Joachim Peiper

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Joachim Peiper
Bundesarchiv Bild 183-R65485, Joachim Peiper.jpg
Nickname(s) Jochen
Born (1915-01-30)30 January 1915
Berlin, Prussia, Imperial Germany
Died 14 July 1976(1976-07-14) (aged 61)
Traves, Haute-Saône, France
Buried at St Anna's Church
Schondorf am Ammersee, Bavaria, Germany
Allegiance  Nazi Germany
Service/branch Flag Schutzstaffel.svg Waffen-SS
Years of service 1933–45
Rank SS-Standartenführer Collar Rank.svg SS-Standartenführer
Unit 1. SS-Panzer-Division Leibstandarte-SS Adolf Hitler.svg 1st SS Div. Leibstandarte SS Adolf Hitler
Battles/wars World War II
Awards Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves and Swords
Other work Executive in Porsche and Volkswagen

Joachim Peiper (German pronunciation: [ˈjoːaxɪm ˈpaɪpɐ]; 30 January 1915 – 14 July 1976), also known as Jochen Peiper, was a field officer in the Waffen-SS during World War II and personal adjutant to Reichsführer-SS Heinrich Himmler between November 1940 and August 1941. Peiper fought on both the Eastern Front against the Red Army and the Western Front against the Western Allies, and he won the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves and Swords for extreme battlefield bravery and outstanding military leadership. By 1945, he was an SS-Standartenführer and the Waffen-SS's youngest regimental colonel.

Peiper, who had three children with his wife Sigurd (Sigi) Hinrichsen, was convicted of war crimes committed in Belgium and imprisoned for almost 12 years. He was accused of war crimes in Italy, but Italian and German courts concluded that there was insufficient evidence to warrant prosecution.[1]

After his release from prison, Peiper worked for both Porsche and Volkswagen, before moving to France, where he translated books from English to German under the nom de plume Rainer Buschmann. Peiper was murdered in France in July 1976, when he was shot by unknown assailants who then burned his house to the ground using Molotov cocktails.

Early life and family[edit]

Peiper was born on 30 January 1915 into a middle class family from the Silesian region of Germany. His father, Captain Waldemar Peiper, served in the Imperial German Army and fought in the colonial campaigns in East Africa.[2] He was awarded the military cross in 1904, wounded several times and became infected with malaria. When World War I broke out, his father resumed service and was sent to Turkey. In 1915, however, cardiac troubles resulting from his exposure to malaria forced him to retire from active duty. After the war, he joined the Freikorps and took part in the Silesian Uprisings.[3]

Peiper had two brothers, Hans-Hasso and Horst. Hans-Hasso attempted suicide, which left him in a vegetative state.[3] He died of tuberculosis in 1942.[4] Peiper pursued a normal academic education at Goethe Oberrealschule, but did not obtain the grades needed to continue to university.[2] In 1926, Peiper followed his other brother Horst and joined the Scout movement. It was during this time that he developed an interest in a military career.[5] Peiper’s brother Horst joined the SS, eventually reaching the rank of Hauptsturmführer. Horst participated in the Battle of France with the 3rd SS Division Totenkopf before being transferred to Poland, where he died in an accident.[4]

Marriage[edit]

On his twenty-fourth birthday, Peiper was promoted to Obersturmführer. Around which time, he met Sigurd (Sigi) Hinrichsen, a secretary on Himmler’s personal staff[6] and a close friend of Hedwig Potthast, Himmler’s mistress.[6] Peiper and Hinrichsen were married on 26 June 1939 in a ceremony following SS customs. The couple lived in Berlin until the first allied air raids on Berlin, when Sigi was sent to Rottach, Upper Bavaria, near Himmler's second residence.[7] The couple had three children: Hinrich, Elke and Silke.

Military career pre-World War II[edit]

Peiper turned 18 years old on the day that Adolf Hitler was appointed Chancellor of Germany. He volunteered to join the Hitler Youth (German: Hitlerjugend) together with his oldest brother Horst.[2][8]

Peiper wanted to join Reiterregiment 4, a cavalry division of the German self-defense forces. To gain skill at horseriding, he followed the advice of a family friend, General Walther von Reichenau,[9] and enlisted in the 7th SS Reiterstandarte on 12 October 1933.[10] On 23 January 1934, he was promoted to SS-Mann with SS number 132,496.[11] In 1934, during the annual Nuremberg Rally, Peiper was promoted to SS-Sturmmann and later gained the attention of Heinrich Himmler. Himmler convinced him to enlist in the SS-Verfügungstruppe [10] and, in his 1935 résumé, Peiper wrote: "As a result of a personal exhortation by the Reichsführer-SS, Himmler, I have decided to strive for a career as an active senior SS officer.[11] However, Peiper never joined the Nazi Party. He also never appeared in the official listing of all middle and senior SS officers, the SS-Dienstalterslisten.[12]

A few months later, Peiper considered leaving school before he completed his final examinations.[13] In January 1935, he was sent to a camp for Hitler Youth, SA and SS members near Jüterbog, adjoining Germany's largest regular army camp and artillery school. Peiper joined a course that was already in progress.[13] After he completed the course, he was promoted to SS-Unterscharführer.[14]

On 24 April 1935, Peiper attended the newly created SS-Junkerschule Bad Tölz (English: SS officer's training school) in Bavaria under the command of Paul Hausser.[14] Peiper later wrote that the goal of the school was to train officers for the army and not officers for SS departments.[15]

Peiper took the SS Oath in November 1935 and completed his education at the Junkerschule in January 1936. In February and March 1936, he attended more training at the Dachau concentration camp.[16] On 20 April 1936, he was promoted to SS-Untersturmführer and, after a short leave, reported for duty with the Leibstandarte SS Adolf Hitler under the command of Sepp Dietrich.[15] He remained with the unit until June 1938.[2]

Sepp Dietrich (left, behind Himmler), Heinrich Himmler (center), and Joachim Peiper (right)[citation needed] at Metz in September 1940.

On 4 July 1938, Peiper was appointed to an administrative post as an adjutant to Heinrich Himmler,[17] under the command of Karl Wolff.[18] Peiper worked in Himmler’s anteroom in the SS-Hauptamt at Prinz-Albrecht-Straße. As a member of the Reichsführer-SS staff, Peiper was close to many high ranking SS officers. He became one of Himmler's favorite adjutants. Peiper later served on Himmler's personal staff and accompanied him on a state visit to Italy.[19]

Poland and France[edit]

On 1 September 1939, Germany invaded Poland and, 16 days later, the Soviet Union attacked from the east. As one of his adjutants, Peiper joined Himmler's entourage on board the Reichsführer-SS's special train. Peiper was with Himmler on 20 September in Blomberg when they witnessed the execution of 20 Poles.[20] Peiper later wrote that the experience left Himmler "speechless" for several days.[21] As Peiper later told Ernst Schäfer, Hitler had previously ordered Himmler to eliminate the Polish intellectuals.[21]

After Poland was defeated, Peiper worked with Himmler to develop policies and plans for controlling the Polish population.[22] Later, Peiper accompanied Himmler to Feldherrnhalle commemorative ceremonies in Munich on 9 October 1939. On 13 December 1939, Peiper and Himmler witnessed the gassing of a resident of a psychiatric facility in Poznan. In post-war interrogations, Peiper described the experience in a detached, factual manner.[23]

On 17 May 1940, Peiper accompanied Himmler as he followed Waffen-SS troops during the Battle of France. In Hasselt, Peiper obtained permission to join a combat unit[24] and became a platoon leader in the 11th Company of 1st SS Division Leibstandarte SS Adolf Hitler (LSSAH). He was soon promoted to company commander. After seizing a British artillery battery on the hills of Wattenberg, Peiper was awarded the Iron Cross and promoted to Hauptsturmführer.[17][24][25]

Rejoining Himmler’s personal staff[edit]

Karl Wolff, Jochen Peiper and Heinrich Himmler are received by Generalísimo Francisco Franco, Spain, October 1940.

Peiper returned to his duties as Himmler's adjutant on 21 June 1940. On 10 July 1940, he accompanied Himmler to the Berghof, where Reich leaders discussed the war and Hitler's plans.[24]

In October 1940, Peiper accompanied Himmler to Madrid where Himmler met with Franco. After passing through Metz, they stopped in Dax, where Himmler met with Theodor Eicke, the commander of the SS Totenkopf division. Shortly afterward, on 14 November 1940, Peiper was appointed first adjutant to Himmler.[26] In January 1941, Peiper accompanied Himmler when he inspected Ravensbrück and Dachau concentration camps.[27] In March 1941, together with Karl Wolff and Fritz Bracht, they visited Auschwitz.[28]

Fritz Witt, Heinrich Himmler and Jochen Peiper with officers of the Waffen-SS Division Leibstandarte Adolf Hitler, Greece, 1941.

Himmler and his staff then travelled to Norway, Austria, Poland, the Balkans and Greece.[29] This trip included a visit to the Łódź ghetto, about which Peiper later wrote:

It was a macabre image: we saw how the Jewish Ghetto police, who wore hats without rims and were armed with wooden clubs, inconsiderately made room for us. The Jewish elders also presented Himmler with a bouquet of flowers.[29]

The Eastern Front and return to France[edit]

In February 1941, Himmler told Peiper about the German plan, Operation Barbarossa, to invade the Soviet Union.[27] The operation began on 22 June 1941. Behind the front lines, the Einsatzgruppen, under the control of the SS-Reichssicherheitshauptamt (Reich Main Security Office), conducted a war against "the Untermenschen", murdering communists, Jews, gypsies and partisans.[30][31] Peiper's duties as first adjutant included providing Himmler with statistics from the Einsatzgruppen units about the mass killings on the Eastern Front.[32]

During the later summer of 1941, Werner Grothmann became Himmler's first adjutant. Although Peiper was transferred to a combat unit, he remained in close contact with Himmler. In their ongoing correspondence through to the end of the war, Himmler addressed Peiper as “my dear Jochen”.[30]

Although no longer Himmler's official first adjutant, Peiper continued to write in Himmler’s diary until mid-September 1941. Peiper may have been dispatched to the LSSAH earlier as an observer for the Reichsführer-SS,[33] but available records show that he formally transferred to the LSSAH before October 1941. When he rejoined the LSSAH, it was engaged on the Eastern Front near the Black Sea. Peiper spent several days at its headquarters when an injury to a unit commander gave Peiper an opportunity to take command of the 11th Company.[33]

The 11th Company fought at Mariupol and Rostov-on-Don. Peiper was noted for his fighting spirit, although his unit suffered high casualties as a consequence of his aggressive tactics. The company killed a number of prisoners of war, a practice in which both the Soviets and Germans were known to engage.[34]

During its combat action, the LSSAH was followed by Einsatzgruppe D, responsible for organising the extermination of Jews and communists. Einsatzgruppe D continued its operations even when winter weather suspended active military operations. It shared the same winter quarters at Taganrog on the Azov Sea as the LSSAH and, on occasion, the division assisted Einsatzgruppe D with its operations.[35]

In May 1942, Peiper learned of the death of his brother Hans-Hasso. During the same month, the LSSAH was transferred to France for rest and refit.[35] En route to France, Peiper left his unit and met with Himmler at his headquarters on 1 June. The meeting included a dinner attended by Reichsführer-SS secretary Rudolf Brandt and Heinz Lammerding, a member of the staff headquarters SS Totenkopf division.[35] In July 1942, Peiper again met with Himmler and did not rejoin his battalion until August 1942.[36]

During its stay in France, the LSSAH was reorganised into a Panzergrenadier division and Peiper was promoted to commander of its 3rd Battalion. Peiper took advantage of the unit's time in France to recruit young officers who matched his attitude and willingness to fight.[37] At the end of 1942, Peiper received permission to visit his family. On 30 January 1943, he was promoted to SS-Obersturmbannführer.[37]

Meanwhile, on the Eastern Front, the German situation had seriously worsened, especially in the battle for Stalingrad. Peiper’s battalion left its quarters in France on 31 January 1943 for Lyubotin, near Kharkov. It was immediately dispatched to the front.[38]

Rescue of the 320th Infantry Division[edit]

During the Third Battle of Kharkov, Peiper led the 3rd Battalion of the 2nd Panzergrenadier Regiment, which broke 48 kilometres (30 mi) through Soviet lines to rescue the encircled 320th Infantry Division. Leading the ambulances back to the German lines, he found his route blocked by a Soviet ski battalion that had destroyed the main bridge across the Udy River. His unit fought through the city and repaired the bridge, securing an exit route for the ambulances back to the German lines.[39]:53 The repaired bridge, however, would not support the unit's heavy-armored half-tracks and assault guns. Peiper ordered his men back behind the Soviet lines to find another exit, and they managed to return to the German lines with few casualties. The Soviets alleged that the Germans set fire to two villages and massacred their inhabitants during Peiper's attack.[40]

On 6 May 1943, Peiper was awarded the Deutsches Kreuz in Gold for his achievements in February 1943. He developed the tactic of attacking enemy-held villages by night from all sides while advancing in his armored half-tracks at full speed, firing at every building. This tactic often set the building's straw roofs on fire and contributed to panic among enemy troops. Peiper's unit gained the nickname the "Blowtorch Battalion" as a result.[41] Another source, however, reported that the nickname derived from the torching and slaughter of two Soviet villages where their inhabitants were either shot or burned.[42][43][44] The blowtorch became an unofficial symbol of the unit and was painted on the battalion's vehicles.[39]:53 It was said to represent Peiper's willingness to advance regardless of the cost.[45]

On 9 March 1943, Peiper was awarded Germany's highest decoration, the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross. The medal's citation described the fierce fighting:

In Stawerowka the battalion was ordered to take Zigderowka. The mission was executed by night against heavy resistance and an enemy battalion was routed, four 7.62 guns, an infantry gun, 10 mortars and many machine guns and hand guns being captured and destroyed. Peiper advanced immediately towards Kasatschij Maidan, encountered an enemy battalion on the march and executed a hasty attack. Here, he inflicted heavy losses on the enemy and took Kasatschij Maidan. From here Peiper prepared his battalion for the attack on Jeremejewka, attacked it at dawn against heavy resistance and took Jeremejewka. Exploiting the confusion among the enemy, the battalion advanced on Leninskij and broke the last resistance. By an immediate advance, he inflicted heavy losses on the enemy which was fleeing through open fields. The battalion destroyed one T-34, six guns 7.62 and captured 300 horses. Three sledge columns were routed. The enemy casualties amounted about to anywhere from 800 to 900. SS-Sturmbannführer Peiper has distinguished himself in all these fights by a sensible command of his battalion and personal bravery and has proven himself worthy of the Deutsches Kreuz in Gold.[46][47]

During this period, Peiper developed a reputation in the Nazi press as an outstanding leader. The official Waffen-SS newspaper, Das Schwarze Korps ("The Black Corps"), described Peiper's actions in Karkhov thus:

In preparation for the attack on Kharkov, on his own initiative SS-Sturmbahführer Peiper twice seized bridgeheads which proved of decisive importance in the advance of attacking forces. [...] Nevertheless, SS-Sturmbahnführer Peiper was the master of the situation in all its phases. [...] Every officer and man of Kampfgruppe Peiper had the feeling of absolute safety. Here a man was thinking and caring for them, made his decisions quickly, and issued his orders with precision. These decisions and orders were often bold and unorthodox, but they were issued from a sovereign command of the situation. Everyone sensed the intellectual work and the instinctive safety behind this. Of course, the commander also had soldier’s luck. The unconditional trust of his men, however, has it basis in something else, namely the feeling that a born leader is in command, one filled with the highest sense of responsibility for the life of every single one of his men, but who is also able to be hard if necessary. But always the orders and measures stem, not from clever deliberation, but rather from a personality whose heart, brain, and hands are the same.[48]

The descriptions of his tactical skills propelled Peiper to become an icon of the Waffen-SS after the war, with former battalion members describing him in glowing language.[49] Peiper was seen as an officer who obeyed orders without much discussion and expected the same from his men.[45]

In spite of the hard fighting, the Germans failed to regain the initiative in the Third Battle of Kharkov. A few months later, the LSSAH was engaged in Operation Citadel in the area of Kursk. Although Operation Citadel did not achieve its goals, Peiper's unit again distinguished itself in the fighting.[50] Thereafter, on 17 July, the LSSAH was withdrawn from the Eastern Front and transferred to the area of Cuneo in Northern Italy.[51]

Italy and the village of Boves[edit]

After Italian forces capitulated to the Allies, the LSSAH was moved to Italy for two months to assist in disarming the Italian military and prevent them from attacking German forces. Beginning in August, Peiper’s battalion quarters were near Cuneo. On 10 September, they received orders to disarm Italian garrisons in Alessandria and Asti.[52]

On 19 September, partisans in the village of Boves captured two of Peiper's men.[53] Faustino Dolmazzo, an advisor to the partisans, reported that when Peiper arrived in Boves, the Germans appointed two Italians, one the village priest, to arrange the men's freedom. Peiper promised the Germans would not engage in any reprisals.

The two men were freed, but the Germans then set fire to the houses in the village and killed 22 men when they tried to flee. The burned bodies of the two Italian intermediaries were found among the victims.[54]

Peiper insisted his unit massacred no civilians in Boves. He stated that he sent members of his unit to search for the two kidnapped officers taken by partisans into the nearby Bisalta mountains. A platoon was ambushed and, while attempting to rescue it, the Germans came under heavy fire from the partisans. It was the response of the German artillery to this fighting that triggered the fires reported in the village. According to Peiper, the artillery section remained in Boves to destroy the remaining weapons and ammunition.[55]

Peiper himself reported on the action, now known as the Boves massacre: "I am of the opinion that our action to free our encircled comrades in Boves nipped in the bud the Italian army's attack, for the army fell apart and no attack ever took place on Cuneo or Turin. However regrettable the consequences of our action was for the affected residents of Boves, it should not be overlooked that our one-time intervention prevented further immeasurable casualties which would have resulted from continued Italian attacks." In 1968, an Italian court concluded there was "...insufficient suspicion of criminal activity on the part of any of the accused to warrant prosecution". On 23 December 1968, a German District Court in Stuttgart reached the same conclusion, terminating any potential prosecution of Peiper for his activities in Italy.[1]

Return to the Eastern Front[edit]

Beginning November 1943, Peiper’s unit arrived on the Eastern Front, where it took part in combat in the area of Zhytomyr. On 20 November, Georg Schönberger was killed in action, and Peiper took his place as commander of the 1st SS Panzer Regiment; a position he held until the end of the war. He was 28 years old.[56] Under his command, the regiment fought through the winter and was engaged in numerous night assaults against the Red Army. His panzer unit played an essential role in stalling the Soviet offensive in the area of Zhytomyr. Peiper led actions by attacking the rear of enemy lines and captured four division headquarters.[57] For this action he was awarded the Oak Leaves of the Knight's Cross.[58]

Peiper's aggressiveness and regiment command appointment caused resentment by some against him.[59] In the mean time, brutal combat involving his unit continued. On 5 and 6 December 1943, the unit killed 2280 Russian soldiers and took only three prisoners.[58] During heavy fighting, the village of Pekartschina was completely burned with flamethrowers and its inhabitants killed.[58]

Medical leave[edit]

On 20 January 1944, Peiper was withdrawn from the front and left his unit. He went directly to the headquarters of Hitler, who presented him with the Oak Leaves to be added to his Knight's Cross. Shortly afterwards, on his 29th birthday, Peiper was promoted to Obersturmbannführer. However, Peiper was physically and mentally exhausted. A medical examination carried out by SS doctors in Dachau reached the conclusion that he needed rest. Therefore, he went to see his wife in Bavaria.[60]

Belgium[edit]

In March 1944, the LSSAH was withdrawn from the Eastern Front. The transfer of all its units was not completed before 24 May. Peiper joined his unit in April. The battles in the east had caused heavy losses of men and material.[61] The new recruits were not of the same caliber as the pre-war volunteers, who'd been recruited according to strict criteria.[61]

In Belgium, five young recruits accused of stealing poultry and ham from civilians were sentenced to death by a court-martial. The verdict seemed out of proportion to the offence, especially when looking at similar cases. Peiper ordered the five shot on 28 May 1944 and had the other young recruits marched past the corpses; but the executions actually had a negative impact on the morale of the regiment.[61] The stay in the Belgian Limburg was devoted mainly to drills and refit, made more difficult due to the lack of materiel and gasoline.[62]

The Battle of Normandy[edit]

Tiger I tanks of the I SS Panzer Corps Leibstandarte SS Adolf Hitler close to Villers-Bocage (June 1944)

The Allied landing in Normandy necessitated the return of the LSSAH to the Western Front. On 17 June, the division began its move to the area of Caen, but some parts of the panzer regiment had to stay in Belgium awaiting new tanks. Furthermore, the move of the division was made under difficult conditions due to the trains transporting Hungarian Jews to the concentration camps and Allied air attacks which caused disruptions in the rail traffic. The whole division did not reach its rally zone before 6 July 1944.[62] On 28 June, the 1st SS Panzer Regiment of Peiper arrived at the front and was immediately engaged in combat.[63] As with the other German units of the area, they essentially fought a defensive battle until the Avranches breakthrough at the end of July and beginning of August. Having gone to the front with 19,618 men, the LSSAH lost 25% of its men and all its tanks.[64] As with most of the Waffen SS divisions engaged in Normandy, the LSSAH lost its operational ability and was described in the official tables of the available units prepared by the OKW on 16 September 1944 not as a division but as a Kampfgruppe.

Peiper was not in command of his panzer regiment during the counter-attacks near Avranches. Suffering from a nervous breakdown he had been discreetly evacuated to a military hospital in the area of Sées at 70 km of the frontline. According to the official diagnosis, he was suffering from jaundice. He would eventually be dispatched to the rear and from September 1944 forward was in a military hospital near the Tegernsee in Upper Bavaria. This was not far from his family home.[65] He stayed there until 7 October.[66]

The Battle of the Bulge[edit]

During the autumn, the German forces had to counter the attempts of the Western Allies to cross the Westwall, while Hitler was looking for an opportunity to seize the initiative on the Western Front.[67] The result was the Operation Wacht am Rhein. In a desperate attempt to defeat the Allies on the Western Front, the German armies were to break through the US lines in the Ardennes, to cross the River Meuse and take Antwerp, cutting the Allied forces in two.[68]

The main role in the breakthrough was devoted to the 6th Panzer Army under the command of Sepp Dietrich. He would have to pierce the American lines between Aachen and the Schnee Eifel and seize bridges on the Meuse on both sides of Liège.[69] Within the 6th Panzer Army a mobile striking role was assigned to the 1st SS Division Leibstandarte SS Adolf Hitler (LSSAH) under the command of SS-Oberführer Wilhelm Mohnke.[69] The division was split into four Kampfgruppe with Peiper commanding the most substantial, which included all the armored sections of the division.[70] Peiper was given the use of the newest tank, the 70 ton Tiger II or King Tiger, which would be taking part in its third battle on the western front since its introduction, and with its 7 inches of armor made it impervious to allied anti-tank weapons. However, the King Tiger had a high consumption of fuel (1/2 mile to the gallon) along with mechanical defects (mainly the tank's suspension system), which would continuously hinder Peiper's ability to reach his assigned objectives in Operation Wacht am Rhein. His duty was to break through the U.S. lines along a route designated B through Spa, Belgium and to take bridges on the Meuse between Liège and Huy.[70]

Assigned route[edit]

Peiper's assigned route, or Rollbahn, had many hairpin turns and traversed steep hillsides that would delay his already slow-moving towed artillery and bridging trains.[71] It included narrow, in many places single-track, roads which forced units of the Kampfgruppe to tail each other, creating a column of infantry and armor up to 25 kilometres (16 mi) long. Peiper complained that the road assigned to his Kampfgruppe was suitable for bicycles, but not for panzers.[70] The tortuous roads prevented the Germans from concentrating their force in the blitzkrieg tactics that had served them so well in the past.[71] Fritz Krämer, Chief of Staff for the 6th Panzer Army answered “I don’t care how and what you do. Just make it to the Meuse. Even if you’ve only one tank left when you get there.”[72] Peiper's unit had only a quarter of the fuel that it needed. The plan counted on the capture of Allied fuel depots and keeping to an ambitious timetable.

Initial advance stalled[edit]

Kampfgruppe Peiper was initially delayed by more than 16 hours when the 1st Battalion, 9th Fallschirmjäger Regiment, 3rd Fallschirmjäger Division took most of 16 December to defeat 18 men of the Intelligence and Reconnaissance Platoon, 394th Regiment, 99th Infantry Division who blocked the route near the tiny village of Lanzerath, Belgium in the Battle of Lanzareth ridge.

Peiper’s mechanized column did not reach his first day's objective until midnight that same day. As a result, Peiper first attacked shortly before daybreak on 17 December 1944, almost 18 hours later than expected.[73] Hustling through the remains of the American front lines, he quickly took Honsfeld.

Peiper had planned to advance through Loseheimergroben, but the 12th and 277th Volksgrenadier Divisions failed to gain control on the first day as planned. In the early morning of 17 December, they quickly captured Honsfeld and 50,000 US gallons (190,000 l; 42,000 imp gal) of fuel for his vehicles.[74][75]

Alternative route chosen[edit]

Peiper then advanced towards Büllingen, keeping to the plan to move west, unaware he could take the town and unknowingly bypassing an opportunity to flank and trap the entire 2nd and 99th Divisions.[71]:31 Peiper turned south to detour around Hünningen, interested only in getting back onto his assigned rollbahn.[71] He continued west on his assigned rollbahn until he had to deflect shortly before Ligneuville because the assigned road was impassable. This bypass forced him towards the Baugnez crossroads where his armored units encountered a lightly armed column of U.S. artillery observers, who were quickly neutralized.[76]

Peiper's unit became infamous for the murder of U.S. prisoners of war at the crossroads in what became known as the Malmedy massacre as noted below. Moving ahead, he crossed Ligneuville and reached the heights of Stavelot on the left bank of the Amblève River at nightfall of the second day of operation Wacht am Rhein. While the little city was defended only by a few U.S. troops and could have been easily taken the same day, for reasons unknown he held back and assaulted at dawn of the next day. Valuable time was lost, allowing the Americans to reorganise.[77] After heavy fighting, his Kampfgruppe eventually managed to cross the bridge on the River Amblève, and from there he found the going increasingly difficult.

The US forces regrouped themselves and blasted the bridges on the Amblève and the River Salm that Peiper needed to cross in order to continue on a direct road to the Meuse. On 18 December, United States Army Corps of Engineers blasted the bridges in front of him that he needed to reach his objective, trapping him in the deep valley of the Amblève, downstream from Trois-Ponts.[77] The weather had also improved, permitting the Allied Air Forces to operate. Several P-47 squadrons attacked his column spread over 20 kilometres (12 mi). The air strikes destroyed or heavily damaged numerous vehicles of his Kampfgruppe and made some parts of his itinerary impracticable, slowing down his progression.[77] Peiper was unable to protect his rear, which enabled American troops to recapture and destroy the bridge on the Amblève in Stavelot, cutting him off from the only possible supply road for ammunition and, above all, fuel, which he lacked.[78] In spite of these problems, Peiper continued his progress towards Stoumont before American resistance forced him to retire to La Gleize. Short of fuel, men and ammunition he held out during six days of US Army bombardment and counterattacks. Without supplies and with no contact with other German units behind him, Peiper decided on 24 December to abandon his vehicles and march through the woods to escape. He left with the remaining 800 men[79] and 36 hours later he reached the German lines with 770 men, having covered 20 kilometers by foot in deep snow and freezing temperatures.[80]

The end of the war[edit]

In January 1945, the Swords were added to his Knight's Cross.[81] The proposal was drafted by Wilhelm Mohnke. The great fame of Peiper as a Waffen SS commander during the "Battle of the Bulge" was born.[82]

At the end of January 1945, Peiper was in the Berlin area. On 4 February, he met for the last time with Heinrich Himmler at his provisional headquarters. Peiper then went to the Panzergrenadier school in Krhanice until 14 February. From there he joined his unit in the southwest of the area of Farnad.[83] His unit took part in Operation Frühlingserwachen that failed even though Peiper’s unit recorded huge casualties due to his aggressive style of command. Peiper lost numerous old companions.[84]

On 1 May, as other units of the LSSAH were forced to retreat into Austria, the men were informed of Adolf Hitler’s death. A few days later, all SS units were ordered to retreat to the west. On 8 May, the LSSAH received the order to cross the Enns River and surrender to the American troops.[85]

Accompanied by Paul Gühl, Peiper tried to escape captivity. On 28 May, Peiper was on his way to Rottach, but was captured near Schliersee. This was less than 30 kilometres from his home. He was interned in the Dachau concentration camp.[10][86]

Although he was actively sought by American forces (due to his alleged involvement in the Malmedy massacre), Peiper was not identified until 21 August 1945. This was the day after he was transferred to the interrogation camp of the 3rd US Army in Freising.[87]

War crimes[edit]

Malmedy[edit]

Main article: Malmedy massacre
The bodies of the POWs, covered by snow, were found on 14 January 1945.

During the 1st SS Panzer Division's advance on 17 December 1944, his armored units and halftracks confronted a lightly armed convoy of about 30 American vehicles at the Baugnez crossroads near Malmedy. The troops, mainly elements of the American 285th Field Artillery Observation Battalion, were quickly overcome and captured.[76] Along with other American POWs previously captured, they were ordered to stand in a meadow when for unknown reasons the Germans opened fire on the prisoners with machine guns, killing 84 soldiers, and leaving the bodies in the snow. The survivors were able to reach American lines later that day, and their story spread rapidly throughout the American front lines.

Peiper's instructions[edit]

Author Richard Gallagher reported that during the briefing held before the operation, Peiper clearly stated that no quarter should be given nor prisoners taken and that no pity should be shown towards the Belgian civilians.[88] However, Lieutenant Colonel Hal McCown, commander of the 2nd Battalion 119 Infantry Regiment, testified about the treatment his unit was given after being captured on 21 December by Peiper's Kampfgruppe at Froidcour between La Gleize and Stoumont. McCown said he met Peiper in person and based on his observations, American prisoners were at no time mistreated by the SS and the food given to them was nearly as good as that used by the Germans themselves.[89]

Other murders[edit]

Main article: Wereth 11

Peiper's men engaged in other murders of prisoners. In Honsfeld, men in Kampfgruppe Peiper murdered several American prisoners.[90][91][92]

Other murders of POWs were reported in Büllingen,[90][91] Ligneuville,[93][94] Stavelot,[95] Cheneux, La Gleize, Stoumont, and Wereth on 17, 18, 19 and 20 December.[citation needed] On 19 December 1944, in the area between Stavelot and Trois-Ponts, while the Germans were trying to regain control of the bridge over the Amblève River (crucial for allowing reinforcements and supplies to reach the Kampfgruppe) men of Kampfgruppe Peiper killed a number of Belgian civilians. Kampfgruppe Peiper was eventually declared responsible for the deaths of 362 prisoners of war and 111 civilians.[96]

Interrogation and acceptance of command responsibility[edit]

After the surrender of the German armies, some war crimes during the "Battle of the Bulge" were attributed to Kampfgruppe Peiper, resulting in American investigative teams searching POW camps for its men.[90]

Jailed in Freising, Upper Bavaria, Peiper underwent his first interrogations.[97] Investigators quickly found that the SS men, including Peiper, although hardened soldiers, were not trained to withstand interrogation.[97] Some men freely gave the requested information, while others only did so after having been subject to various forms of torture such as beatings, threats and mock executions.[97] Peiper took command responsibility for the actions of the men under his command.

In December 1945, Peiper was transferred to the prison at Schwäbisch Hall, where 1,000 former members of the Leibstandarte were assembled.[97] Some reports claimed that the interrogations included mock trials, as well as both physical and psychological torture. Peiper and others claimed to have been repeatedly beaten, and threatened with having their families handed over to the Russians.[98] On 16 April 1946, approximately 300 prisoners were moved from Schwäbisch Hall to Dachau, where they were put on trial.[97]

Trial[edit]

Joachim Peiper at Malmedy trial

The trial took place at Dachau from 16 May to 16 July 1946 before a military tribunal of senior American officers, operating under rules established by the Nuremberg International Military Tribunal.

The 74 defendants included SS-Oberstgruppenführer Sepp Dietrich, 6th SS Panzer Army commanding general, his chief of staff SS-Brigadeführer Fritz Krämer, SS-Gruppenführer Hermann Prieß, I SS Panzer Corps commander, and Joachim Peiper, commander of the 1st SS Panzer Regiment (the unit to which the crimes were attributed).

Before the trial, occupation authorities reclassified the defendants from prisoners of war to Civilian Internees.[99] The accusations were mainly based on the sworn and written statements provided by the defendants in Schwäbish Hall. To counter the evidence given in the men's sworn statements and by prosecution witnesses, the lead defense attorney, Lieutenant Colonel Willis M. Everett tried to show that the statements had been obtained by inappropriate methods.[100]

Everett called Lieutenant Colonel Hal McCown to testify about Peiper's troops' treatment of American prisoners at La Gleize. McCown, who, along with his command, had been captured by Peiper at La Gleize, testified that wounded American soldiers in Peiper's custody had received equal priority with German wounded in receiving medical treatment. He testified that during his occupation of the town, Peiper had at all times behaved in a professional and honorable manner.

Everett had decided to call only Peiper to testify. However, other defendants, supported by their German lawyers, wanted to testify as well. This would soon prove to be a huge mistake, for when the prosecution cross-examined the defendants, they behaved like “a bunch of drowning rats (...) turning on each other.”[100] According to Everett, these testimonies gave the court enough reason to sentence several of the defendants to death.[100]

The military court was not convinced by Peiper’s testimony about the murder of the POWs under the Kampfgruppe's control.[100] During the trial, several witnesses testified of at least two instances in which Peiper had ordered the murder of prisoners of war.[101] When questioned by the prosecution, Peiper denied these allegations, stating that the allegations were obtained from witnesses under torture.[102] When questioned about the murder of Belgian civilians, Peiper said they were partisans.[103] Although the court could not prove that Peiper had ordered the murders, Peiper nonetheless accepted responsibility for his men's actions.[55]

Death sentence[edit]

Together with 42 other defendants, Joachim Peiper was sentenced to death by hanging on 16 July 1946.

The sentences generated significant controversy in some German circles, including the church, leading the commander of the U.S. Army in Germany to commute some of the death sentences to life imprisonment. In addition, the Germans' defense attorney, U.S. military attorney Lt. Col. Willis M. Everett, appealed to the U.S. Supreme Court, claiming that the defendants had been found guilty by means of "illegal and fraudulently procured confessions" and were subjects of mock trial. The turmoil raised by this case caused the Secretary of the Army, Kenneth Royall, to create a commission chaired by Judge Gordon A. Simpson of Texas to investigate. The commission was interested in the Malmedy massacre trial and in other cases judged at Dachau.

The commission arrived in Europe on 30 July 1948 and issued its report on 14 September. In this report, it notably recommended that the twelve remaining death sentences be commuted to life imprisonment. The commission confirmed the accuracy of Everett's accusations regarding mock trials and neither disputed nor denied his charges of torture of the defendants. The commission expressed the opinion that the pre-trial investigation had not been properly conducted and that the members felt that no death sentence should be executed where such a doubt existed.

In response, General Lucius Clay commuted six more death sentences to life imprisonment. But he refused to commute the six remaining death sentences, including Peiper's, though the executions were postponed. The turmoil caused by the commission report and an article by Judge Edward L. Van Roden caused the U.S. Senate to investigate the trial.

In its investigation of the trial, the Senate Committee on Armed Services came to the conclusion of improper pre-trial procedures, including a mock trial, but not torture as sometimes stated, had indeed affected the trial process. There was little or no doubt that some of the accused were indeed guilty of the massacre.[104]

Ultimately the sentences of the Malmedy defendants were commuted to life imprisonment and then to time served. Peiper himself was released from prison on parole at the end of December 1956, after serving 11 and a half years.

Return to civilian life[edit]

The Hilfsgemeinschaft auf Gegenseitigkeit der Angehörigen der ehemaligen Waffen-SS (HIAG) (English: Mutual Help Association of Former Waffen-SS Members), a mutual aid network of former SS troops, had already helped Peiper’s wife find a job near the Landsberg Prison. They then worked to achieve the conditional liberation of Peiper himself. To obtain his release from prison, Peiper had to prove that he could obtain a job. Through the intermediary of Dr. Albert Prinzing, a former SS-Hauptsturmführer in the Sicherheitsdienst, he got a job at the car manufacturer Porsche.[105]

Following his release from Landsberg Prison, Peiper maintained contact, albeit discreetly, with his old comrades in the SS. He avoided open affiliations with the HIAG[106] and the Order of the Holders of the Knight's Cross but he was often seen with their members at the funerals of personalities such as Kurt “Panzer” Meyer, Sepp Dietrich and Paul Hausser.[107] Peiper assisted the efforts of these organizations to rehabilitate the Waffen-SS's reputation by hiding the more ruthless aspects of their past and exalting their military achievements, claiming that the SS were just like other soldiers.[107] Peiper once told one of his friends:

On 17 January 1957, he began work at Porsche in Stuttgart in its technical division. He would later represent the company at car exhibitions.[109] He was later put in charge of auto exports to the United States but his wartime criminal conviction prevented him from obtaining a visa for travel to the United States. This would not allow him to maintain this new position.[110][111]

As he advanced within Porsche, he was accused by Italian union workers of the Boves Massacre in Italy during World War II. Ferry Porsche personally intervened and promised Peiper a senior management position, but this offer was derailed by the trade unions, who objected to allowing persons convicted of war crimes to serve in the upper management of the company. The strong antipathy to Peiper, his association with Ferry Porsche and the related negative impact on sales in Porsche's biggest market, the United States, forced Porsche's management to dismiss him. On 30 December 1960 Peiper filed suit to compel Porsche to fulfil its promises.[112]

In court documents Peiper’s attorney stated that Peiper was not a war criminal and that the Allies had used the trials to defame the German people. He asserted that the Nuremberg trial and the "Malmedy massacre" trial were merely propaganda. Citing documents published by the anti-Communist historian Freda Utley, he asserted that the Malmedy massacre trial defendants had been tortured by the Americans.[113] At the request of the court, Porsche and Peiper reached an agreement to terminate the employment contract, and Peiper received six months of wages as compensation.[113] The magazine Der Freiwillige, published by SS veterans, capitalized on the award and wrote that Peiper had been "unfairly sentenced" for war crimes.[113]

Peiper became a car sales trainer, and utilizing his network of former SS members, contacted Max Moritz, a former SS mechanic. Moritz had become an authorized Volkswagen dealer for Germany.[114]

1960s[edit]

At the beginning of the 1960s the perception that the public opinion had of the Nazi crimes started to change. The German economic recovery did not allow SS men to hide themselves, and holding a high position in society could raise questions that people like Peiper preferred to avoid.[115] The Eichmann and Auschwitz trials in the first half of the 1960s (which got a large audience in West Germany) put a new light on this period.[115] The prosecution was now initiated by the West German authorities themselves, and no longer by the Allies. On the other hand, the statute of limitations for the prosecution of Nazi crimes had been extended several times, which made those who had been involved in these crimes uncomfortable.[115]

On 23 June 1964, two Italians filed an accusation against Peiper at the Central Office of the State Justice Administration for the Investigation of National Socialist Crimes in Ludwigsburg to do with the Boves massacre.[115] The plaintiffs were represented by Robert W. Kempner, who had been a member of the American council of prosecutors during the Nuremberg trials. The investigations, led by the Attorney General of Stuttgart, involved Peiper being accused of having arrested Jews in Borgo San Dalmazzo and of having deported Jews from Northern Italy. The accusations were endorsed by Simon Wiesenthal.[115] However, neither Klempner nor Wiesenthal were ever able to present the evidence claimed by the Attorney General. In 1967, the case was dismissed for lack of evidence.

Peiper was later called as a witness during the Werner Best trial. He did not deny having had close contact with Himmler, but he managed to avoid being directly implicated in Nazi war crimes by claiming memory failure.[116]

In 1969, Peiper was a freelance contributor to the magazine Auto, Motor und Sport. In 1972 he moved to Traves in Haute-Saône, France, where he owned property. At that time he was a self-employed translator for the publisher Stuttgarter Motor-Buch Verlag. Under the pen name of "Rainer Buschmann", he translated books devoted to military history from English to German.[116]

Last years and death[edit]

Residing in France since 1972, Peiper led a quiet and discreet life; however, he continued to use his given name. In 1974, he was identified by a former Communist resistance member of the region who issued a report for the French Communist Party. In 1976, a Communist historian, investigating the Gestapo archives, found the Peiper file.[116] On 21 June, tracts denouncing his presence were distributed in Traves. A day later, an article in the Communist publication L'Humanité revealed Peiper's presence in Traves and he became the subject of death threats.

On receipt of these threats, Peiper, who remained in Traves, sent his family back to Germany. During the night of 13/14 July 1976, Peiper's home was attacked. In the ruin, Peiper's charred corpse was found together with a .22 caliber rifle and a pistol.[117] The perpetrators were never identified, but were suspected to be either Communists or former members of the French Resistance. Peiper had just started writing a book about Malmedy and what followed.[118]

Reputation[edit]

Panzer commander[edit]

Because of the murders perpetrated by his unit at Malmedy and other locations, his death sentence and subsequent release, Peiper remained a controversial figure while he lived and after his death. He was a competent, personally courageous soldier and highly respected among his peers. His men were fiercely loyal to him, and he was considered by many to be a "charismatic leader." After the end of the war, he continued to be held in high regard by his surviving comrades, many of whom talked of Der Peiper with admiration and respect.[119] The respect he had garnered among his SS peers helped him to obtain his release from prison after the war ended and to obtain employment.[105]

Recognition[edit]

His leadership of the Sd.Kfz. 251 armored half-track battalion in the Third Battle of Kharkov earned the unit the nickname Lötlampenbataillon or "Blowtorch Battalion",[120] which resulted in his receiving the Deutsches Kreuz in Gold[46] Three days after his actions on 6 March 1943, he received the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross.[121] Twelve days later, Peiper demonstrated his military skill when he led his unit at full speed through Russian positions in a surprise attack on Belgorod, causing the surprised Russians to flee.[122] Oberführer Theodor Wisch, divisional commander of the 1st SS Division Leibstandarte SS Adolf Hitler, recommended him for the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves, which he was awarded on 27 January 1944.[123]

Summary of SS career[edit]

Dates of rank[edit]

Rank Date Age
SS-Anwärter 16 October 1933 18
SS-Mann 23 January 1934 18
SS-Sturmmann 7 September 1934 19
SS-Rottenführer 10 October 1934 19
SS-Unterscharführer 1 March 1935 20
SS-Standartenjunker 11 September 1935 20
SS-Standartenoberjunker 5 March 1936 21
SS-Untersturmführer 20 April 1936 21
SS-Obersturmführer 30 January 1939 24
SS-Hauptsturmführer 6 June 1940 25
SS-Sturmbannführer 30 January 1943 28
SS-Obersturmbannführer 11 November 1943 28
SS-Standartenführer 20 April 1945 30

Notable decorations[edit]

Fiction & film[edit]

Peiper is a significant character in the Harry Turtledove alternate history novel, The Man with the Iron Heart, where he is the successor to Reinhard Heydrich in the partisan fight to drive out the post-war occupiers of Germany.[citation needed] In the alternate history novel Fox on the Rhine by Douglas Niles and Michael O'Dobson, Peiper presides over a massacre of US soldiers by SS troops. In the sequel, Fox at the Front, Peiper kills Heinz Guderian as the SS enforces control over Wehrmacht units that lean towards surrendering to the Allies after the failure of the Battle of the Bulge. He is later evacuated and joins the Das Reich division in the defense of a bridge over Kustryn, where he is captured by the Soviets and sent to a reeducation camp.[citation needed]

In the 1965 film Battle of the Bulge, the character Col Hessler, the commander of the German spearhead tank column, portrayed by Robert Shaw, is loosely based on Peiper.[citation needed]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ According to Scherzer as commander of the III.(gepanzert)/2. Panzergrenadier-Regiment "Leibstandarte SS Adolf Hitler".[126]

References[edit]

Citations
  1. ^ a b BEGINNING OF THE END:THE LEADERSHIP OF SS OBERSTURMBANNFÜHRER JOCHEN PEIPER A thesis presented to the Faculty of the U.S. Army Command and General Staff College in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree MASTER OF MILITARY ART AND SCIENCE General Studies by HAN BOUWMEESTER, MAJ, ROYAL NETHERLANDS ARMY M.A., Free University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 2000 Fort Leavenworth, Kansas 2004
  2. ^ a b c d Weingartner, James J. (2004). Crossroads of Death: The story of the Malmédy Massacre and Trial. University of California Press. pp. 21–22. ISBN 978-0-520-03623-9. 
  3. ^ a b Westemeier, Jens (2007). Joachim Peiper: A Biography of Himmler's SS Commander. Schiffer Publications. ISBN 978-0-7643-2659-2. 
  4. ^ a b Westemeier, p. 40.
  5. ^ Westemeier, p. 16.
  6. ^ a b Westemeier, p. 38.
  7. ^ Westemeier, p. 39.
  8. ^ Westemeier, p. 18.
  9. ^ Westemeier, p. 19.
  10. ^ a b c Jochen Peiper, P Agte.
  11. ^ a b Westemeier, p. 20.
  12. ^ Westemeier, p. 35.
  13. ^ a b Westemeier, p. 21.
  14. ^ a b Westemeier, p. 25.
  15. ^ a b Westemeier, p. 28.
  16. ^ Westemeier, p. 26.
  17. ^ a b Westemeier, pp. 182-186.
  18. ^ Westemeier, p. 33.
  19. ^ Westemeier, p. 37.
  20. ^ Westemeier, p. 41.
  21. ^ a b Breitman, p. 119.
  22. ^ Westemeier, pp. 41-44.
  23. ^ Westemeier, p. 45.
  24. ^ a b c Westemeier, p. 46.
  25. ^ Agte P. Jochen Peiper pp. 18-53.
  26. ^ Westemeier, p. 48.
  27. ^ a b Westemeier, p. 49.
  28. ^ Westemeier, p. 53.
  29. ^ a b Westemeier, p. 50.
  30. ^ a b Westemeier, p. 52.
  31. ^ "The Trial of German Major War Criminals, Sitting at Nuremberg, Germany", 7–19 January 1946. Twenty-Eighth Day (Part 6 of 10) (nizkor).
  32. ^ Westemeier, p. 61.
  33. ^ a b Westemeier, p. 62.
  34. ^ Westemeier, p. 63.
  35. ^ a b c Westemeier, p. 65.
  36. ^ Westemeier, p. 66.
  37. ^ a b Westemeier, p. 69.
  38. ^ Westemeier, p. 71.
  39. ^ a b Ripley, Tim (November 5, 2000). SS Steel Storm: Waffen-SS Panzer Battles on the Eastern Front, 1943-1945. Zenith Imprints. ISBN 978-0-7603-0937-7. 
  40. ^ Westemeier, p. 74.
  41. ^ Agte, P. Jochen Peiper p. 83.
  42. ^ Bishop, Chris & Williams, Michael (2003), SS: Hell on the Western Front, Zenith Press, p. 170.
  43. ^ Arnold, James (1990), Ardennes 1944: Hitler's Last Gamble in the West, Osprey Publishing, p. 51.
  44. ^ Mitcham, Samuel W. (2006), Panzers in Winter: Hitler's Army and the Battle of the Bulge, Greenwood Publishing Group, p. 33.
  45. ^ a b Westemeier, pp. 74-77.
  46. ^ a b Agte P, Jochen Peiper, p. 88.
  47. ^ Westemeier, p. 75.
  48. ^ Westemeier, pp. 75-76.
  49. ^ Westemeier, p. 76.
  50. ^ Westemeier, p. 80.
  51. ^ Westemeier, p. 81.
  52. ^ Westemeier, p. 82.
  53. ^ Westemeier, p. 83.
  54. ^ Westemeier, pp. 137-146.
  55. ^ a b Williamson, Gordon (1995), Loyalty is my Honor, Brown Books, p. 156.
  56. ^ Westemeier, p. 87
  57. ^ Martin, Roger (1994), L’affaire Peiper, Editions Dagorno, pp. 45-54
  58. ^ a b c Westemeier, p. 89
  59. ^ Westemeier, p. 88
  60. ^ Westemeier, p. 93
  61. ^ a b c Westemeier, p. 95
  62. ^ a b Westemeier, p. 96
  63. ^ Westemeier, p. 97
  64. ^ Westemeier, pp. 95-101
  65. ^ Westemeier, p. 101
  66. ^ Westemeier, p. 102
  67. ^ Westemeier, p. 105
  68. ^ MacDonald, Charles (2002), No Time for Trumpets – The Untold Story of the Battle of the Bulge, New York.
  69. ^ a b Westemeier, p. 107
  70. ^ a b c Westemeier, p. 108
  71. ^ a b c d Quarrie, Bruce (1999). "The Ardennes Offensive: VI Panzer Armee". Osprey Order of Battle Series. Osprey Publishing. 
  72. ^ Whiting, Charles, Massacre at Malmedy, Pen & Sword Military, 2007
  73. ^ Westemeier, pp. 111-112
  74. ^ Ralph E. Hersko, Jr. (November 1998). "Battle of the Bulge: U.S. Troops Fight at Elsenburn Ridge". HistoryNet.com. Retrieved 2010-07-14. 
  75. ^ Westemeier, pp. 113-114
  76. ^ a b Westemeier, p. 114
  77. ^ a b c Westemeier, pp. 115-116
  78. ^ Westemeier, p. 117
  79. ^ Westemeier, pp. 118-119
  80. ^ Reynolds, p. 245
  81. ^ Westemeier, p. 120
  82. ^ Westemeier, pp. 119-120
  83. ^ Westemeier, p. 129
  84. ^ Westemeier, p. 132
  85. ^ Westemeier, p. 133
  86. ^ Westemeier, p. 134
  87. ^ Westemeier, pp. 134-135
  88. ^ Gallagher, Richard, Malmedy Massacre, Paperback Library, 1964, pp. 110-111
  89. ^ Reynolds, pp. 231-233
  90. ^ a b c MacDonald
  91. ^ a b Cole
  92. ^ Westemeier, p. 113
  93. ^ John Toland, "The Brave Innkeeper of the Bulge", Coronet magazine, December 1959
  94. ^ Westemeier, p. 115
  95. ^ Toland, John, Battle, The Story of the Battle of the Bulge, Frederick Muller Limited, London, 1959, p. 96: "Here, as had happened before in Baugnez and Ligneuville, without knowledge of their commander, they found a savage outlet of frustration. They dragged civilians from houses on the bank of the river and, as anguished friends and relatives on the other side of the Amblève watched helplessly, twenty-two men, women, and children were murdered."
  96. ^ MacDonald<Judge><Kent, Criba><Lebeau, Criba> Laby
  97. ^ a b c d e Westemeier, p. 157
  98. ^ Jochen peiper, P Agte pp. 370-378
  99. ^ Westemeier, p. 159
  100. ^ a b c d Westemeier, pp. 160-165
  101. ^ Westemeier, p. 163
  102. ^ Westemeier, pp. 163-164
  103. ^ Westemeier, p. 164
  104. ^ Malmedy massacre Investigation – Report of the Subcommittee of Committee on armed services – United States Senate –Eighty-first Congress, first session, pursuant to S. res. 42, Investigation of action of army with respect to trial of persons responsible for the massacre of American soldiers, Battle of the Bulge, near Malmedy, Belgium, December 1944, October 13, 1949
  105. ^ a b Westemeier, p. 176
  106. ^ Jochen Peiper, P Agte pp. 398-400
  107. ^ a b Westemeier, pp. 182-183
  108. ^ Westemeier, p. 183
  109. ^ Westemeier, pp. 176-179
  110. ^ Westemeier, p. 179
  111. ^ Unconventional Allies: Colonel Willis Everett and SS-Obersturmbannführer Joachim Peiper – James J. Weingartner – The Historian 1999
  112. ^ Westemeier, pp. 180-181
  113. ^ a b c Westemeier, p. 181
  114. ^ Westemeier, pp. 181-182.
  115. ^ a b c d e Westemeier, p. 184
  116. ^ a b c Westemeier, p. 185.
  117. ^ SPIEGEL 1976, pp. 56–57
  118. ^ Jochen Peiper, P Agte pp. 412-418.
  119. ^ Williamson, G. Waffen SS Handbook, p. 233.
  120. ^ Agte P, Jochen Peiper, p. 83.
  121. ^ Agte P, Jochen Peiper, p. 98.
  122. ^ Agte P, Jochen Peiper, p. 110.
  123. ^ Agte P, Jochen Peiper, pp 184-185.
  124. ^ a b Thomas 1998, p. 144.
  125. ^ Fellgiebel 2000, p. 334.
  126. ^ a b Scherzer 2007, p. 586.
  127. ^ Fellgiebel 2000, p. 77.
Bibliography
  • Agte, Patrick (2000). Jochen Peiper: Commander Panzerregiment Leibstandarte. J.J. Fedorowicz Publishing, Inc. ISBN 0-921991-46-0.
  • Berger, Florian (1999). Mit Eichenlaub und Schwertern. Die höchstdekorierten Soldaten des Zweiten Weltkrieges [With Oak Leaves and Swords. The Highest Decorated Soldiers of the Second World War] (in German). Vienna, Austria: Selbstverlag Florian Berger. ISBN 978-3-9501307-0-6. 
  • Fellgiebel, Walther-Peer (2000). Die Träger des Ritterkreuzes des Eisernen Kreuzes 1939–1945 – Die Inhaber der höchsten Auszeichnung des Zweiten Weltkrieges aller Wehrmachtsteile [The Bearers of the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross 1939–1945 — The Owners of the Highest Award of the Second World War of all Wehrmacht Branches] (in German). Friedberg, Germany: Podzun-Pallas. ISBN 978-3-7909-0284-6. 
  • Mitcham, Samuel W. (2006). Panzers in Winter: Hitler's Army and the Battle of the Bulge. Greenwood Press. ISBN 0-275-97115-5
  • Reynolds, Michael (2004). The Devil’s Adjutant: Jochen Peiper, Panzer Leader, Casemate Publishers and Book Distributors; Pbk edition. ISBN 1-86227-156-9
  • Scherzer, Veit (2007). Die Ritterkreuzträger 1939–1945 Die Inhaber des Ritterkreuzes des Eisernen Kreuzes 1939 von Heer, Luftwaffe, Kriegsmarine, Waffen-SS, Volkssturm sowie mit Deutschland verbündeter Streitkräfte nach den Unterlagen des Bundesarchives [The Knight's Cross Bearers 1939–1945 The Holders of the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross 1939 by Army, Air Force, Navy, Waffen-SS, Volkssturm and Allied Forces with Germany According to the Documents of the Federal Archives] (in German). Jena, Germany: Scherzers Miltaer-Verlag. ISBN 978-3-938845-17-2. 
  • Thomas, Franz (1998). Die Eichenlaubträger 1939–1945 Band 2: L–Z [The Oak Leaves Bearers 1939–1945 Volume 2: L–Z] (in German). Osnabrück, Germany: Biblio-Verlag. ISBN 978-3-7648-2300-9. 
  • Westemeier, Jens (2007). Joachim Peiper: A Biography of Himmler's SS Commander. Schiffer Publications, ISBN 978-0-7643-2659-2
  • Watt, Jim. "Jochen Peiper: Maligned Hero and Selected Campaign Series Notes." November 2001.
  • Williamson, Gordon (2003). Waffen-SS Handbook 1933-1945, Sutton Publishing Ltd. ISBN 0-7509-2927-8
  • Malmedy massacre Investigation – Report of the Subcommittee of Committee on armed services – United States Senate – Eighty-first Congress, first session, pursuant to S. res. 42, Investigation of action of army with respect to trial of persons responsible for the massacre of American soldiers, battle of the Bulge, near Malmedy, Belgium, December 1944, published 13 October 1949.
  • "Pech für ihn". Der Spiegel (in German) (30): 56–57. 1976. 
  • "The Battle of the Bulge" (1965) at the Internet Movie Database
  • "The Night of the Generals" (1967) at the Internet Movie Database
  • No Author. "Jochen Peiper."

External links[edit]