Lee at a December 2010 signing for his coffee table art book, Icons: The DC Comics & Wildstorm Art of Jim Lee, at Midtown Comics in Manhattan.
August 11, 1964 |
Seoul, South Korea
|Area(s)||Writer, Artist, Publisher|
|Notable works||All Star Batman and Robin
Superman: For Tomorrow
X-Men vol. 2
|Awards||Harvey Award, 1990
Inkpot Award, 1992
Wizard Fan Award, 1996, 2002, 2003
|Revised Romanization||I Yong-cheol|
Jim Lee (Korean 이용철; born August 11, 1964) is a Korean-American comic book artist, writer, editor and publisher. He first broke into the industry in 1987 as an artist for Marvel Comics, illustrating titles such as Alpha Flight and Punisher War Journal, before gaining a great deal of popularity on The Uncanny X-Men. X-Men #1, the 1991 spinoff series premiere that Lee penciled and co-wrote with Chris Claremont, remains the best-selling comic book of all time, according to the Guinness Book of World Records.
In 1992 Lee and several other artists formed their own publishing company, Image Comics, to publish their creator-owned titles, with Lee publishing his titles through his studio, Wildstorm Productions, such as WildC.A.T.s and Gen¹³. Eschewing the role of publisher in order to return to illustration, Lee sold Wildstorm in 1998 to DC Comics, where he continued to run Wildstorm as a DC imprint until DC ended Wildstorm in 2010, as well as illustrating successful books set in DC's main fictional universe, such as the year-long "Batman: Hush" and "Superman: For Tomorrow" storylines. On February 18, 2010, Jim Lee was announced as the new Co-Publisher of DC Comics with Dan DiDio, both replacing Paul Levitz.
Lee was born on August 11, 1964 in Seoul, South Korea. He grew up in St. Louis, Missouri, where he lived a "typical middle-class childhood". Lee attended River Bend Elementary School in Chesterfield and later St. Louis Country Day School, where he drew posters for school plays. Having had to learn English when he first came to the U.S. presented the young Lee with the sense of being an outsider, as did the "preppy, upper-class" atmosphere of Country Day. As a result, on the rare occasions that his parents bought him comics, Lee's favorite characters were the X-Men, because they were outsiders themselves. Lee says that he benefited as an artist by connecting with characters that were themselves disenfranchised, like Spider-Man, or who were born of such backgrounds, such as Superman, who was created by two Jewish men from Cleveland to lift their spirits during the Depression. His classmates predicted in his senior yearbook that he would found his own comic book company. Despite this, Lee was resigned to following his father's career in medicine, attending Princeton University to study psychology, with the intention of becoming a medical doctor.
Rise to fame at Marvel Comics
In 1986, as he was preparing to graduate, Lee took an art class that reignited his love of drawing, and led to his rediscovery of comics at a time when seminal works such as Frank Miller's The Dark Knight Returns and Alan Moore and Dave Gibbons' Watchmen spurred a renaissance within the American comics industry. After obtaining his psychology degree, he decided to postpone his medical degree, and earned the reluctant blessing of his parents by allotting himself one year to succeed, vowing that he would attend medical school if he did not break into the comic book industry in that time. He submitted samples to various publishers, but did not find success. When Lee befriended St. Louis-area comics artists Don Secrease and Rick Burchett, they convinced him he needed to show his portfolio to editors in person, prompting Lee to attend a New York comics convention, where he met editor Archie Goodwin. Goodwin invited Lee to Marvel Comics, where the aspiring artist received his first assignment by editor Carl Potts, who hired him to pencil the mid-list series Alpha Flight, seguéing from that title in 1989 to Punisher: War Journal. Lee's work on the Punisher: War Journal was inspired by artists like Frank Miller, David Ross, Kevin Nowlan, and Whilce Portacio, as well as Japanese manga.
In 1989, Lee filled in for regular illustrator Marc Silvestri on Uncanny X-Men #248 and did another guest stint on issues #256 through #258 as part of the "Acts of Vengeance" storyline, eventually becoming the series' ongoing artist with issue #267, following Silvestri's departure. During his stint on Uncanny Lee first worked with inker Scott Williams, who would become a long-time collaborator. During his run on the title, Lee co-created the character Gambit with long-time X-Men writer Chris Claremont.
Lee's artwork quickly gained popularity in the eyes of enthusiastic fans, which allowed him to gain greater creative control of the franchise. In 1991, Lee helped launch a second X-Men series simply called X-Men (volume 2), not only as the artist, but also as co-writer with Claremont. X-Men #1 (vol 2) is still the best-selling comic book of all-time with sales of over 8.1 million copies (and nearly $7 million), according to a public proclamation by the Guinness Book of World Records at the 2010 San Diego Comic-Con. The sales figures were generated in part by publishing the issue with five different variant covers, four of which showed different characters from the book that formed a single image when laid side by side, and a fifth, gatefold cover of that combined image, large numbers of which were purchased by retailers, who anticipated fans and speculators who would buy multiple copies in order to acquire a complete collection of the covers. Lee designed new character uniforms for the series, including those worn by Cyclops, Jean Grey, Rogue, Psylocke and Storm. He also created the villain Omega Red. Actor/comedian Taran Killam, who has ventured into comics writing with The Illegitimates, has cited X-Men #1 as the book that inspired his interest in comics.
Image Comics and WildStorm, return to Marvel
Enticed by the idea of being able to exert more control over his own work, in 1992, Lee accepted the invitation to join six other artists who broke away from Marvel to form Image Comics, which would publish their creator-owned titles. Lee's group of titles was initially called Aegis Entertainment before being christened Wildstorm Productions, and published Lee's initial title WildC.A.T.s, which Lee pencilled and co-wrote, and other series created by Lee in the same shared universe. The other major series of the initial years of Wildstorm, for which Lee either created characters, co-plotted or provided art for, included Stormwatch, Deathblow and Gen¹³.
In 1993, Lee and his close friend, Valiant Comics publisher Steve Massarsky, arranged a Valiant-Image Comics crossover miniseries called Deathmate, in which the Valiant characters would interact with those of Wildstorm, and of Lee's fellow Image partner, Rob Liefeld. The miniseries would consist of four "center books", (each one denoted by a color rather than an issue number), two each produced by the respective companies, plus a prologue and epilogue book. Wildstorm produced Deathmate Black, with Lee himself contributing to the writing. He also illustrated the covers for that book, the Deathmate Tourbook and the prologue book, as well as contributing to the prologue's interior inks. The assignment was given to Valiant creators against their better judgment, in particular Editor-in-chief Bob Layton, who complained about Image's inability to meet their deadlines. Deathmate Black, in particular, came out a few months after Valiant's Blue and Yellow installments, which had come out on time, and Liefeld's Deathmate Red was so late that Layton flew to California to procure that chapter personally, and ink it himself in an Anaheim hotel room. Layton sees Deathmate's lateness as one of Valiant's "unmitigated disasters", and views that project as the beginning of the speculator collapse of the 1990s.
Wildstorm would expand its line to include other ongoing titles whose creative work was handled by other writers and artists, some of which were spinoffs of the earlier titles, or properties owned by other creators, such as Whilce Portacio's Wetworks. As publisher, Lee later also expanded his comics line creating two publishing imprints of Wildstorm, Homage and Cliffhanger (that years later merged and were replaced by a single Wildstorm Signature imprint), to publish creator-owned comics by some selected creators of the US comics industry.
Lee and Rob Liefeld, another Marvel-illustrator-turned-Image-founder, returned to Marvel in 1996 to participate in a reboot of several classic characters; the project was known as Heroes Reborn. While Liefeld reworked Captain America and The Avengers, Lee plotted Iron Man and wrote and illustrated The Fantastic Four. Halfway through the project, Lee's studio took over Liefeld's two titles, finishing all four series. According to Lee, Marvel proposed continuing the Heroes Reborn lineup indefinitely, but under the condition that Lee would draw at least one of them himself, which he refused to do. Instead, he accepted an offer to re-imagine and relaunch (in the role of editor) three mainstream Marvel Universe titles: Defenders, Doctor Strange, and Nick Fury. Though scheduled to debut in December 1997, these three relaunches never appeared.
Lee returned to Wildstorm, where he would publish series such as The Authority and Planetary, as well as Alan Moore's imprint, America's Best Comics. Lee himself wrote and illustrated a 12-issue series called Divine Right: The Adventures of Max Faraday, in which an internet slacker inadvertently manages to download the secrets of the universe, and is thrown into a wild fantasy world.
Move to DC Comics
Because he felt his role as publisher interfered with his role as an artist, Lee left Image Comics and sold Wildstorm to DC Comics in late 1998, enabling him to focus once again on art. In 2003 he collaborated on a 12-issue run on Batman with writer Jeph Loeb. "Hush" became a runaway sales success. He followed this up in 2004 by illustrating "For Tomorrow", a 12-issue story in Superman by writer Brian Azzarello. In 2005, Lee teamed with Frank Miller on the new series All Star Batman and Robin, the Boy Wonder, a series plagued by delays. Lee himself took full responsibility for the delays, explaining that his involvement with the DC Universe Online video game were the cause, and not Miller's scripts, which had been completed for some time.
Lee continued to run Wildstorm as Editorial Director, sometimes working on both DC and Wildstorm properties simultaneously. In September 2006, Jim Lee returned to WildC.A.T.s with Grant Morrison as the writer, pencilling both WildC.A.T.s and All Star Batman and Robin, both of which were characterized by publication delays. The gap between All-Star Batman and Robin #4 and #5 was one year, and to date, only one issue of WildC.A.T.s (Vol. 4) has been published. Lee drew alternative cover art for the Infinite Crisis series.
In February 2006 it was announced that Lee would be involved with the concept art for the upcoming DC Comics MMORPG, DC Universe Online. In 2008, Lee was named the Executive Creative Director of the forthcoming game, which at that time was expected to be released in 2009.
In February 2010 Lee was named alongside Dan DiDio as Co-Publisher of DC Comics. According to Lee, this does not indicate another move away from the creative side of comics, as his Co-Publishing duties not only grant him greater creative involvement in the entire DC line, but also allow him to illustrate titles, such as Dark Knight: Boy Wonder, a re-branded conclusion to the story he and Frank Miller began in All Star Batman and Robin the Boy Wonder. He also was to supply the painted art over Giuseppe Camuncoli's layouts in Batman: Europa #1, a 2011 miniseries inspired by Lee's time living in Italy, though as of June 2011, neither of these projects have materialized. According to March 2013 article however, DC insists that Europa is not cancelled. DC announced they were ending the Wildstorm imprint in September 2010.
In September 2011, DC Comics instituted a program called The New 52, in which the publisher cancelled all of its superhero titles and relaunched 52 new series with #1 issues, wiping out most of the then-current continuity. Lee and writer Geoff Johns, DC Comics' Chief Creative Officer, are the architects of the relaunch, which was initiated with a new Justice League series, written and illustrated by Johns and Lee, respectively. The series' first story arc was a new origin of the Justice League, which depicted the return of DC's primary superheroes to the team. Lee's illustration for the cover of issue #12 drew media attention for its depiction of Superman and Wonder Woman in a passionate embrace, a rendition that Lee said was inspired by Gustav Klimt's painting The Kiss and Alfred Eisenstaedt's 1945 photograph V-J Day in Times Square.
In October of that year, DC Entertainment and Kia Motors America entered a partnership to benefit We Can Be Heroes, a campaign dedicated to fighting hunger in the Horn of Africa. The campaign involves the creation of eight Justice League-inspired vehicles, on whose designs Lee collaborated. Each vehicle is tied thematically to a member of the League, the first of which was a Batman-themed Kia Optima. A Superman-themed version inspired by Lee's art followed in February 2013.
On May 4, 2013, DC published a Free Comic Book Day sneak preview of Superman Unchained, an ongoing series written by Scott Snyder and illustrated by Lee, which was later published on June 12, 2013, and intended to coincide with the feature film Man of Steel, which opened two days later.
Technique and materials
In talking about the artist's work ethic, Lee has said, "Sometimes I wonder if we ever really improve as artists or if the nirvana derived from completing a piece blinds us enough to love what we have created and move on to the next piece. If we could see the work as it is, with years of reflection in the here and now, how many images would end up in the trash rather than on the racks?"
In a 1996 Comics Journal interview, writer/illustrator Barry Windsor-Smith criticized the depth of the work of artists like Lee and Rob Liefeld, and those whom they influenced, (whom he referred to as "the Liefelds and the Lees"), stating, "Your Jim Lees and all this lot, their product hasn’t got anything to do with them, you know? There is no emotional investment...I look at Jim Lee’s work, and the guy’s learning how to draw. He has some craft to what he does...I don't think it has even crossed their minds that comic books can be a medium for intimate self-expression." Comics Journal publisher Gary Groth concurred, stating "Lee's work is obviously more technically accomplished than Liefeld's, but otherwise it's conceptually comparable." Windsor-Smith added that believed in the Image Comics' founders' exodus from Marvel Comics as an important step for creator autonomy and creator rights, and was angered when they returned to Marvel to do "Heroes Reborn".
- 1990 Harvey Award for Best New Talent
- 1992 Inkpot Award
- 1996 Wizard Fan Award for Favorite Penciller
- 2002 Wizard Fan Award for Favorite Penciller (For Batman)
- 2003 Wizard Fan Award for Favorite Penciller
- All-Star Batman and Robin #1-10 (2005–08)
- Coup d'état: Sleeper (Authority) (2004)
- Batman #608-619 (2002–03)
- Batman: Gotham Knights (Batman Black and White) #1 (2000)
- Flinch #1 (1999)
- Justice League, vol. 2, #1-6, 9-12 (among other artists) (2011–12)
- Justice League of America, vol. 4, #0 -one page only- (2006)
- Just Imagine Stan Lee with Jim Lee creating Wonder Woman (2001)
- The New 52 (Free Comic Book Day) #1 (among other artists, 2012)
- 100 Bullets #26 (among other artists) (2001)
- Orion (Tales of the New Gods) #12 (2001)
- Robotech #0 (2002)
- Superman, vol. 2, #204–215 (2004–05)
- Superman Unchained #1-2 (2013)
- Superman/Batman #26 (2-pages, among other artists) (2006)
- Weird War Tales, one-shot (2000)
- Darker Image (Deathblow) #1-2 (1993)
- Deathblow (full pencils): #1-3; (along with Trevor Scott): #0 (1993–96)
- Deathmate #Black (among other artists) (1993)
- Divine Right #1–12 (1997–99)
- Gen¹³ #0, 4-7 (1994)
- Grifter/Shi, 2-part miniseries, #1 (along with Travis Charest) (1996)
- Invincible #51 (cover)
- Moonlight and Ashes: Fire From Heaven, 2-part miniseries, #2 (1996)
- Savage Dragon #13 (1994)
- StormWatch #47 (1997)
- WildC.A.T.s (full pencils): #1-13; (among other artists): #32, 50 (1992–98)
- Alpha Flight #51, 53, 55-62, 64 (1987–88)
- Daredevil Annual #5 (1989)
- Fantastic Four, vol. 2, #1–6 (1996–97)
- Iron Man, vol. 2, #6 (among other artists) (1997)
- Marvel Comics Presents (Namor) #33 (1989)
- Punisher Annual #2 (1989)
- Punisher: War Journal #1–13, 17-19 (1988–89)
- Solo Avengers (Mockingbird) #1 (1987)
- Stryfe's Strike File #1 (among other artists) (1993)
- Uncanny X-Men #248, 256–258, 267–277 (1990–91)
- X-Men, vol. 2, #1–11 (1991–92)
- WildC.A.T.s/X-Men: The Silver Age (1997)
- "Shelby Robertson". Creating a Graphic Novel: Art - Food - Photography. Retrieved July 26, 2013.
- Dietsch, T.J. (October 17, 2013). "NYCC: 'Saturday Night Live's' Taran Killam Debriefs 'The Illegitimates'". Comic Book Resources.
- "About This Person: Jim Lee". IGN. Retrieved January 18, 2013.
- "Jim Lee". Newsday. Retrieved February 18, 2013.
- Kerman, Byron (2010-07). "Comic Genius". St. Louis Magazine.
- Lee, Jim; Baker, Bill Baker. Icons: The DC Comics & Wildstorm Art of Jim Lee Titan Books, 2010, pp. 8 and 10
- Tantimedh, Adi (2006-02-25). "New York Comic Con, Day One: Jim Lee Spotlight". Comic Book Resources.
- Gaffney, Suzanne. "Co-Conspirators Talk". The Punisher War Journal. Marvel Comics. December 1988.
- Morse, Ben (August 10, 2010). "SDCC 2010: Marvel Breaks World Record". Marvel Comics.
- Johnson, Rich. "X-Men #1 The Guinness World Record Best Selling Comic Of All Time?" Bleeding Cool. July 22, 2010
- Cantor, Michael (Producer); Schreiber, Liev (Narrator) Superheroes: A Never-Ending Battle. PBS. October 15, 2013.
- Miller, John Jackson (November 16, 2010). "X-Men #1, One Piece, and world records". The Comics Chronicles.
- McLelland, Ryan. "Valiant Days, Valiant Nights - A Look Back at the Rise and Fall of Valiant", Newsarama, September 24, 2003
- McLauchlin, Jim (August 1997). "Lee Extends 'Reborn' Run". Wizard (72). pp. 18–19.
- Cowsill, Alan; Dolan, Hannah, ed. (2010). "2000s". DC Comics Year By Year A Visual Chronicle. Dorling Kindersley. p. 307. ISBN 978-0-7566-6742-9. "The 'Hush' story arc [begun] in Batman #608 was artist Jim Lee's first major work since he joined DC...Written by Jeph Loeb, 'Hush' brought profound changes to the life of the Dark Knight."
- Barringer, John (August 1, 2009). "All Star Batman and Robin Update: Jim Lee Interview". A Comic Book Blog.
- Montgomery, Paul (April 2, 2010). "All-Star Batman and Robin to Conclude Next Year…Sort of". iFanboy.
- Frankenhoff, Brent. (June 6, 2006). "All-Star Batman and Robin #5 delays end". CBG Xtra.
- LeTendre, Brian (2008-07-15). "E3 2008: Jim Lee talks DC Universe Online". Retrieved 2009-05-19.
- Hyde, David (February 18, 2010). "Jim Lee and Dan DiDio Named Co-Publishers DC Comics, Geoff Johns to Serve as Chief Creative Officer, John Rood Named EVP, Sales, Marketing and Business Development, Patrick Caldon Named EVP, Finance and Administration". DC Universe: The Source.
- "DC Names DiDio & Lee Co-Publisher, Johns Chief Creative Officer". Comic Book Resources. February 18, 2010
- "DC Announces New Publisher – All Five Of Them!" Bleeding Cool. February 18, 2010
- Segura, Alex (April 2, 2010). "What's Next for Frank Miller and Jim Lee?". DC Universe: The Source.
- Segura, Alex (October 6, 2010). "NYCC 2010: Batman: Europa by Jim Lee and co-writers Brian Azzarello and Matteo Casali". DC Universe: The Source.
- Rogers, Vaneta (January 6, 2011). "BRIAN AZZARELLO Teams BATMAN & THE JOKER In EUROPA". Newsarama.
- Johnston, Rich (March 2013) "The Black Bolt List". Bleeding Cool. pp. 49-50.
- Ching, Albert (September 21, 2010). "DC Co-Publishers Announce End of WILDSTORM Imprint, Zuda". Newsarama.
- Truitt, Brian (May 3, 2011). "DC Comics ready for a risky yet relevant publishing change". USA Today.
- Jensen, Jeff (August 22, 2012). "'Justice League' #12: DC reveals Superman's new leading lady... and it's a doozy -- EXCLUSIVE". Entertainment Weekly.
- Langshaw, Mark (August 22, 2012). "'Justice League' to feature new Superman romance". Digital Spy.
- Khouri, Andy (August 22, 2012). "Superman + Wonder Woman = <3 In 'Justice League' #12 (Kissy Kissy)". ComicsAlliance.
- Montgomery, Paul (August 22, 2012). "Superman & Wonder Woman Sitting in a Tree, K-I-S-S-I-N-G in JUSTICE LEAGUE #12 and Beyond". iFanboy.
- Nicholson, Max (October 3, 2012). "DC and Kia Team Up for JLA Car Fleet". IGN.
- Nicholson, Max (October 11, 2012). "The Batman Kia Optima Comes in Black". IGN.
- "SUPERMAN-INSPIRED KIA OPTIMA HYBRID SOARS INTO CHICAGO FOR AUTO SHOW DEBUT". Kia Motors. February7, 2013.
- Yin-Poole, Wesley (June 3, 2013). "Mortal Kombat's Scorpion is the next DLC character in Injustice: Gods Among Us". Eurogamer.
- "Tidbits about Free Comic Book Day". Inquirer Lifestyle. May 4, 2013.
- Esposito, Joey (March 4, 2013). "Scott Snyder and Jim Lee's Superman Unchained Confirmed for June".
- Campbell, J. Scott. "Pencils". deviantArt. 2008
- "Reinventing the pencil: 21 artists who changed mainstream comics (for better or worse)". The AV Club. July 20, 2009. Retrieved 2009-11-25.
- Blog entry on Lee's blog; January 27, 2005.
- Groth, Gary (September 1996). "The Barry Windsor-Smith Interview". The Comics Journal #190. Retrieved July 28, 2013.
- "1990 Harvey Award Nominees and Winners". Hahn Library Comic Book Awards Almanac. Retrieved December 28, 2011.
- "Inkpot Award Winners". Hahn Library Comic Book Awards Almanac. Retrieved December 28, 2011.
- "4th Annual Wizard Fan Awards". Hahn Library Comic Book Awards Almanac. Retrieved December 28, 2011.
- "10th Annual Wizard Fan Awards". Hahn Library Comic Book Awards Almanac. Retrieved December 28, 2011.
- "11th Annual Wizard Fan Awards". Hahn Library Comic Book Awards Almanac. Retrieved December 28, 2011.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Jim Lee.|
- Jim Lee at the Comic Book DB
- Jim Lee on deviantART
- Jim Lee on Myspace
- Jim Lee on Twitter
- Jim Lee's channel on YouTube
- Sun of Gelatometti - A blog of multiple artists, including Jim Lee
- Audio Interview - Comic Geek Speak - April 27, 2007
|Uncanny X-Men artist
(with Whilce Portacio from 1991-1992)
|X-Men (vol. 2) writer
(with Chris Claremont)
|Fantastic Four writer/artist
(with Brandon Choi)
Scott Lobdell (writer)
Brett Booth (artist)
|Iron Man writer
(with Scott Lobdell)
|Iron Man writer
(with Jeph Loeb)
|Publisher of DC Comics
(with Dan DiDio)