The Jicaque languages are in Honduras in the center of the map
Jicaquean, also known as Tolan, is a small language family of Honduras.
Oltrogge (1977) proposed that Tolan languages were related to the Tequistlatecan languages, but this "Tolatecan" hypothesis was found to lack support (Campbell 1997). Terrence Kaufman (1988) argued that they constitute a branch of the Hokan languages.
There are two attested Jicaquean languages (Holt 1999). Campbell (1997) reports they were about as distant as English and Swedish.
- Eastern Jicaque, also known as Tol, Tolupan, and Torupan, is spoken by 250-300 Tolupan people in an official reservation at La Montaña de la Flor, Morazán Department, Honduras. It was also spoken in much of Yoro Department, but only a few speakers were reported in the Yoro Valley as of 1974. Tol used to be spoken from the Río Ulúa in the west, to modern-day Trujillo in the east, and to the Río Sulaco in the inland south. This area included the areas around modern-day El Progreso, La Ceiba, and possibly also San Pedro Sula. Most Tolupan had fled the coastal regions by the early 1800s to flee from the Spanish. The Tol speakers at La Montaña de la Flor had fled the Yoro Valley in 1865 to avoid being conscripted into forced labor by the local governor (Campbell & Oltrogge 1980:206, Hagen 1943, Chapman 1978). Tol speakers refer to themselves as the Tolpán, but are called Jicaques or Turrupanes by the ladinos.
- Western Jicaque, also known as Jicaque of El Palmar and Sula, now extinct, was spoken around El Palmar, Cortés Department, near Chamelecón.
- Campbell, Lyle. (1979). "Middle American languages." In L. Campbell & M. Mithun (Eds.), The languages of native America: Historical and comparative assessment (pp. 902–1000). Austin: University of Texas Press.
- Campbell, Lyle. (1997). American Indian Languages, The Historical Linguistics of Native America. Oxford Studies in Anthropological Linguistics. Oxford: Oxford UP.
- Campbell, Lyle, and David Oltrogge (1980). "Proto-Tol (Jicaque)." International Journal of American Linguistics, 46:205-223
- Dennis, Ronald K. (1976). "La lengua tol (jicaque): los sustantivos." Yaxkin 1(3): 2-7.
- Fleming, Ilah. (1977). "Tol (Jicaque) phonology." International Journal of American Linguistics 43(2): 121-127.
- Greenberg, Joseph H., and Morris Swadesh (1953). "Jicaque as a Hokan Language." International Journal of American Linguistics 19: 216-222.
- Holt, Dennis. (1999). Tol (Jicaque). Languages of the World/Materials 170. Munich: LincomEuropa.
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