"Jihadism" in this sense covers both Mujahideen guerilla warfare and Islamic terrorism with an international scope as it arose from the 1980s, since the 1990s substantially represented by the al-Qaeda network. It has its roots in the late 19th and early 20th century ideological developments of Islamic revivalism, developed into Qutbism and related ideologies during the mid 20th century. The rise of jihadism was re-enforced by the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan in 1979, and has been propagated in various armed conflicts throughout the 1990s and 2000s. A specifically Salafist jihadism has been diagnosed within the modern Salafi movement by Gilles Kepel in the mid-1990s.
Jihadism with an international, Pan-Islamist scope in this sense is also known as Global Jihadism. Generally the term jihadism denotes Sunni Islamist armed struggle. Shiite and Sunni mutual sectarian tensions led to numerous forms of Sunni (Salafist and other Islamist) jihadism against Shia Muslims and Shia mosques.
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Although the adjective jihadist can be traced to the 1960s, and the abstract jihadism to ca. 1980, these terms did not see frequent use in popular media until after the 9/11 attacks of 2001. The equivalent terms of "jihadist movement" and "jihadi movement" date to the same period, entering use during the 1970s. The term "jihadism" translates or parallels Arabic jihādiyya جهادية. The alternative form jihadi for jihadist in English usage is a transliteration of the corresponding Arabic adjective jihādī جهادي.
According to Martin Kramer the term jihadism first became common in "the Indian and Pakistani media". "At present, jihadism is used to refer to the most violent persons and movements in contemporary Islam, including al-Qaeda." The term jihadism may also have been influenced by the term "jihadist-Salafism", put into "academic circulation" by "French academics". Brachman in his Global jihadism (2008) concedes that the term is "clumsy and controversial".
The term "Jihadist Globalism" is also often used in relation to Jihadism; according to Manfred Steger of RMIT University, the term "Jihadist Globalism" can apply to all extremely violent strains of religiously influenced ideologies that articulate the global imaginary into concrete political agendas and terrorist strategies. The term does not have to be specific to the Muslim society. Thus, the label could also apply to violent Christians in the West that strive to make a Christian Empire.[clarification needed]
Jihad fi sabilillah
In Islam, the phrase al-jihad fi sabilillah is the equivalent of the western notion of bellum justum or just war. Such a "just war" or "war in the cause of Allah" has been propagated in modern fundamentalism beginning in the late 19th century, an ideology that arose in context of struggles against colonial powers in North Africa in the late 19th century, as in the Mahdist War in Sudan, and notably in the mid-20th century by Islamic revivalist authors such as Sayyid Qutb and Abul Ala Maududi.
Based on this, the phrase is used in modern jihadism. Thus, "Fi Sabilillah" armbands were worn by rebels in Xinjiang when battling Soviet forces, and the phrase has been spotted on flags used by jihadists in Caucasia in the 2000s.
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When jihadism is specifically motivated by Pan-Islamism, i.e. the ultimate aim of spreading Islam worldwide under a restored Caliphate, it is often called "Global Jihadism". But jihadism can also be motivated regionally, in an attempt to establish an Islamic state in a specific homeland. Global Jihadism is usually involved with international Islamic terrorism, while regional jihadism takes the form of guerrilla warfare, possibly also paired with terrorist attacks. Historical and ongoing jihadist armed conflicts include:
Early Jihadist uprisings (before World War I):
- Fulani War (1804–1810)
- Padri War (1821–1838)
- Java War (1825–1830)
- Caucasus War (1828–1859)
- Algerian resistance movement(1832 - 1847)
- Mahdist War (1881–1899)
- Somali Dervishes (1896–1920)
- Moro Rebellion (1899–1913)
- Aceh War (1873–1913)
- Basmachi Movement (1916–1934)
- Libyan resistance movement (1911–1943)
- Classical Islamism (1928–1989)
- Kumul Rebellion (1931–1934)
- Islamic rebellion in Xinjiang (1937)
- Insurgency in the Philippines (1969–present)
- Arakan rebellion (1978)
- Arab–Israeli conflict (Islamic Jihad Movement in Palestine 1981–present, Islamic Jihad Organization 1982-1993, Hamas 1987–present)
- Soviet war in Afghanistan (1979–1989)
Modern jihadism (1990–present)
- Kashmir conflict (Lashkar-e-Taiba, 1990–present)
- Somali Civil War (1991–present)
- Bosnian war (Bosnian mujahideen, 1992–1995)
- Afghan civil war (Taliban 1994–present)
- East Turkestan irredentism (East Turkestan Islamic Movement, 1997–present)
- Chechen war and Insurgency in the North Caucasus (Arab Mujahideen in Chechnya, 1994–present)
- Iraqi insurgency (Islamic State of Iraq, 2003–present)
- Al-Qaeda insurgency in Yemen (Abyan Governorate, 2010–present)
- Syrian civil war (Al-Nusra Front to Protect the Levant 2011–present)
- Martin Kramer (Spring 2003). "Coming to Terms: Fundamentalists or Islamists?". Middle East Quarterly X (2): 65–77.
- Brachman 2008, p. 4: "Jihadism is a clumsy and controversial term."
- Steger, Manfred B. Globalization: A Short Introduction. 2009. Oxford University Publishing
- Rudolph Peters, Jihad in modern terms: a reader 2005, p. 120.
- Rudolph Peters, Jihad in modern terms: a reader 2005, p. 107 and note p. 197. John Ralph Willis, "Jihad Fi Sabil Allah", in: In the path of Allah: the passion of al-Hajj ʻUmar : an essay into the nature of charisma in Islam, Routledge, 1989, ISBN 978-0-7146-3252-0, 29-57. "Gibb [Mohammedanism, 2nd ed. 1953] rightly could conclude that one effect of the renewed emphasis in the nineteenth century on the Qur'an and Sunna in Muslim fundamentalism was to restore to jihad fi sabilillah much of the prominence it held in the early days of Islam. Yet Gibb, for all his perception, did not consider jihad within the context of its alliance to ascetic and revivalist sentiments, nor from the perspectives which left it open to diverse interpretations." (p. 31)
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