Jivaroan languages

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Jibaroan
Hívaro
Geographic
distribution:
Peru
Linguistic classification: Macro-Jibaro ?
  • Jibaroan
Subdivisions:
Glottolog: jiva1245[1]
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Jivaroan (violet) and Cahuapanan (pink) languages. Spots are documented locations, shadowed areas probable extension in 16th century.

Jivaroan (also Hívaro, Jívaro, Jibaroana, Jibaro) is a small language family, or perhaps a language isolate, of northern Peru and eastern Ecuador.

Family division[edit]

Jivaroan consists of 4 languages:

1. Shuar
2. Achuar
3. Awajun
4. Huambisa

This language family is spoken in Amazonas, Cajamarca, Loreto, and San Martin, Peru and the Oriente region of Ecuador. .

Genetic relations[edit]

The extinct Palta language was classified as Jivaroan by Jacinto Jijón y Caamaño ca. 1940, followed by Čestmír Loukotka. However, only a few words are known, and Kaufman (1994) states that there is "little resemblance".

The most promising external connections are with the Cahuapanan languages and perhaps a few other language isolates in proposals variously called Jívaro-Cahuapana (Hívaro-Kawapánan) (Jorge Suárez[disambiguation needed] and others) or Macro-Jibaro or Macro-Andean (Morris Swadesh and others, with Cahuapanan, Urarina, Puelche, and maybe Huarpe).

The unclassified language Candoshi has also been linked to Jivaroan, as David Payne (1981) provides reconstructions for Proto-Shuar as well as Proto-Shuar-Candoshi. However, more recently linguists have searched elsewhere for Candoshi's relatives.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Jibaroan". Glottolog 2.2. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. 

Bibliography[edit]

  • Campbell, Lyle. (1997). American Indian languages: The historical linguistics of Native America. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-509427-1.
  • Dean, Bartholomew (1990). The State and the Aguaruna: Frontier Expansion in the Upper Amazon, 1541-1990. M.A. thesis in the Anthropology of Social Change and Development, Harvard University.
  • Greenberg, Joseph H. (1987). Language in the Americas. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
  • Greene, Landon Shane. (2004) Paths to a Visionary Politics. PhD dissertation. University of Chicago.
  • Kaufman, Terrence. (1990). Language history in South America: What we know and how to know more. In D. L. Payne (Ed.), Amazonian linguistics: Studies in lowland South American languages (pp. 13–67). Austin: University of Texas Press. ISBN 0-292-70414-3.
  • Kaufman, Terrence. (1994). The native languages of South America. In C. Mosley & R. E. Asher (Eds.), Atlas of the world's languages (pp. 46–76). London: Routledge.
  • Payne, David L (1981). "Bosquejo fonológico del Proto-Shuar-Candoshi: evidencias para una relación genética." Revista del Museo Nacional 45. 323-377.
  • Solís Fonseca, Gustavo. (2003). Lenguas en la amazonía peruana. Lima: edición por demanda.

External links[edit]