||This biographical article needs additional citations for verification. (February 2014)|
|56th Speaker of the United States House of Representatives|
January 6, 1987 – June 6, 1989
George H. W. Bush
|Preceded by||Tip O'Neill|
|Succeeded by||Tom Foley|
|House Majority Leader|
January 3, 1977 – January 3, 1987
|Preceded by||Tip O'Neill|
|Succeeded by||Tom Foley|
|Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Texas's 12th district
January 3, 1955 – June 30, 1989
|Preceded by||Wingate Lucas|
|Succeeded by||Pete Geren|
|Born||James Claude Wright, Jr.
December 22, 1922
Fort Worth, Texas, U.S.
|Political party||Democratic Party|
|Alma mater||Weatherford College
University of Texas, Austin
|Service/branch||United States Army Air Force|
|Years of service||1941-1946|
|Battles/wars||World War II|
James Claude Wright, Jr. (born December 22, 1922), usually known as Jim Wright, is a former Democratic U.S. Congressman from Texas who served 34 years in the U.S. House of Representatives and was the Speaker of the House from 1987 to 1989. Wright resigned from the House in 1989 because of a scandal.
Wright was born in Fort Worth. Because his father was a traveling salesman, Wright and his two sisters were reared in numerous communities in Texas and Oklahoma. He mostly attended Fort Worth and Dallas public schools, eventually graduating from Oak Cliff High School, then studied at Weatherford College in his mother's hometown of Weatherford, the seat of Parker County west of Fort Worth and then at the University of Texas at Austin, but he never received a bachelor's degree. In December 1941, Wright enlisted in the United States Army Air Forces, and after training was commissioned as an Air Corps 2nd Lt. in 1942. He trained as a bombardier and earned a Distinguished Flying Cross flying combat in B-24 Liberators with the 530th Bomb Squadron, 380th Bomb Group (Heavy) in the South Pacific during World War II. His retelling of his wartime exploits is contained in his 2005 book The Flying Circus: Pacific War—1943—As Seen through A Bombsight.
After the war, he made his home in Weatherford, where he joined partners in forming a Trade Show exhibition and marketing firm. As a Democrat, he won his first election without opposition in 1946 to the Texas House of Representatives, where he served from 1947 to 1949. He was defeated in his bid for reelection in 1948, after a rival claimed that Wright was weak in opposing both communism and interracial marriage. He was the mayor of Weatherford from 1950 to 1954. In 1953, he served as president of the League of Texas Municipalities.
Career in Congress
In 1954, he was elected to Congress from Texas's 12th congressional district, based in Fort Worth but also including Weatherford. He won despite the fervid opposition of Amon G. Carter, publisher of the Fort Worth Star Telegram newspaper and later the benefactor of the Amon Carter Museum. Carter supported the incumbent Democrat Wingate Lucas. Wright would be re-elected fourteen times, gradually rising in prominence in the party and in Congress. He developed a close relationship thereafter with Amon G. Carter, Jr. Wright often said that the easiest way to "defeat an enemy is to make him your friend." In 1956, Wright refused to join most of his regional colleagues in signing the segregationist Southern Manifesto. In 1957, he voted for the Civil Rights Act, which created the Division of Civil Rights within the U.S. Justice Department and the investigatory Civil Rights Commission. Signed by U.S. President Dwight Eisenhower, the law was pushed through Congress by U.S. Senator Lyndon B. Johnson and Speaker Sam Rayburn. However, Wright refused to support the Civil Rights Act of 1964, which required desegregation of public accommodations and established the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission. It was signed into law by Wright's friend, President Johnson.
In 1961, Wright finished in third place in the special election called to fill the U.S. Senate seat vacated by then Vice President Lyndon Johnson. Two finalists for the Senate emerged from a field of seventy-one candidates. College professor John G. Tower, then of Wichita Falls, narrowly defeated the interim appointee William Blakley, a Dallas industrialist, in a runoff election. Tower hence became the first Republican senator from Texas since Reconstruction.
Wright continued to serve in the House and was elected House Majority Leader by one vote in December 1976, defeating Richard Bolling of Missouri and Phillip Burton of California. Wright won the majority leadership position with the support of all but two Democrats from the large Texas delegation, all party members of the Public Works Committee, and virtually all other Southern representatives members as well.
In the Dallas/Fort Worth Metroplex, Jim Wright is known for the Wright Amendment, a contentious law he sponsored that restricts air travel from Dallas's secondary airport, Love Field. Passed in 1979, the Wright Amendment was originally designed to protect the fledgling Dallas Fort Worth International Airport. The Amendment allows non-stop flights originating from or bound to any commercial airport within 50 nautical miles (93 km) of the DFW Airport Control Tower to serve only states bordering Texas. This requires any flight going to or coming from a destination within that 50-mile (80 km) radius (Dallas Love Field and the now defunct Greater Southwest International Airport in Fort Worth were the only airports affected) to land in a contiguous (bordering) state before continuing on to its destination. This effectively limited traffic from Love Field and GSIA to small, regional airlines (and provided the springboard for the later success of Southwest Airlines, which initially flew only within Texas) who were largely unable to compete with DFW Airport as a result. While the Amendment was welcomed at first, there were increasing doubts about its necessity as DFW grew into one of the three largest airports in the world. Many saw it as a boondoggle to benefit one particular group. Others saw it as an unlawful restraint of trade imposed against the two affected airports, and no others. However, the largest opposition came increasingly from people who simply felt that the Amendment had outlived its usefulness and was also an unwarranted intrusion on the free markets of the deregulated airline industry. In 2006 Congress passed the Wright Amendment Reform Act of 2006, which repealed the Wright Amendment in stages, with the last restrictions on travel from Love Field scheduled to be lifted in 2014. 
Speaker of the House
In 1988, he chaired the Democratic Party convention that nominated Michael Dukakis for president. During that convention, Wright introduced John F. Kennedy, Jr, for Kennedy's first televised speech. About 25 years earlier, on November 22, 1963, President John F. Kennedy, in his final speech before being assassinated, praised Wright's service in the Congress, saying "and here in Fort Worth he has contributed to its growth. He speaks for Fort Worth and he speaks for the country, and I don't know any city that is better represented in the Congress of the United States than Fort Worth." 
In 1989, controversy arose from media reports that Jim Wright's main aide, John Mack, had violently attacked Pamela Small sixteen years earlier. Small was attempting to replace blinds in a store Mack managed, and he took her to the storeroom where he then asked her to lie down. When she refused, he repeatedly hit her in the head with a hammer, stabbed her with a steak knife, and slashed her throat, before putting her in his car and going to see a movie.
Pamela Small survived the attack, and reported it to the police. John Mack pled guilty to malicious wounding "with the intent to maim, disfigure, disable and kill" and was sentenced to fifteen years in prison. However, after repeated correspondence with Rep. Wright, whose daughter was married to his brother, Mack was paroled after serving less than 27 months and given a job working for Wright on Capitol Hill. Critics, including feminist activist Andrea Dworkin, alleged that Wright manipulated the legal system to get Mack off and, subsequently, protected him from media scrutiny. The story later broke in 1989, when Pamela Small gave an interview about her ordeal with the Washington Post. Amid media criticism, John Mack resigned from his post.
Ethics investigation and resignation
In 1988 Wright became the target of an inquiry by the House Ethics Committee. Their report in early 1989 implied that he had used bulk purchases of his book, Reflections of a Public Man, to earn speaking fees in excess of the allowed maximum, and that his wife, Betty, was given a job and perks to avoid the limit on gifts. Faced with an increasing loss of effectiveness, Wright tendered his resignation as Speaker on May 31, 1989, the resignation to become effective on the selection of a successor. He was the first Speaker to resign because of a scandal. On June 6, the Democratic Caucus brought Wright's speakership to an end by selecting his replacement, Tom Foley of Washington, and on June 30 Wright resigned his seat in Congress.
The incident itself was controversial and was a part of the increasing partisan infighting that has plagued the Congress ever since. The original charges were filed by Newt Gingrich in 1988 and their effect propelled Gingrich's own career advancement to the Speaker's chair itself.
Michael Parenti, critic of the national security state, attributed Wright's forced resignation to the critical questions he was raising in the late 1980s with regard to CIA covert actions in Nicaragua. Wright had not only criticized Reagan's policy, but taken the extremely unusual step of entering into negotiations with the Nicaraguan government as speaker.
William K. Black claims that Wright's interventions in the Savings and Loan (S&L) crisis "were decisive in forcing him to resign in disgrace from the House". Black wrote that Wright had been saved from financial ruin and elevated to Speaker of the House by massive campaign contributions from control frauds like Charles Keating. The control frauds managed to get hundreds of executives of S&Ls, many legitimate, to talk with their representatives in the US congress to delay effective governmental action against the frauds. This action only increased (a) the billions of dollars their ultimate failures cost the US taxpayers and (b) the magnitude of the resulting scandal. The scandal robbed Wright's Democratic party of the "sleaze factor" issue in the 1988 presidential election, thereby handing the election to the Republican George H. W. Bush, according to Black. He resigned to avoid the official documentation of his role in this that would almost certainly have come from hearings by the United States House Committee on Ethics, as it did for the Keating Five.
Wright has been a focus for Republicans who were attempting to gain majority power in the Congress in the 1980s, and continued to be the blame for poorly designed policies from the Administrative and Legislative branches in the early-mid 1980s.
According to Bert Ely, a private financial consultant who opposes deposit insurance programs, there were many reasons for the S&L crisis, and many public policy causes before the 1980s. The Library of Economics and Liberty, a Libertarian economics reference library sponsored by the Liberty Fund, states the "Bankruptcy of the FSLIC did not occur overnight; the FSLIC was a disaster waiting to happen for many years.[opinion] Numerous public policies, some dating back to the 1930s, created the disaster.[vague] Some policies were well intended but misguided.[vague] Others had lost whatever historical justification they might once have had.[vague] Yet others were desperate attempts to postpone addressing a rapidly worsening situation. All of these policies, however, greatly compounded the S&L problem and made its eventual resolution more difficult and much more expensive.[original research?] When disaster finally hit the S&L industry in 1980, the federal government managed it very badly."
The 1980s policy began in 1979 when Paul Volcker decided to restrict the growth of the money supply causing interest rates to skyrocket. Ely writes, "In 1980 and 1982 there was an incomplete and bungled deregulation of S&Ls when restrictions were lifted on the kinds of investments S&Ls could make". Also in the early 1980s "capital standards were debased in an attempt to hide the economic insolvency of many S&Ls." In this scenario, the Federal Home Loan Bank Board (FHLBB), the now defunct regulator of S&Ls, authorized accounting gimmicks that violated generally accepted accounting principals. "Inept supervision and the permissive attitude of the FHLBB during the 1980s allowed badly managed and insolvent S&Ls to continue operating." Additionally, the FHLBB eliminated maximum limits on loan-to-value ratios for the S&Ls in 1983 and permitted excessive lending to any one borrower. "These powers encouraged unscrupulous real estate developers and others who were unfamiliar with the banking business to acquire and then rapidly grow their S&L into insolvency." The borrowers and the lenders were, in many instances, the same person creating a lack of balance needed to objectively evaluate loans. Ely states that mid-1983 would have been the optimum time to close hopelessly insolvent S&Ls and Congress put off the eventual day of reckoning, which only compounded the problem. Ely further points a finger to the poor regulation of the S&L industry as a major cause for the crisis including his claim that "....it was the Regulators who became the true abusers of the brokered deposits, and only in this regard did brokered deposits contribute to the S&L crisis."
The charges filed against Wright did not mention Nicaragua. The Iran/Contra operations from 1984 through most of 1986 involved the secret governmental support of contra military and paramilitary activities in Nicaragua, despite Congressional prohibition on the support. The Reagan White House was very involved in the sale of U.S. arms to Iran in contravention of stated U.S. policy and in possible violation of arms-export controls. In late November 1986, Reagan Administration officials announced that some of the proceeds from the sale of U.S. arms to Iran had been diverted to the Contras. President Bush's pardon of Secretary Weinberger on December 24, 1992 pre-empted a trial in which defense counsel indicated that they intended to call Bush as a witness.
A report by special counsel implicated him in a number of influence peddling charges, such as Vernon Savings and Loan, and attempting to get William K. Black fired as the deputy director of the Federal Savings and Loan Insurance Corporation (FSLIC) under Gray. However, the charges against him concluded that, "while the Congressman's dealings with representatives of the Federal Home Loan Bank Board may have been intemperate, the committee was not persuaded that there is reason to believe that he exercised undue influence in his dealings with that agency."
Life after Congress
After his resignation from the House, Wright retired to Fort Worth. He serves as a professor at Texas Christian University there, teaching a course titled "Congress and the Presidents". He has also written several books since his retirement. He is an avid reader but has been stricken with macular degeneration.
In 2004, Wright was inducted into the Texas Trail Hall of Fame in the Fort Worth Stockyards. His exhibit says "Fort Worth Loves Him!"
In November 2013, Wright was denied a voter ID card at a Texas Department of Public Safety office. He told the Fort Worth Star Telegram that “Nobody was ugly to us, but they insisted that they wouldn’t give me an ID.” Wright expressed concern that the Texas voter ID law will unfairly deny elderly voters like himself the ability to vote. Wright indicated that he has worked out a solution with the Texas DPS which would allow him to cast a ballot in an upcoming election, but feared that other elderly people, especially those in retirement homes, would be unable to navigate the requirements.
- Jim Riddlesperger of Texas Christian University, "Jim Wright", West Texas Historical Association and East Texas Historical Association, joint meeting in Fort Worth, Texas, February 26, 2010
- "James D. Wright Papers". UT-Arlington Special Collections. Retrieved 21 March 2012.
- Badger, Tony (1999). "Southerners Who Refused to Sign the Southern Manifesto". The Historical Journal 42 (2): 517–534. JSTOR 3020998.
- Wright Amendment Reform Act of 2006 At The Library of Congress http://thomas.loc.gov/cgi-bin/bdquery/z?d109:SN03661:@@@R%7C/bss/d109query.html
- Wright Amendment Reform Act of 2006 Enacted Into Law http://phx.corporate-ir.net/phoenix.zhtml?c=92562&p=irol-newsArticle&ID=917522&highlight=
- Dallas Love Field Chronological History http://www.dallas-lovefield.com/lovenotes/lovechrono.html
- CAB Asks Fort Worth and Dallas to Pick One Airport to Serve Both, Wall Street Journal (1964) http://pqasb.pqarchiver.com/djreprints/access/320169912.html?dids=320169912:320169912&FMT=ABS&FMTS=ABS:AI
- "Two Cities Agree on Site for a Regional Airport". New York Times. October 24, 1965.
- James C. Wright, Jr. Encyclopedia Brittanica
- Ringle, Ken (7 May 1989). "Victim Sees Attacker Rise To Power". Washington Post. Retrieved 13 April 2011.
- Oreskes, Michael (5 May 1989). "Wright Aide's Past Shocks Capitol". The New York Times (New York: NYTC). ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 13 April 2011.
- Dworkin, Andrea (14 May 1989). "Political Callousness on Violence Toward Women". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 13 April 2011.
- Toner, Robin (12 May 1989). "Wright Aide Quits Amid Furor on '73 Crime". The New York Times (New York: NYTC). ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 13 April 2011.
- "Speaker Jim Wright's Downfall – 1989". The Washington Post. 21 July 1998.
- English, Ross M (2003). The United States Congress. Manchester University Press. p. 150. ISBN 978-0-7190-6309-1.
- Smith, Stephen S (2007). The American Congress. Cambridge University Press. p. 139. ISBN 978-0-521-70836-4.
- Michael Parenti, "State vs. Government," in Contrary Notions: The Michael Parenti Reader [San Francisco: City Lights, 2007], p. 203.
- Parenti, Michael (1995). Against Empire. City Lights Publishers. p. 149. ISBN 0-87286-298-4.
- Black, William K. (2005). The Best Way to Rob a Bank is to Own One: How Corporate Executives and Politicians Looted the S&L Industry. University of Texas Press. pp. 83, 154–156 and others. ISBN 0-292-72139-0.
- Ely, Bert. "Who Is Bert Ely and Why Is He Against S&Ls? : Thrift Industry Critic Is 'King of the Quotes'". Retrieved 22 February 2014.
- Ely, Bert. "Savings and Loan Crisis". The Concise Encyclopedia of Economics. Library of Economics and Liberty. Retrieved 5 August 2013.
- Walsh. "Contra Report - Executive Summary". Intelligence Resource Program. Federation of American Scientists. Retrieved 5 August 2013.
- "Excerpts From Charges Against Wright by the House Panel". New York Times. April 18, 1989.
- Riccucci, Norma (1995). Unsung Heroes. Georgetown University Press. pp. 44–45. ISBN 978-0-87840-595-4.
- Barry, John. The Ambition and the Power: The Fall of Jim Wright: A True Story of Washington. New York : Viking Press, 1989. ISBN 0-8317-8302-8. (Paperback: Penguin, 1992. ISBN 0-14-010488-7)
- Wright, Jim. Balance of Power: Presidents and Congress from the Era of McCarthy to the Age of Gingrich. Turner Publications, 1996. ISBN 1-57036-278-5.
- Wright, Jim. Reflections of a Public Man. Fort Worth, TX : Madison Publishing Company, 1984.
- Wright, Jim. The Flying Circus: Pacific War—1943—As Seen Through A Bombsight. Guilford, CT: The Lyons Press, 2005. ISBN 1-59228-656-9.
- Wright, Jim. The Coming Water Famine. New York: Coward-McCann, 1966.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Jim Wright.|
- Jim Wright at the Biographical Directory of the United States Congress
- View Photos from the Jim Wright Collection from Weatherford College, hosted by the Portal to Texas History
- The Jim Wright Scandal
- Media Watch comparison of the treatment of the Meese and Wright resignations
- Stories I Never Told the Speaker, by Wright's Chief of Staff Marshall Lynam
|United States House of Representatives|
|Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Texas's 12th congressional district
|Majority Leader of the United States House of Representatives
|Speaker of the United States House of Representatives
|Party political offices|
|Leader of the Democratic Party in the United States House of Representatives
|Permanent Chairperson of the Democratic National Convention