|Water Margin character|
|Rank||98th, Evil Star (地惡星) of the 72 Earthly Fiends|
|Infantry leader of Liangshan|
|Ancestral home / Place of origin||Zhongshan Prefecture (around present-day Dingzhou, Baoding, Hebei)|
|First appearance||Chapter 67|
Jiao Ting is a fictional character in Water Margin, one of the Four Great Classical Novels of Chinese literature. He ranks 98th of the 108 Liangshan heroes and 62nd of the 72 Earthly Fiends. He is nicknamed "Faceless".
Jiao Ting is from Zhongshan Prefecture (中山府; around present-day Dingzhou, Baoding, Hebei). He inherits a set of martial arts and wrestling techniques from his ancestors, but is forbidden by a family rule to impart those skills to people not related to his family. He leads an anonymous life and does not reveal his true identity most of the time. He is thus nicknamed "Faceless".
Jiao Ting wishes to join the bandit gang on Mount Deadwood (枯樹山) in Kouzhou (寇州; believed to be present-day Guan County, Liaocheng, Shandong) and travels there. He encounters Li Kui along the way and stares at him. The fiery-tempered Li Kui is unhappy when he sees Jiao Ting staring at him, so he raises his fists as if he wants to fight Jiao, but Jiao remains unfazed by Li's bravado and fearsome appearance. Li Kui attacks Jiao Ting but he is defeated by his opponent, who wrestles him to the ground easily.
Li Kui is impressed with Jiao Ting's skill and asks for his opponent's name. He then invites Jiao Ting to join the outlaw band at Liangshan Marsh and Jiao agrees. Li Kui and Jiao Ting travel to Mount Deadwood to find Bao Xu and persuade him to join Liangshan too. They receive news that a convoy escorting two prisoners is passing by the mountain. Bao Xu, Li Kui and Jiao Ting lead the bandits to attack the convoy and succeed in rescuing the captives, who turn out to be Liangshan's Xuan Zan and Hao Siwen, who were captured by Shan Tinggui and Wei Dingguo in an earlier battle. Jiao Ting follows the outlaws back to Liangshan after they defeat the imperial forces sent by the government to attack them.
Campaigns and death
Jiao Ting becomes one of the leaders of the Liangshan infantry after the Grand Assembly of the 108 Stars of Destiny. He follows the heroes on their campaigns against the Liao invaders and rebel forces after they have been granted amnesty by Emperor Huizong. He is killed in the battle of Runzhou (潤州; present-day Runzhou District, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu) during the campaign against the rebel leader Fang La.
- (Chinese) Li, Mengxia. 108 Heroes from the Water Margin, page 197. EPB Publishers Pte Ltd, 1992. ISBN 9971-0-0252-3.
- Buck, Pearl. All Men are Brothers. Moyer Bell Ltd, 2006. ISBN 9781559213035.
- Zhang, Lin Ching. Biographies of Characters in Water Margin. Writers Publishing House, 2009. ISBN 978-7506344784.
- Keffer, David. Outlaws of the Marsh.
- Miyamotois, Yoko. Water Margin: Chinese Robin Hood and His Bandits.
- (Japanese) Ichisada, Miyazaki. Suikoden: Kyoko no naka no Shijitsu. Chuo Koronsha, 1993. ISBN 978-4122020559.
- Shibusawa, Kou. Bandit Kings of Ancient China. KOEI, 1989.