Jingtang Jiaoyu

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Jingtang jiaoyu (simplified Chinese: 经堂教育; traditional Chinese: 經堂教育; pinyin: Jīng táng jiàoyù) literally meaning "scripture hall education", refers to a form of Islamic education developed in China or the method of teaching it, which is the practice of using Chinese characters to represent the Arabic language.[1]

Islamic education[edit]

Jingtang jiaoyu is the form of Sunni Islamic education taught in Xi'an, Shaanxi, by Ahongs to Chinese Muslim students. The Quran and quranic texts are taught in this curriculum.[2]

Arabic language[edit]

In jingtang jiaoyu Chinese characters are used to phonetically represent the Arabic language. Chinese sounds were used to pronounce Arabic, and it was widespread among Chinese Muslim students in the northwest province of Shaanxi, especially Xi'an. An example of this is salaam, being represented in Chinese characters as 赛俩目 (sài liǎng mù).[3][4] This system of Chinese characters enabled students to coarsely pronounce the Arabic language, rather using the characters to translate the meaning.[5]

Jingtang jiaoyuan contains elements from Classical Chinese grammar with Arabic and Persian vocabulary, along with some dialectal Chinese vocabulary, saying all of the words in Classical Chinese grammar regardless of the proper vernacular Chinese, Arabic, or Persian word order.[6]

Jingtang jiaoyu has been severely criticized for pronouncing Arabic incorrectly, as students base their pronunciations on Chinese. Many Hui who used it said salaam aleikun instead of salaam alaikum.

The Hanafi Sunni Gedimu cling fiercely to Chinese customs and the jingtang jiaoyu method of education, using their traditional pronunciations even when learning of the standard Arabic pronunciation. Hanafi Sunni Sunnaitis (Yihewani adherents) criticize the Gedimu for practicing Islamic customs influenced by Chinese culture, including jingtang jiaoyu. Sunnaitis pride themselves on speaking "correct" Arabic, accusing the Gedimu Muslims of practicing Han and Buddhist customs and "Chinese Arabic". One Sunnaiti Imam said that the Gedimu "blindly followed the traditions of their ancestors".[7]

Examples[edit]

Arabic Arabic romanization Chinese Pinyin Xiao'erjing English meaning
قبول 蓋布勒 gàibùlēi قَيْ بُ لؤِ acceptance
نفي وإثبات 乃非 - 伊司巴提 nǎifēi yīsībātí نَيْ فؤِ ءِ سِ بَ تِ
سلام salaam 赛俩目 sàiliǎngmù سَيْ لِيْا مُ peace, salutation, concord

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Stéphane A. Dudoignon, Hisao Komatsu, Yasushi Kosugi (2006). Intellectuals in the modern Islamic world: transmission, transformation, communication. Taylor & Francis. p. 322. ISBN 978-0-415-36835-3. Retrieved 2010-11-28. 
  2. ^ Maris Boyd Gillette (2000). Between Mecca and Beijing: modernization and consumption among urban Chinese Muslims. Stanford University Press. p. 78. ISBN 0-8047-3694-4. Retrieved 2010-11-28. 
  3. ^ Jonathan Neaman Lipman (2004). Familiar strangers: a history of Muslims in Northwest China. Seattle: University of Washington Press. p. 50. ISBN 0-295-97644-6. Retrieved 2010-11-28. 
  4. ^ Jianping Wang (2001). 中国伊斯兰教词汇表. Psychology Press. p. 95. ISBN 0-7007-0620-8. Retrieved 2010-11-28. 
  5. ^ Maris Boyd Gillette (2000). Between Mecca and Beijing: modernization and consumption among urban Chinese Muslims. Stanford University Press. p. 104. ISBN 0-8047-3694-4. Retrieved 2010-11-28. 
  6. ^ Maris Boyd Gillette (2000). Between Mecca and Beijing: modernization and consumption among urban Chinese Muslims. Stanford University Press. p. 104. ISBN 0-8047-3694-4. Retrieved 2010-11-28. 
  7. ^ Maris Boyd Gillette (2000). Between Mecca and Beijing: modernization and consumption among urban Chinese Muslims. Stanford University Press. p. 106. ISBN 0-8047-3694-4. Retrieved 2010-11-28.