Joan Beaufort, Queen of Scots
|Tenure||2 February 1424 – 21 February 1437|
|Spouse||James I of Scotland (m. 1424-1437)
James Stewart, the Black Knight of Lorn (m. 1439-1445)
|Margaret, Dauphine of France
Isabella, Duchess of Brittany
Eleanor, Archduchess of Austria
Mary, Countess of Buchan
Joan, Countess of Morton
James II of Scotland
Alexander, Duke of Rothesay
Annabella, Countess of Huntly
John, 1st Earl of Atholl
James, 1st Earl of Buchan
Andrew Stewart, Bishop of Moray
|House||House of Beaufort|
|Father||John Beaufort, 1st Earl of Somerset|
|Died||15 July 1445
(aged c. 41)|
Dunbar Castle, East Lothian
Joan Beaufort (c. 1404 – 15 July 1445) was the Queen Consort of Scotland from 1424 to 1437 as the spouse of King James I of Scotland. During part of the minority of her son James II (from 1437 to 1439), she served as the Regent of Scotland.
Background and early life
She was a daughter of John Beaufort, 1st Earl of Somerset, and Margaret Holland, and a half-niece of King Henry IV of England. Joan was named after her aunt, Joan Beaufort, Countess of Westmorland. James I of Scotland met Joan during his time as a prisoner in England, and knew her from at least 1420. She is said to have been the inspiration for James's famous long poem, The Kingis Quair, written in his captivity after he saw her from his window in the garden. Rosalind Kay Marshall cites the poem as evidence of a love match on his part, but speculates that Joan may have been less warm, as two of her brothers had recently been captured by the Scots. However, the marriage was primarily political; James had negotiated a release from captivity the previous year, and from an English perspective an alliance with the Beauforts was meant to continue his country's alliance with the English, rather than the French. Negotiations resulted in Joan's dowry of 10,000 merks being subtracted from his substantial ransom.
Queen of Scotland
On 12 February 1424 at St Mary Overie Church in Southwark, Joan married James I. She was crowned queen consort on 2 or 21, May at Scone Abbey. They were feasted at Winchester Palace that year by her uncle Cardinal Henry Beaufort. She joined her husband on his return from captivity to Scotland that year. At his coronation at Scone, when James received the allegiance of his Tenants-in-chief, he had them swear their allegiance to Joan as well, as if she was a co-monarch. As queen, she often pleaded with the king for those who might be executed.
James I was assassinated in Perth on 21 February 1437. Joan had also been a target of assassination along with her husband, but managed to escape with just injuries. She successfully directed her husband's supporters to attack his assassin Walter Stewart, Earl of Atholl, but was forced to give up power three months later. The prospect of being ruled by an English woman was unpopular, as was her association with the dead king's policies. The Earl of Douglas was thus appointed to power, though Joan remained in charge of her son.
Near the end of July 1439, she married James Stewart, the Black Knight of Lorne after obtaining a papal dispensation for both consanguinity and affinity. James was an ally of the latest Earl of Douglas, and plotted with him to overthrow Alexander Livingston, governor of Stirling Castle, during the minority of James II. Livingston arrested Joan in August 1439 and forced her to relinquish custody of the young king. In 1445, the conflict continued and she fell under siege at Dunbar Castle, where she died on 15 July 1445. She was buried in the Carthusian Priory at Perth.
Issue with James I of Scotland
- Margaret Stewart, Princess of Scotland (1424–1445) married Prince Louis, Dauphin of Viennois (later King Louis XI of France)
- Isabella Stewart, Princess of Scotland (1426–1494) married Francis I, Duke of Brittany
- Mary Stewart, Countess of Buchan (died 1465) married Wolfart VI van Borsselen
- Joan of Scotland, Countess of Morton (c. 1428–1486) married James Douglas, 1st Earl of Morton
- Alexander Stewart, Duke of Rothesay (born and died 1430); Twin of James
- James II of Scotland (1430–1460)
- Annabella Stewart, Princess of Scotland married and divorced 1. Louis of Savoy, and then married and divorced 2. George Gordon, 2nd Earl of Huntly
- Eleanor Stewart, Princess of Scotland (1433–1484) married Sigismund, Archduke of Austria.
Issue with James Stewart, the Black Knight of Lorne
- John Stewart, 1st Earl of Atholl (c. 1440 – 1512)
- James Stewart, 1st Earl of Buchan (d. 1498/1500)
- Andrew Stewart, Bishop of Moray (c. 1443 – 1501)
|Ancestors of Joan Beaufort, Queen of Scots|
- Brown 2004.
- Marshall 2003, p. 50.
- Marshall 2003, pp. 49–50.
- Marshall 2003, pp. 49–51.
- Marshall 2003, pp. 50–51.
- Weir 2008, p. 232.
- Marshall 2003, pp. 51–52.
- Weir 2008, p. 92.
- Weir 2008, p. 93.
- Weir 2007, p. 6.
- Weir 2008, p. 125.
- Browning 1898, p. 288.
- Weir 2008, pp. 94–95.
- Weir 2008, pp. 94, 125.
- Weir 2008, pp. 97, 104.
- Weir 2008, p. 77.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Joan Beaufort, Queen of Scots.|
- Brown, M.H. (2004). "Joan [Joan Beaufort] (d. 1445)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/14646. Retrieved 21 November 2013. (subscription required)
- Browning, Charles H. (1898). The Magna Carta Barons and Their American Descendants. London: Genealogical Publishing Company.
- Marshall, Rosalind (2003). Scottish Queens, 1034-1714. Tuckwell Press.
- Weir, Alison (2008). Britain's Royal Families, The Complete Genealogy. London: Vintage Books. ISBN 978-0-09-953973-5.
- Weir, Alison (2007). Mistress of the Monarchy: The Life of Katherine Swynford, Duchess of Lancaster. London: Random House. ISBN 978-0-345-45323-5.
|Queen consort of Scotland
Mary of Guelders
Marie de Coucy
Mary of Guelders