Photographer Jill Greenberg (2011)
Hagedorn Foundation Gallery (Atlanta, GA)
July 10, 1967 |
Montreal, Quebec, Canada
|Alma mater||Rhode Island School of Design|
Jill Greenberg (born July 10, 1967) is an American photographer and artist. She is known for her portraits and fine art work that often features anthropomorphized animals that have been digitally manipulated with painterly effects.
Greenberg has been taking photographs since she was 9 years old. In a 1998 New York Times article on female gamers, Greenberg said that her affinity for technology came from her mother: "My mom was a math buff and a science major in college," she said. "In 1964, she became a COBOL programmer and helped support my father through med school. She used to write programs on keypunch cards for mainframes."
Greenberg said she has always taken pictures of animals, beginning with headshots of her dog, Plato, when she was young.
Greenberg took classes at Cranbrook Academy of Art and the Detroit Institute of Arts. In 1984, Greenberg attended the Photography Summer Session held by Parsons School of Design in Paris. In 1985, Greenberg won a Traub Memorial Scholarship Travel Fund from Andover High School in Bloomfield Hills, Michigan.
In 1988, Greenberg completed coursework on “Semiotics in Media” with Mary Ann Doane at Brown University. In 1989, she graduated with honors from the Rhode Island School of Design with a BFA in Photography.
In 1992, Greenberg applied to the Whitney Museum’s Independent Study program, but didn’t get it that year. "Later that week, I got one of my first good jobs for Sassy magazine. I thought that I should just focus on doing the commercial thing until I could get to a point where I would have economic freedom and be able to afford to do the personal work. Doing photography is expensive, and I didn’t want to wait tables and be a starving artist. I’ve always liked doing portraits and seeing my work outdoors on billboards, but I’ve always had other ideas to explore."
Greenberg has worked successfully as a commercial photographer and has done a large number of celebrity portraits. She specializes in portraiture and uses painterly effects that are drawn using computer technology. On this success: "It’s hard because the serious art world can be an odd place for the people who have achieved commercial success first. I wasn’t born a commercial photographer, I was born an artist, and I’ve been doing art my whole life."
Greenberg says that the commercial photography has influenced and provided inspiration for her portrait work. Greenberg said: "I wouldn’t have had access to the monkey if I hadn’t been shooting him for a commercial project. I decided to do a portrait of the monkey, and that’s when I decided to do a series of them. For the Glass Ceiling series, I don’t think I would have necessarily set out to do an underwater photo series. That was definitely inspired by an assignment. I loved the way the U.S. Olympic synchronized swim team looked somewhat ridiculous wearing heels, but as it turns out, professional synchronized swimmers often wear heels underwater."
2011's Glass Ceiling series involved shooting under water, using scuba gear. She hired professional synchronized swimmers and photographed them in a pool in Culver City. The Glass Ceiling series was featured as a billboard installation in Los Angeles, on the northwest corner of Sunset Boulevard at Fairfax (viewable while driving east).
In October 2012, Greenberg published a book of photographs called Horse that features images of horses. Writer A. M. Homes wrote the introduction. Greeenberg built photo studios within horse rings to take the photographs. Shooting took place in Los Angeles in an area called Walker’s Basin and also in Vancouver at Danny Virtue’s ranch, a man who supplies horses to the film industry.
Greenberg said that while researching horses, she found "this essay by a British academic, comparing the way that horses function in society to the way that women have been oppressed. He had included an illustration of a horse in a bridle with a woman wearing a 'scold's bridle,' which is a medieval punishment for mouthy women. At the time, I was also working on my Glass Ceiling series, so issues of feminism were at the forefront of my mind.... It felt right to compare horses to women."
In January 2014, Greenberg had an exhibition in Canada of images from "Horse." Greenberg said she has had a lifelong love of horses that began at the age of six. Greenberg wanted to explore the connection between how horses have been tamed and feminist theory. Greenberg states: "[T]hey have been made subservient, so their position in the world relates to the role women continue to occupy. Horses are both masculine and feminine, dominant and submissive, mastered and wild."
Contributions and influence
Greenberg is credited by some within the commercial photography industry as having produced several unique styles that have since been emulated by other photographers. "Like LaChapelle and Avedon, Jill has pioneered a new style of photography, and her impact can be seen throughout the entertainment industry", the creative director of a Los Angeles creative agency told Brief magazine, with the publication itself characterizing her work as employing "distinctive ethereal backlighting." A president of NBC Entertainment Marketing who has employed Greenberg on a number of occasions due to what he terms her "distinct and innovative aesthetic" observed that "many other photographers follow her lead."
Since the mid-1980s, Greenberg "experimented constantly with such disparate techniques as rephotographing slide projections, reflections in mylar, cyanotypes." Greenberg "fell in love with the computer as a tool to create worlds that mirrored the drawing and painting techniques she saw in the Surrealists.
In 1995, Greenberg branded her first website the moniker “The Manipulator” after the 80s German photography magazine "as a playful reference to the post-production work was an important part of her creative process." Greenberg said that she likes “to manipulate my images and retouch them. I don’t usually like straight photography.”
Greenberg herself has acknowledged having made particular use of digital post production, adapting the nickname "The Manipulator" early in her career due in part to her relatively early adoption of Photoshop, a product she has used since its release in 1990. Nonetheless, she told an interviewer in 2011 that some of what her fans believe to be post production is instead the result of close attention to lighting, merely supplemented with minor "flourishes" afterwards.
On her methodology: “I use a lot of masking, apply color curves, dodge and burn. It's all done by hand, like painting. My background being illustration, I still draw and paint because I enjoy it, so my digital manipulations are just a derivative of those techniques.”
Greenberg's work and career has focused intermittently on feminist issues, starting with her senior thesis at RISD, "The Female Object", the premise of which concerned "The disciplinary project of femininity" and what Greenberg sees as the predetermined failure of all women who attempt to "succeed" at it. Greenberg's official bio cites the backlash resulting from the McCain/Atlantic incident as having prompted her to return to "the question of what is tolerated by women in our culture." Her more recent Glass Ceiling series stems from a commercial shoot in which Greenberg was asked to photograph members of the U.S. Olympic Synchronized Swim Team swimming in high heels, an element that heightens sexuality while also hampering ability. According to a press release/bio released ahead of an exhibition and talk, "The result is a sadly relevant series of shots depicting women struggling to keep head above water in a context defined by the constraints pressed upon them by others."
- 1997 Award of Excellence, Communications Arts Annual
- 2004 Self-Promo Award – 2nd Place, PDN/Nikon Self Promotion
- 2005 Special Book – 2nd Place, PDN/Nikon Self Promotion
- 2006 Award of Excellence, Communications Arts Photography Annual
- 2006 Direct Mail Award – 1st Place, PDN/Nikon Self Promotion
- 2006 Print Placement – 2nd Place, PDN/Nikon Self Promotion
- 2007 AP23 American Photography
- 2007 Society of Publication Designers – Silver Medal
- 2008 Nominee, New York Photo Awards, Advertising (single)
- 2009 AP25 American Photography
- 2009 PDN PIX Digital Imaging
- 2009 Society for Publication Designers
- 2010 AP26 American Photography
- 2010 PDN PIX Digital Imaging
Greenberg's End Times, a series of photographs featuring toddlers, was the subject of controversy in 2006. The work featured stylized hyper-real closeups of children's faces contorted by various emotional distresses. The pieces were titled to reflect Greenberg's frustration with both the Bush administration and Christian Fundamentalism in the United States. The method for getting the children to cry was, in some cases, offering the children candy then taking it away. The children were either professionally hired or were the children of friends (and included her daughter). All were accompanied by their parents, who assisted in getting the children to cry.
“The children I photographed were not harmed in any way. And, as a mother, I am quite aware of how easily toddlers can cry. Storms of grief sweep across their features without warning; a joyful smile can dissolve into a grimace of despair. The first little boy I shot, Liam, suddenly became hysterically upset. It reminded me of helplessness and anger I feel about our current political and social situation. The most dangerous fundamentalists aren’t just waging war in Iraq; they’re attacking evolution, blocking medical research and ignoring the environment. It’s as if they believe the apocalyptic End Time is near, therefore protecting the earth and future of our children is futile. As a parent I have to reckon with the knowledge that our children will suffer for the mistakes our government is making. Their pain is a precursor of what is to come.”—Jill Greenberg, End Times: About, (2006)
The images, meanwhile, have been imitated and used without permission for unrelated campaigns.
In August 2008, The Atlantic asked her to photograph John McCain for the magazine's October 2008 cover. Greenberg said they didn't have enough money to pay her so she gave them license to use one of her photos for the cover (while she retained ownership of the photo) for free, for one time use. Greenberg decided to make some personal images of the pictures. "I really didn't want there to be another Republican in the White House, so I decided to put my McCain pictures out on voting day." Saying she saw the work as political cartoons. "I thought it was the Artist Jill Greenberg appropriating the work of the Commercial Photographer Jill Greenberg."
Once the magazine hit the newsstands, Greenberg discussed in an article in a photo industry magazine that she had shot additional images, using lighting to depict McCain in stark shadow, so that she could create her own political art. Greenberg also posted to her website versions of photographs that she had created artwork from.
Greenberg was based in New York for about 12 years. She moved to Los Angeles in 2000 where she met her husband Robert "Rob" Green. Greenberg moved back to New York City in 2013 with her family for her husband's position as SVP, Creative-Digital at Condé Nast Entertainment.
Works or publications
- Greenberg, Jill. Monkey Portraits. New York: Bulfinch Press, 2006. ISBN 978-0-8212-5-7555
- Greenberg, Jill. Bear Portraits. New York: Little, Brown, 2009. ISBN 978-0-3160-3-1882
- Greenberg, Jill, and A M. Homes. Horses. New York: Rizzoli International Pub, 2012. ISBN 978-0-8478-3-8660
- Greenberg, Jill, Brian P. Clamp, Jo-Ann Conklin, and Paul Wombell. End Times. Alcobendas: TF, 2012. ISBN 978-1-9389-2-2077
- Jill Greenberg: How Much Do You Push the Envelope? 99U Conference (New York, NY), 2009
- Jill Greenberg: Monkey Portraits at Kopeikin Gallery, Los Angeles. (October 23 – December 11, 2004)
- Jill Greenberg: End Times at Kopeikin Gallery, Los Angeles. (April 22 – July 8, 2006)
- Jill Greenberg: Monkey Portraits at ClampArt, New York. (October 12 – November 11, 2006)
- Jill Greenberg: End Times / Ursine at ClampArt, New York. (October 11 – November 24, 2007)
- Jill Greenberg: New Bears at ClampArt, New York. (November 5 – December 19, 2009)
- Jill Greenberg: Glass Ceiling at ClampArt, New York. (June 16 – August 19, 2011)
- Jill Greenberg: Horse at ClampArt, New York. (October 18 – December 21, 2012)
- Jill Greenberg: Horse at O'Born Contemporary, Toronto. (January 31 – March 15, 2014)
Notes and references
- "Jill Greenberg, Works 2001-2011". Fotografiska (Swedish Museum of Photography). Stockholm, Sweden. December 13, 2013 – February 9, 2014. Retrieved 31 January 2014.
- Joseph, Regina (April 16, 1998). "5 Women Gamers Rediscover Lost Loves". New York Times. Retrieved October 9, 2011.
- Pasori, Cedar (October 1, 2012). "Interview: Photographer Jill Greenberg Discusses Her New Rizzoli Book "Horses"". Complex. Retrieved 31 January 2014.
- Webster, Matthew (March 23, 2011). "Traub Candidates Await Selection". Lahser Knight Life. Retrieved 31 January 2014.
- "Jill Greenberg: Glass Ceiling American Girl Doll Billboard". LA><ART. September 26 – October 9, 2011. Retrieved 31 January 2014.
- "Dive Into Jill Greenberg's 'Glass Ceiling' Photography (Photos)". Huffington Post. October 6, 2011. Retrieved 31 January 2014.
- Hardwick, Linda (January 30, 2014). "Jill Greenberg: Horse". Happy Friday. Retrieved 31 January 2014.
- Greenberg, Jill. "Horse: Artist Statement". Jill Greenberg. Retrieved 31 January 2014.
- Herold, Ann (October 1, 2012). "Horse Latitudes: Jill Greenberg strips the equine form to its sexier essentials—at some risk". Los Angeles. Retrieved 31 January 2014.
- Green, Shanna (Spring 2011). "The Manipulator: Jill Greenberg Uses Light, Emotion and a Little Photoshop to Make Marketing Magic". Brief: The International Journal of Media Marketing, Promotion and Design 3 (2): 8–10. Retrieved October 9, 2011.
- Lanahan, Maura C. (May 22, 2007). "Jill Greenberg - The Look Of Greenberg: Dubbed 'The Manipulator,' photographer Jill Greenberg won't let technology dictate her distinctive style". Digital Photo Pro. Retrieved 1 February 2014.
- Robinson, Christopher (May 29, 2007). "On The Set With Jill Greenberg: Digital Photo Pro went along for the ride on an all-digital Hollywood photo shoot.". Digital Photo Pro. Retrieved 1 February 2014.
- Teicher, Jordan G. (August 4, 2013). "Stunning Portraits of Crying Children That Brought the Photographer Hate Mail". Slate. The Slate Group LLC. Retrieved September 27, 2013.
- Cortellucci, Romina S. (July 26, 2012). "Jill Greenberg Delivers a Controversy Keynote". Trend Hunter. Retrieved 31 January 2014.
- Greenberg, Jill. "End Times: About". Kopeikin Gallery. Retrieved 31 January 2014.
- Reid, Chris (June 4, 2013). "Jill Greenberg: It’s Not Like Taking Candy From a Baby". FullyM. Retrieved 1 February 2014.
- Hawk, Thomas (April 13, 2006). "Jill Greenberg is a Sick Woman Who Should Be Arrested and Charged With Child Abuse" (BLOG). Thomas Hawk's Digital Connection. Retrieved 31 January 2014.
- Hawk, Thomas (June 27, 2006). "The Post About Where Jill Greenberg Thinks She Can Intimidate Me by Contacting My Employer" (BLOG). Thomas Hawk's Digital Connection. Retrieved 31 January 2014.
- "Photographer Jill Greenberg Controversy!.... Time to Buy?" (BLOG). Modern Art Obsession. June 28, 2006.
- Mitchell, Dan (July 1, 2006). "Apple's Got a Secret: Cry Babies". New York Times. Retrieved 31 January 2014.
- McCardle, Megan (September 14, 2008). "Low Blow". The Atlantic. Retrieved August 27, 2011.
- Goldberg, Jeffrey (September 14, 2008). "About that McCain Photo". The Atlantic. Retrieved August 27, 2011.
- "Cool Hunting Video Presents: Jill Greenberg (CHV063)" (VIDEO). Cool Hunting. January 31, 2007. Retrieved 31 January 2014.
- "Green Greenberg Green House / New Theme". ArchDaily. September 10, 2012. Retrieved 31 January 2014.
- "Green Greenberg Green House". New Theme. Retrieved 31 January 2014.
- "Green House: Residential (cut sheet)" (PDF). New Theme. Spring 2009. Retrieved 31 January 2014.
- "Condé Nast Entertainment Group Names Robert Green SVP, Creative-Digital". Condé Nast. January 8, 2013. Retrieved 31 January 2014.
- Nakano, Craig (October 7, 2011). "Home Tour: Photographer Jill Greenberg's hillside escape". L.A. Times. Retrieved 31 January 2014.
- Prinzing, Debra (October 8, 2011). "Jill Greenberg's Hollywood Hills escape". L.A. Times. Retrieved 31 January 2014.
- "Photographer Jill Greenberg's L.A. escape (photo gallery)". L.A. Times. October 8, 2011. Retrieved 31 January 2014.
- "Monkey Portraits, Jill Greenberg" (PDF). ClampArt. October 12 – November 11, 2006. Retrieved 31 January 2014.
- "End Times, Jill Greenberg" (PDF). ClampArt. October 11 – November 24, 2007. Retrieved 31 January 2014.
- "Ursine, Jill Greenberg" (PDF). ClampArt. October 11 – November 24, 2007. Retrieved 31 January 2014.
- "New Bears, Jill Greenberg" (PDF). ClampArt. November 5 – December 19, 2009. Retrieved 31 January 2014.
- "Glass Ceiling, Jill Greenberg" (PDF). ClampArt. June 16 – August 19, 2011. Retrieved 31 January 2014.
- "Horse, Jill Greenberg" (PDF). ClampArt. October 18 – December 21, 2012. Retrieved 31 January 2014.
- "Horse, Jill Greenberg" (PDF). O'Born Contemporary. January 31 – March 15, 2014. Retrieved 31 January 2014.