Jinghong

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Jinghong
景洪市 · ᦋᦵᧂᦣᦳᧂᧈ
County-level city
Looking west along the Mekong river in the evening from the new bridge, prior to the redevelopment of the waterfront.
Looking west along the Mekong river in the evening from the new bridge, prior to the redevelopment of the waterfront.
Location of Jinghong City (pink) within Xishuangbanna Prefecture (yellow) and Yunnan
Location of Jinghong City (pink) within Xishuangbanna Prefecture (yellow) and Yunnan
Jinghong is located in Yunnan
Jinghong
Jinghong
Location of the city centre in Yunnan
Coordinates: 21°59′N 100°49′E / 21.983°N 100.817°E / 21.983; 100.817
Country People's Republic of China
Province Yunnan
Prefecture Xishuangbanna
GB/T 2260 CODE[1] 532801
Area
 • County-level city 7,133 km2 (2,754 sq mi)
Elevation 558 m (1,831 ft)
Population (2010)[2]
 • County-level city 519,935
 • Density 73/km2 (190/sq mi)
 • Urban 205,000
Time zone China Standard (UTC+8)
Postal code 666100[3]
Area code(s) 0691[3]
Website jhs.gov.cn
1Yunnan Statistics Bureau [1]
2Xishuangbanna Gov. [2]
3Yunnan Portal [3]

Jinghong (Chinese: ; pinyin: Jǐnghóng; Dai / Tai Lü: ᦋᦵᧂᦣᦳᧂᧈ, pronounced [tsêŋhuŋ]; Thai: เชียงรุ่ง, pronounced [t͡ɕʰīaŋ rûŋ]; also (formerly) romanised as chiang rung, chiang hung, chengrung, cheng hung, jinghung, keng hung and muangjinghung) is a city in and the seat of Xishuangbanna Dai Autonomous Prefecture, in the far south of Yunnan province, People's Republic of China, and the historic capital of the former Tai kingdom of Sipsongpanna.

History[edit]

Main article: Chiang Hung

The town was founded as Cheli (Thai Chiang Rung), by Tai king Phanya Coeng in 1180.

Yuan Dynasty[edit]

During the Chinese Yuan Dynasty, the Tai kingdom of Sipsongpanna began a close and long-lasting relationship to Lanna, another historic Tai kingdom that lay south. In 1296, Lanna's capital Chiang Mai was founded by Mangrai, whose maternal grandfather was King Rung Kaen Chai (Thai: รุ้งแก่นชาย) of Jinghong (i.e.: Sipsongpanna).

The kingdoms of Sipsongpanna and Lanna maintained ties of migration, intermarriage and long distance trade over the subsequent centuries, though later, as Lanna's power grew, parts of the Sipsongpanna region fell under Lanna's control.

Ming Dynasty[edit]

In 1401 during the Chinese Ming Dynasty, the Sipsongpanna Tai ruler Tau Se Da Xam (pinyin dao xianda) attacked a smaller Tai area to the north known as Weiyuan (Tai; or pinyin Weiyuan; apparently[4] equivalent to modern Jinggu). The Ming administration sought to retaliate but adopted a cautious response of diplomacy and Tau Se Da Xam withdrew his troops. About this period Sipsongpanna began to pay tribute to the Ming.

In 1405 the Sipsongpanna Tai attacked Chiang Mai, in conjunction with Ming Chinese troops.

In 1421 the Chinese attempted to cause a split in Sipsongpanna by backing multiple administrations during a period of civil strife, but their plan failed to succeed.

1448 saw the defeat of Mong Mao, a Tai state in eastern Burma, by a combination of Chinese, Sipsongpanna and allied forces united under the Ming.

In the 1450s another struggle for succession arose in Sipsongpanna, with one faction backed by Kengtung and one by Chiang Mai. Despite the Kengtung faction's victory, conflict started with that state shortly afterwards.

The Burmese Toungoo state arose in the 1530s to crush Chiang Mai, and its influence also extended to Kengtung and Sipsongpanna, which like other Tai kingdoms soon began to pay tribute.

Geography and climate[edit]

Jinghong has a latitude range of 21°27'–22°36' N and a longitude range of 100°25'–101°31' E. It borders Pu'er City to the north, Mengla County to the east and Menghai County to the west, as well as Burma's Shan State to the south. The city is limited to the south by Hengduan Mountains, and the Lancang River (Mekong) passes through Jinghong. Two bridges near the city span this river, which flows south-east towards Laos.

Climatically, Jinghong contains elements of both a tropical wet and dry climate and a humid subtropical climate (Köppen Aw and Cwa, respectively). The city has a generally humid climate with strong monsoonal influences. Summer is long and there is virtually no "winter" as such; instead, there is a dry season (December thru April) and wet season (May thru October). Annual sunshine hours amount to between 1800 and 2300 and annual rainfall ranging from 1,100 to 1,700 millimetres (43 to 67 in). The coolest month is December and January, averaging 16.5 °C (61.7 °F), while the warmest is June, at 26.1 °C (79.0 °F); the annual mean is 22.34 °C (72.2 °F). However, high temperatures reach their peak in April before the onset of the monsoon from the Indian Ocean.

Climate data for Jinghong (1971−2000)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 25.5
(77.9)
28.6
(83.5)
31.9
(89.4)
33.4
(92.1)
32.6
(90.7)
31.5
(88.7)
30.5
(86.9)
30.8
(87.4)
30.6
(87.1)
29.1
(84.4)
26.3
(79.3)
23.9
(75)
29.6
(85.2)
Average low °C (°F) 11.6
(52.9)
12.0
(53.6)
14.4
(57.9)
18.0
(64.4)
21.1
(70)
22.7
(72.9)
22.6
(72.7)
22.4
(72.3)
21.6
(70.9)
19.7
(67.5)
16.4
(61.5)
13.0
(55.4)
18.0
(64.3)
Rainfall mm (inches) 12.4
(0.488)
14.7
(0.579)
21.8
(0.858)
51.5
(2.028)
126.8
(4.992)
158.5
(6.24)
220.2
(8.669)
197.7
(7.783)
141.1
(5.555)
91.2
(3.591)
59.4
(2.339)
18.3
(0.72)
1,113.6
(43.842)
Avg. rainy days (≥ 0.1 mm) 6.2 3.6 4.4 10.1 17.4 21.1 22.9 21.3 16.6 12.9 8.9 7.6 153.0
Source: Weather China[5]

Transport[edit]

One of Jinghong's many palm-lined streets

Places of interest[edit]

The Dai Water Splashing Festival and nearby villages of that and other ethnic groups are the main attractions. Additionally, at least three botanical parks and gardens and are located in or near the city.

Notes[edit]

References[edit]

  • Turton, Andrew (ed.) Civility and Savagery: Social Identity in Tai States. Routledge, 2000. (ISBN 0700711732)
  • Patterson Giersch, Charles. Asian Borderlands: The Transformation of Qing China's Yunnan Frontier. Harvard University Press, 2006. (ISBN 0674021711)

External links[edit]