood, Randy J. LaPolla (2003). Graham Thurgood, Randy J. LaPolla, ed. The Sino-Tibetan languages. Volume 3 of Routledge language family series (illustrated ed.). Psychology Press. p. 90. ISBN 0-7007-1129-5. Retrieved 23 September 2011. However, in the Taixing dialect (Jiangsu, Jianghuai), it occurs after both Vl and v2, 
  76. ^ Yuzhi Shi (2002). The establishment of modern Chinese grammar: the formation of the resultative construction and its effects. Volume 59 of Studies in language companion series. John Benjamins Publishing Company. p. 220. ISBN 90-272-3062-5. Retrieved 23 September 2011. In certain dialects na has become the standard marker for the disposal construction such as in the Taixing dialect (B. Huang 1995: 659): (42) (The Taixing dialect) Ni na ge dixia sao-sao le. you NA Cl. floor clean-clean Per 
  77. ^ John H. McWhorter (2007). Language interrupted: signs of non-native acquisition in standard language grammars (illustrated ed.). Oxford University Press. p. 130. ISBN 0-19-530980-4. Retrieved 23 September 2011. manner extent potential Changli (Northern) .ti .ti liao Xining (Northwest) zhe zhe lia Chengdu (Southwest) de/lai/delai de/lai/delai de Anqing (Jiang-huai zhe zhe zhe 
  78. ^ http://www.cnki.com.cn/Article/CJFDTotal-YWZG200501010.htm
  79. ^ Bangxin Ding, Ai-qin Yu, Anne O. Yue-Hashimoto (2005). 紀念李方桂先生百年冥誕論文集 "Yu yan ji yu yan xue" zhuan kan. Zhong yang yan jiu yuan yu yan xue yan jiu suo. p. 432. Retrieved 23 September 2011. From Yang (1974) examples can also be found, to a lesser degree, in the Xiang dialects (see section 3.6 below) as well as in other Hunan dialects such as Lixian ШШ, Sangzhi #ffi (Jianghuai Mandarin); Tongdao ШШ, Ningyuan Щ$, Longshan f!