Joaquim Chissano

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Joaquim Alberto Chissano
Joaquim Chissano (cropped).jpg
2nd President of Mozambique
In office
6 November 1986 – 2 February 2005
Prime Minister Mário da Graça Machungo
Pascoal Mocumbi
Luisa Diogo
Preceded by Samora Machel
Succeeded by Armando Guebuza
Personal details
Born (1939-10-22) 22 October 1939 (age 74)
Gaza Province, State of East Africa
Political party FRELIMO
Spouse(s) Marcelina Rafael Chissano
Religion Roman Catholicism

Joaquim Alberto Chissano (born 22 October 1939) served as the second President of Mozambique from 1986 to 2005. He is credited with transforming the war-torn country of Mozambique into one of the most successful African democracies.[1] After his presidency, Chissano became an elder statesman, envoy and diplomat for both his home country and the United Nations.

Early life[edit]

Joaquim Chissano was born in the remote village of Malehice, Chibuto district, Gaza Province of the Portuguese colony of Mozambique (then called Portuguese East Africa). Chissano was the first black student to attend the only high school in the colony, Liceu Salazar in Lourenço Marques (present-day Maputo).[1] After leaving secondary school, he went to Portugal to study medicine[1] at the Faculty of Medicine of the University of Lisbon.[citation needed] However, his political leanings caused him problems and he moved to Tanzania.[1]

Career[edit]

Chissano became "one of the founding members" of the Mozambique Liberation Front (Frelimo) which demanded autonomy from Portugal.[1] A few decades later Chissano played a fundamental role in the negotiation of the Lusaka Accord of 1974, which led the way for the country's independence in 1975.[1] The new president of Mozambique, Samora Machel, appointed him foreign minister.[1]

President of Mozambique[edit]

Chissano succeeded to the presidency and Frelimo part leader in 1986 when Samora Machel's presidential aircraft crashed in mountainous terrain in South Africa.[2][3] Chissano ended the Mozambican Civil War in 1992 by negotiating a peace treaty with the rebel forces that "promised no prosecutions or punishments" and gave the them 50% of the positions in the Mozambiquan army.[4] The Renamo rebels later established their own political party.

Chissano meets the President of Brazil, Lula da Silva in 2004.

In 1992, Chissano learnt the Transcendental Meditation technique and introduced it to other government officials and their families.[5] Two years later, Chissano and his generals ordered all police and military to "meditate twice a day for 20 minutes."[6] In addition, 16,000 soldiers and 30,000 civilians were taught Transcendental Meditation and its advanced technique of Yogic Flying. According to Transcendental Meditation literature, Chissano said the result was "political peace and balance in nature in my country."[6] According to Tobias Dai, the 2001 defence minister, "the effect was overwhelming" and included reduced crime, drought aversion and three times the expected level of economic growth.[6] In 1993 Chissano received an honorary degree from Maharishi Vedic University in MERU, Holland[7] and in 1994 negotiated an agreement with Maharishi Heaven on Earth Development for the agricultural development of 20 million hectares (49,000,000 acres) of "unused land"[8] beginning with 2.5 million acres of timber, cotton and fruit.[5] The 50-year contract promised 20% to 40% of the profits for the Mozambique government[5][9] but other government officials refused the deal.[10]

Chissanno was reelected to the presidency in 1994 and again in 1999, when he defeated the former rebel leader, Afonso Dhlakama.[1] After winning re-election Chissano's priority became poverty eradication but his efforts were complicated by a severe flood in 2001.[1] However, Chissano had a fundamental role in convincing the G8 to write off £22 billion of Mozambique debt in 2005.[1] Chissano chose not to run for a third term in the elections of 2004, although the constitution would have allowed him to do so.[4] During Chissano's presidency, 20 million people, almost 15% of the country's citizens were removed from "extreme poverty"[4] and the country achieved an economic growth rate of eight percent.[1] In addition, child mortality rates for children under age five decreased by 35% and there was a 65% increase in primary school attendance.[4]

Post presidency[edit]

Since leaving the presidency Chissano has assumed the role of elder statesman and has campaigned for peace through his work as an envoy and peace negotiator for the United Nations.[4] Chissano served as Chairperson of the African Union from July 2003 to July 2004.[citation needed] On 4 December 2006, the United Nations Secretary-General Kofi Annan appointed Chissano the Special Envoy of the Secretary-General to Northern Uganda and Southern Sudan, to resolve the conflict with the Lord's Resistance Army (LRA). On Chissano's 68th birthday in 2007, he was awarded the inaugural $5 million Prize for Achievement in African Leadership awarded by the Mo Ibrahim Foundation.[4][11][12] Chissano was absent from the award ceremony because he was still working on his United Nations mission in southern Sudan.[1] According to the award's judges "Mr Chissano's decision not to seek a third presidential term reinforced Mozambique's democratic maturity and demonstrated that institutions and the democratic process were more important than the person".[1]

In 2010, Chissano wrote an article for The Huffington Post about water scarcity in Africa.[13] Chissano is a member of the Fondation Chirac's honour committee.[14] He is also an independent non-executive director at Harmony Gold Mining, a South African underground and surface gold mining company,[15] as well as an Eminent Member of the Sergio Vieira de Mello Foundation[citation needed] and a member of the Club of Madrid.[16]

In 2014, Chissano has spoken out in favor of LGBT rights in Africa.[17]

Awards and nominations[edit]

Personal life[edit]

Joaquim Chissano is married to Marcelina Rafael Chissano. He is the father of four children and his son received a scholarship to Maharishi International University in Fairfield, Iowa.[20] Chissano has been criticized for his continued friendship with President Robert Mugabe and there have been allegations that Chissano's now deceased son, Nyimpine Chissano had promised payment for the assassination of journalist Carlos Cardoso.[1]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Soares, Claire (23 October 2007). "Joaquim Chissano: Democrat among the despots". The Independent. Retrieved 23 January 2013. 
  2. ^ Unknown author (2012). The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Columbia University Press. 
  3. ^ Mozambican Tupolev Tu-134 air disaster
  4. ^ a b c d e f Taylor, Steve (10 December 2012) Can Meditation Change the World? The amazing story of the 'meditating president Psychology Today, accessed 31 December 2012
  5. ^ a b c Keller, Bill (10 February 1994). "Beatle's Guru Offers Nirvana to Mozambique". New York Times. Retrieved 23 January 2013. 
  6. ^ a b c Astill, James (22 September 2001). "Meditation is path to peace, Mozambique leader says: Former Marxist guerrilla turned president spreads the word of the Beatles' guru to his ministers and the military". The Guardian (Manchester (UK)). p. 19. 
  7. ^ VAN NIEKERK, PHILLIP (27 November 1994). "Mozambique and yogic cult start project to create Utopia Phillip van Niekerk reports from Maputo on moves by the guru of the Beatles to run a quarter of the country.". The Guardian (Manchester (UK)). 
  8. ^ BERESFORD, DAVID (28 October 1994). "Guru to create heaven on earth". The Guardian (Manchester (UK)). 
  9. ^ Abgrall, Jean-Marie (2000). Soul snatchers: the mechanics of cults. Algora Publishing. p. 48. ISBN 978-1-892941-04-6. 
  10. ^ VAN NIEKERK, PHILLIP (27 November 1994). "Mozambique and yogic cult start project to create Utopia Phillip van Niekerk reports from Maputo on moves by the guru of the Beatles to run a quarter of the country". The Guardian (Manchester (UK)). 
  11. ^ Joaquim Chissano wins the largest prize in the world
  12. ^ "Mozambique ex-leader wins prize". BBC News. 22 October 2007. Retrieved 22 October 2007. 
  13. ^ "For Africa, Water Is Life", 22 March 2010, Huffington Post
  14. ^ Fondation Chirac's honour committee
  15. ^ Joaquim Chissano on Forbes, Forbes
  16. ^ Unknown author, (1 May 2012) The Club de Madrid supports the Mexican Presidency of the G20 in its Green Growth Agenda Club de Madrid official web site, accessed 24 January 2013
  17. ^ http://www.theafricareport.com/Soapbox/an-open-letter-to-africas-leaders-joaquim-chissano-former-president-of-mozambique.html
  18. ^ Aislinn Laing, Past winners of the Mo Ibrahim Prize, Telegraph, 10 October 2011
  19. ^ BBC News profile of Joaquim Chissano
  20. ^ KELLER, BILL (20 February 1994). "Heavenly Plans for Mozambique". San Francisco Chronicle. p. 3. 

External links[edit]

Political offices
Preceded by
Samora Machel
President of Mozambique
1986–2005
Succeeded by
Armando Guebuza
Preceded by
Thabo Mbeki
Chairperson of the African Union
2003–2004
Succeeded by
Olusegun Obasanjo
Preceded by
New post
Special Envoy of the Secretary-General for LRA-affected areas
2007–present day
Succeeded by
Incumbent
Awards and achievements
Preceded by
New award
Prize for Achievement in African Leadership
2007
Succeeded by
Festus Mogae