Jocelyn Faubert

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Jocelyn Faubert
Born 1959
Residence Montreal, Quebec
Nationality Canadian
Fields Psychophysics, Neuroscience
Institutions University of Montreal (professor), U of M Laboratory of Psychophysics and Visual Perception (director), NSERC (chair of industrial research on visual function)
Alma mater Ph.D. (1991) Concordia University
Doctoral students Selma Greffou, Eva-Maria Hahl, Jean-Marie Hanssens, Isabelle Legault, Jean-Claude Piponnier
Known for Neurophysics, Visual Perception

Prof. Jocelyn Faubert (born 1959) is a psychophysicist best known for his work in the fields of visual perception, vision of the elderly, and neuropsychology. Professor Faubert holds the NSERC-Essilor Industrial Research Chair in Visual Perception and Presbyopia.[1] He is the director of the Laboratory of Psychophysics and Visual Perception at the University of Montreal.[2] Professor Faubert has also been involved in the award-winning[3] transfer of research and developments from the laboratory into the commercial domain. He is a co-founder and member of the Board of Directors of CogniSens Inc.[4]

Dr. Faubert obtained his M.Sc. and Ph.D. from Concordia University in Montreal, Quebec. Faubert's early work was related to aging, vision, and glaucoma.[5][6] More recently, his work has focused on neuroplasticity as it relates to visual perception and cognitive performance.

Psychophysics and Visual Perception Laboratory[edit]

Dr. Faubert oversees the work of over ten masters and doctoral students as well as a team of researchers and post-doctoral fellows[7] in his multidisciplinary psychophysical and visual perception laboratory. He has been director for over 20 years. research areas include:

Over 130 Peer-reviewed articles[8] have resulted from the research conducted at the laboratory, as well as several patents. One of the stated aims of the University of Montreal's laboratory is to develop technologies for use in the society at large;[9] applying research resulting from investigations into aging and perceptual-cognitive performance to the commercial domain.

Technologies[edit]

The laboratory makes use of several suites of sophisticated technology to conduct its research:

  • EON Icube : A Multi-sided immersive environment in which participants are completely surrounded by virtual imagery and 3D sound.[10]
  • CAVE  :The Cave Automatic Virtual Environment is an advanced display system of the size of a room. It combines stereoscopic projection and high-resolution 3D computer graphics to create the illusion of being present in a virtual environment.[11]
  • EEG: the recording of electrical activity along the scalp produced by the firing of neurons within the brain. EEG refers to the recording of the brain's spontaneous electrical activity over a short period of time as recorded from multiple electrodes placed on the scalp.
  • Driving Simulator: An immersive 180° field-of-view screen with simulated rear and side-view mirrors. Used extensively in research into the driving capacity of the elderly.

Laboratory research populations[edit]

The laboratory utilises its 3D technologies and diagnostic equipment to investigate perceptual cognitive issues in various populations: adults, the elderly,[12] children,[13] autistics[14] and those suffering from mild Traumatic Brain Injury (mTBI).[15]

Research programs[edit]

Using the immersive virtual reality technologies of the laboratory, Professor Faubert and his researchers are able to use custom-made programs in the CAVE, Icube and Driving Simulator to investigate areas of research interest. These include:

Scientific research[edit]

Aging and visual perception[edit]

In a number of studies, Dr. Faubert and colleagues were able to pinpoint the effect of normal aging on visual and perceptual functions. One important study demonstrated that it is not the physical tools of vision which are affected by aging. Rather, it is a loss of computational or processing ability of the brain that ultimately affects visual perception as people age.[16][17][18][19][20]

Development Disorders and Visual Perception[edit]

In a number of studies, Dr. Faubert and colleagues examined the impact of developmental disorders (autism, fragile x syndrome, etc.) on visual function. They were able to demonstrate that in the case of autism (unlike fragile x), patients' results are not pathway-specific, but rather are dependent on the complexity of the neural processing required to perceive the image. Over the course of their studies, Dr. Faubert and colleagues observed autism patients who could significantly outperform the general population at certain visual tasks, and patients who could significantly underperform the general population at the same tasks.[21][22]

Illusions[edit]

The laboratory engages in research concerning illusions in order to investigate perceptual function. For example, the peripheral drift illusion illustrates that temporal differences in luminance processing produce a signal that tricks the motion system.[23]

Mild perceptual impairment[edit]

Mild Perceptual Impairment (MPI) is a term that covers the deficits in complex perception that accompany reduced cognitive ability in the elderly, those affected by Autism, and also those individuals suffering from mild Traumatic Brain Injury (mTBI).[24] Professor Faubert's recent research has covered the detection of these deficits through detecting distinct "perceptual signatures" as well as through simulated optic flow in a virtual environment,[25] assessing postural reactivity to determine cognitive-perceptual levels.

Awards and honors[edit]

Dr. Faubert has received many accolades from the scientific community. He has seven distinct patents registered worldwide. He has acted as a referee for more than 17 peer-reviewed academic journals. He has been a guest lecturer over 20 times since 2004, including the Joe Brunei Award lecture in recognition for outstanding contributions in Ophthalmic Optics in 2009.

Patents[edit]

Dr. Faubert has been actively engaged in transferring technology from the academic world to the biomedical industry. This has led to seven distinct patents (3 delivered, 4 pending) all of which are licensed to spin-off companies.

Between 2007 and 2009, Dr. Faubert and colleagues patented a series of technologies designed to aid in the assessment and intervention of early neurobiological alterations (NBA) such as concussions, dementia, developmental disorders (e.g. autism, fragile x) etc.[26][27][28] In 2010, a spin-off company licensed these technologies with a variety of medical and athletic purposes.[4]

In 1999, Dr. Faubert, along with Vasile Diaconu, patented "On-line Spectroreflectometry Oxygenation Measurement in the Eye" (O.S.O.M.E). This development allows doctors to measure a patient's blood oxygen level non-invasively. The device instead is able to check the color of the retinal artery at the back of the eye and render a precise measurement in a matter of seconds.[29][30][31][32] This technology and 2 other related technologies are licensed to a spin-off company that is fabricating new generation retinal cameras for ophthalmologists and optometrists.

Technology transfer[edit]

Dr. Faubert and the Visual Perception and Psychophysics Laboratory have been involved in transferring laboratory developments into the commercial domain since 1999.[29] Several funding agencies have been involved in brokering this technology transfer. From the commercial domain, Essilor (an ophthalmic lens company) has partnered with the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC). Together, their aim has been to explore the connection between aging, visual perception, and posture. Dr. Faubert has been a chairholder at the NSERC since 2003, at which time his laboratory received a five-year grant (renewed in 2008).[1]

In a separate commercial venture, Dr. Faubert's Laboratory has partnered with Univalor (a technology transfer specialist), CogniSens Inc.[33] (a biomedical technology company) and Cognisens Athletics Inc.,[34] licensing four technologies related to visual perception and brain function. The aim of this partnership is to commercialize Dr. Faubert's research in the medical and team sports markets. Applications include concussion detection (NeuroMinder C3)[35] and perceptual-cognitive training (NeuroTracker).[4][36]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "NSERC - Chairholder Profile". Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada. 2009-01-15. Retrieved 2011-01-25. 
  2. ^ "Visual Perception and Psychophysics Laboratory". University of Montreal School of Optometry. 2010. Retrieved 2011-01-18. 
  3. ^ Lewis, Rob (2010-10-13). "Canada's Top 10 selected in Technology, Cleantech, and Life Sciences". TechVibes. Retrieved 2011-01-25. 
  4. ^ a b c "Corporate Information". CogniSens Inc. 2009. Retrieved 2011-01-18. 
  5. ^ Faubert, Jocelyn (1986), "Temporal, spatial and chromatic mechanisms: their interrelationship in the glaucomatous eye", Concordia University, 4402 
  6. ^ Faubert, Jocelyn (1991), "Retino-geniculate pathways and the spatio-temporal properties of the human visual system in normal, aging, and glaucomatous vision", Concordia University, 4120 
  7. ^ "Membres". Visual Psychophysics and Perception Laboratory. University of Montreal. Retrieved 2011-02-03. 
  8. ^ "Publications". Laboratoire de psychophysique et de perception visuelle, Université de Montréal. Retrieved 2011-01-27. 
  9. ^ "Du laboratoire au marché" (in French). University of Montreal communications and public relations office. Retrieved 2011-01-27. 
  10. ^ "Eon Icube". Eon Reality Website. Eon Reality. Retrieved 2011-01-26. 
  11. ^ "The CAVE: A Virtual Reality Theater". HPCCV Publications. HPCCV Publications. Retrieved 2011-01-26. 
  12. ^ Faubert, Jocelyn (2002). "Visual perception and aging". Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology 56: 164–76. doi:10.1037/h0087394. Retrieved 2011-02-03. 
  13. ^ Faubert, Jocelyn; A. Bertone, J. Hanck, K.M. Cornish (2008). "Development of static and dynamic perception for luminance-defined and texture-defined information". NeuroReport 19 (2): 225–228. Retrieved 2011-02-03. 
  14. ^ Faubert, Jocelyn; A. Bertone (2006). "Demonstrations of decreased sensitivity to complex motion information not enough to propose autism-specific neural etiology". Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 36: 55–64. Retrieved 2011-02-03. 
  15. ^ Faubert, Jocelyn; O. Brosseau-Lachaine; R. Forget; O. Gagnon (2008). "Mild traumatic brain injury induces prolonged visual processing deficits in children". Brain Injury 22 (9): 657–68. Retrieved 2011-02-03. 
  16. ^ Faubert, J; Legault, I; Allard, R (Dec 2007), "Normal aging and the perception of curvature shapes", Optometry and Vision Science 84 (12): 1087–92, PMID 18091307 
  17. ^ Faubert, J; Laframboise, S; De Guise, D (Aug 2006), "Effect of aging on stereoscopic interocular correlation", Optometry and Vision Science 83 (8): 589–93, PMID 16909084 
  18. ^ Faubert, J; Habak, C (2000). "Larger effect of aging on the perception of higher-order stimuli". Vision Research 40: 943–950. doi:10.1016/S0042-6989(99)00235-7. PMID 10720665. Retrieved 2011-01-27. 
  19. ^ Herbert, A; Overbury, O; Singh, J; Faubert, J (2002). "Aging and Bilateral Symmetry Detection". Journal of Gerontology 57B (3): 241–245. Retrieved 2011-01-27. 
  20. ^ Faubert, J (2002). "Visual Perception and Aging". Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology 56 (3): 164–176. doi:10.1037/h0087394. Retrieved 2011-01-27. 
  21. ^ Faubert, J; Bertone, A; Mottron, L; Jelenic, P (Oct 2005), "Enhanced and diminished visuo-spatial information processing in autism depends on stimulus complexity", Brain 128 (10): 2430–2441, doi:10.1093/brain/awh561, PMID 15958508 
  22. ^ Faubert, J; Cogan, C. S. (Nov 2004), "Integrative cortical dysfunction and pervasive motion perception deficit in fragile X syndrome", Neurology 63 (9): 1634–1639, doi:10.1212/01.WNL.0000142987.44035.3B 
  23. ^ Faubert, Jocelyn; , Andrew M Herbert (1999). "The peripheral drift illusion: A motion illusion in the visual periphery". Perception 28: 617–21. doi:10.1068/p2825. Retrieved 2011-02-03. 
  24. ^ Faubert, Jocelyn; Brosseau-Lachaine, O., Gagnon I., Forget, R. (2008). "Mild traumatic brain injury induces prolonged visual processing deficits in children". Brain Injury 22 (9): 657–68. Retrieved 2011-01-27. 
  25. ^ Faubert, Jocelyn; Jean-Marie Hanssens, Philippe Turpin-Lavallée, Roshan Soowamber (2010-08-13). "Visual control of posture as a function of age and cognitive task and its relationship with subjective discomfort". Journal of Vision 10 (7): 1022. doi:10.1167/10.7.1022. Retrieved 2011-01-27. 
  26. ^ PCT/CA2010/000439, Faubert, J & A Bertone, "Device and Method for Measuring Mild Perceptual Impairment", published 2010-09-23  Link
  27. ^ CA WO/2010/037222, Faubert, J & D Tinjust, "Method and Device for Assessing, Training, and Improving Perceptual-cognitive Abilities of Individuals", published 2010-04-08  Link
  28. ^ CA 12/446338, Faubert, J; R Doti & J Lugo-Arce, "Method and System for Improving a Subject's Sensory, Reflex and/or Motor Mechanisms via Auditory, Tactile or Visual Stimulations", published 2011-01-13  Link
  29. ^ a b US 005919132A, Faubert, J & V Diaconu, "On-line and Real-time Spectroreflectometry Measurement of Oxygenation in a Patient's Eye", published 1998-03-26, issued 1999-07-06  Link
  30. ^ WO/1999/048418, Faubert, J & V Diaconu, "Spectroreflectometric Measurement of Oxygenation in a Patient's Eye", published 1998-03-26, issued 1999-07-06  Link
  31. ^ US 006149589A, Diaconu, V & J Faubert, "On-line and Real-time Spectroreflectometry Measurement of Oxygenation in a Patient's Eye", published 1999-03-22, issued 2000-11-21  Link
  32. ^ US 006416481B2, Faubert, J & V Diaconu, "Flicker-induced interocular transfer-of-oxygenation for non-invasively assessing the neural integrity of a patient's central nervous system", published 2001-04-27, issued 2002-07-09  Link
  33. ^ "Cognisens Inc.". Retrieved 2011-02-04. 
  34. ^ "Cognisens Athletics". Retrieved 2011-02-04. 
  35. ^ Hadekel, Peter (2010-12-22). "Start-up assesses Athlete Concussions". The Montreal Gazette. Retrieved 2011-02-03. 
  36. ^ "Licenses and Assignments". Univalor. 2010. Retrieved 2011-02-03. 

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