Jivaroan languages

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Jibaroan
Hívaro
Geographic
distribution:
Peru
Linguistic classification: Macro-Jibaro ?
  • Jibaroan
Subdivisions:
Glottolog: jiva1245[1]
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Jivaroan (violet) and Cahuapanan (pink) languages. Spots are documented locations, shadowed areas probable extension in 16th century.

Jivaroan (also Hívaro, Jívaro, Jibaroana, Jibaro) is a small language family, or perhaps a language isolate, of northern Peru and eastern Ecuador.

Family division[edit]

Jivaroan consists of 4 languages:

1. Shuar
2. Achuar
3. Awajun
4. Huambisa

This language family is spoken in Amazonas, Cajamarca, Loreto, and San Martin, Peru and the Oriente region of Ecuador. .

Genetic relations[edit]

The extinct Palta language was classified as Jivaroan by Jacinto Jijón y Caamaño ca. 1940, followed by Čestmír Loukotka. However, only a few words are known, and Kaufman (1994) states that there is "little resemblance".

The most promising external connections are with the Cahuapanan languages and perhaps a few other language isolates in proposals variously called Jívaro-Cahuapana (Hívaro-Kawapánan) (Jorge Suárez[disambiguation needed] and others) or Macro-Jibaro or Macro-Andean (Morris Swadesh and others, with Cahuapanan, Urarina, Puelche, and maybe Huarpe).

The unclassified language Candoshi has also been linked to Jivaroan, but more recently linguists have searched elsewhere for Candoshi's relatives.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Jibaroan". Glottolog 2.2. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. 

Bibliography[edit]

  • Campbell, Lyle. (1997). American Indian languages: The historical linguistics of Native America. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-509427-1.
  • Dean, Bartholomew (1990). The State and the Aguaruna: Frontier Expansion in the Upper Amazon, 1541-1990. M.A. thesis in the Anthropology of Social Change and Development, Harvard University.
  • Greenberg, Joseph H. (1987). Language in the Americas. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
  • Greene, Landon Shane. (2004) Paths to a Visionary Politics. PhD dissertation. University of Chicago.
  • Kaufman, Terrence. (1990). Language history in South America: What we know and how to know more. In D. L. Payne (Ed.), Amazonian linguistics: Studies in lowland South American languages (pp. 13–67). Austin: University of Texas Press. ISBN 0-292-70414-3.
  • Kaufman, Terrence. (1994). The native languages of South America. In C. Mosley & R. E. Asher (Eds.), Atlas of the world's languages (pp. 46–76). London: Routledge.
  • Solís Fonseca, Gustavo. (2003). Lenguas en la amazonía peruana. Lima: edición por demanda.

External links[edit]