Stein in 1971
|Full name||Jock Stein CBE|
|Date of birth||5 October 1922|
|Place of birth||Burnbank, South Lanarkshire, Scotland|
|Date of death||10 September 1985(aged 62)|
|Place of death||Cardiff, Wales|
|Playing position||Centre half|
|1954||Scottish League XI||1||(0)|
|* Senior club appearances and goals counted for the domestic league only.
† Appearances (Goals).
John 'Jock' Stein CBE (5 October 1922 – 10 September 1985) was a Scottish football player and manager. He became the first manager of a British side to win the European Cup, with Celtic in 1967. Stein also guided Celtic to nine successive Scottish League championships between 1966 and 1974.
Stein worked as a coalminer while playing football part-time for Blantyre Victoria and then Albion Rovers. He became a full-time professional football player with Welsh club Llanelli Town, but returned to Scotland with Celtic in 1951. He enjoyed some success with Celtic, winning the Coronation Cup in 1953 and a Scottish league and Scottish Cup double in 1954. Ankle injuries forced Stein to retire from playing football in 1957.
Celtic appointed Stein to coach their reserve team after he retired as a player. Stein started his managerial career in 1960 with Dunfermline, where he won the Scottish Cup in 1961 and achieved some notable results in European football. After a brief but successful spell at Hibernian, Stein returned to Celtic as manager in March 1965. In thirteen years at Celtic, Stein won the European Cup, ten Scottish league championships, eight Scottish Cups and six Scottish League Cups. After a brief stint with Leeds United, Stein managed the Scottish national side from 1978 until his death in 1985.
Born in Burnbank, South Lanarkshire, Stein saw football as his escape from the Lanarkshire coal mines. In 1937 he left Greenfield school in Hamilton and after a short time working in a carpet factory went down the pits to become a miner. In 1940, Stein agreed to sign for Burnbank Athletic, but his father vehemently objected. Soon afterwards, he instead joined Blantyre Victoria, another local junior club.
Stein first played for senior club Albion Rovers as a trialist in a 4–4 draw against Celtic on 14 November 1942. Three weeks later, manager Webber Lees signed Stein for the Coatbridge club. He continued to work as a miner during the week, which was a reserved occupation during the Second World War. This allowed Stein to play regularly, as many of their other players were serving in the Armed Forces. He had a brief loan spell with Dundee United in 1943. Rovers won promotion to the First Division in 1947–48, for only the fourth time in the club's history. During the 1948–49 season, Rovers conceded 105 goals, won only three league games out of 30 and were relegated back to the Second Division.
In 1950, Stein signed for non-league Welsh club Llanelli. For the first time in his career, he became a full-time professional footballer, earning £12 per week. Llanelli had gained promotion to the Southern League in 1950 and signed several Scottish professionals. In 1951, the club's application to join the Football League was rejected and there were rumours of financial problems. All but two of the Scottish professionals left.
Stein initially left his wife Jean and young daughter Ray in Scotland when he moved to Llanelli. His family moved down soon afterwards, but his council house in Hamilton was burgled about eight weeks after they moved. Jean wanted to return to Scotland, and Stein accepted her desire in light of his own disillusionment with the problems at the club. When asked what he would do by the Llanelli manager, Stein said he would probably quit football and become a miner again.
In December 1951, on the recommendation of reserve team trainer Jimmy Gribben, Celtic bought him for £1,200. He was signed as a reserve but injuries incurred by first team players resulted in him being elevated to the first team. In 1952 he was appointed vice-captain; when captain Sean Fallon suffered a broken arm, the captaincy was passed to Stein.
Celtic finished eighth in the Scottish League during 1952–53 and were only invited to the pan-British Coronation Cup tournament due to their large support base. Celtic beat Arsenal, Manchester United and Hibernian to win the trophy. This success was built upon in 1953–54, as Stein captained the side that won a League and Scottish Cup double. It was their first League championship since 1938 and first League and Scottish Cup double since 1914. As a reward for their achievement, the club paid for all of the players to attend the 1954 FIFA World Cup in Switzerland. Celtic had also sent their players to watch the England v Hungary match in 1953. Stein was influenced by Scotland's poor preparation and the impressive performance of Hungary. Stein received his only international recognition in 1954, when he was selected for the Scottish Football League XI. It was not a happy experience for Stein, as his direct opponent, Bedford Jezzard, scored two goals as The Football League XI won 4–0 at Stamford Bridge.
In 1954–55, Celtic finished second in the league and lost the 1955 Scottish Cup Final to Clyde. Stein was forced to retire from football after suffering persistent ankle injuries during the 1955–56 season. While playing in a friendly in Coleraine in May 1956, he landed awkwardly and rolled over on the ankle. Two weeks later he had an operation to remove a bone nodule, after which he was ordered to rest until fully recuperated. While on a holiday in Blackpool, the ankle irritated Stein, who found that it had become septic. He was no longer able to flex the joint and had to stop playing, officially retiring on 29 January 1957.
In July 1957, Stein was given the job of coaching the Celtic reserve team. His squad included a number of young players who would later play under him in the first team, including Billy McNeill, Bobby Murdoch and John Clark. In his first season as a coach, Stein won the Reserve Cup with an 8–2 aggregate triumph over Rangers. Despite this success, Stein felt he could not progress further at Celtic due to his Protestant faith; Celtic had only previously appointed Catholics as manager. It was later suggested that Stein was allowed to leave Celtic temporarily with the intention of later appointing him manager, but there was no evidence for this.
On 14 March 1960, Stein was appointed manager of Dunfermline. When Stein was appointed, the team were only two points above last place and mired in a battle against relegation. The team had not won in four months, but then won their first six matches managed by Stein. To build upon this initial success, Stein signed Willie Cunningham and Tommy McDonald from Leicester City. Dunfermline became a powerful force and Stein guided them to their first Scottish Cup victory in 1961, winning 2–0 in a replayed Final against Celtic. This success prompted job offers from Newcastle United and Hibernian, both of which were rejected by Stein.
In the 1961–62 season, Dunfermline progressed to the quarter-final of the 1961–62 European Cup Winners' Cup and finished in fourth place in the league. Their league position earned a place in the Fairs Cup after a Greek club withdrew. Dunfermline defeated Everton in the 1962–63 Fairs Cup and retrieved a four goal deficit against Valencia, but then lost in a play-off game. Towards the end of the 1963–64 season, it became apparent that Hibs wanted to replace their manager, Walter Galbraith. It was reported in the media on 27 February that Stein would leave Dunfermline at the end of the season. A fortnight later, amidst speculation that Stein would move to Hibernian, Galbraith left the Edinburgh club. On 28 March, Dunfermline lost in a Scottish Cup semi-final against Rangers. It was announced two days later that Stein would leave Dunfermline with immediate effect, allowing him to take charge at Hibernian.
Stein was appointed manager of Hibernian in March 1964. Although Hibs had a bigger support base than Dunfermline and had enjoyed success in the 1950s, the club was struggling. When Stein was appointed, Hibs were in 12th place and struggling against relegation during the 1963–64 season. The players noticed an immediate difference between Stein and previous managers, in that Stein would take an active part in practice sessions. Stein built his defence around John McNamee, who had been discarded by Celtic, and Pat Stanton. In midfield he had Pat Quinn and Willie Hamilton, who were talented players but had under-achieved. Hamilton had problems with drinking and gambling, but he produced his best performances under Stein's guidance. Stein led Hibs to victory in the Summer Cup, their first trophy in ten years. The 1964–65 league season started with an Edinburgh derby defeat by Hearts, but Hibs managed to recover from this setback. Stein then invited Real Madrid for a friendly game in Edinburgh, which Hibernian won 2–0 in front of a crowd of 32,000, further boosting his prestige.
Wolves then approached Stein, as they wanted him to replace Stan Cullis as their manager. Stein then approached Celtic chairman Bob Kelly, obstensibly to ask his advice about the Wolves job, but in the hope that he would be offered the Celtic manager's post. Kelly was prepared initially to offer Stein the position of assistant manager to Sean Fallon, which Stein rejected. Kelly then offered Stein the chance to be joint manager with Fallon, which was also rejected. Stein insisted on full control, and suggested he would take the Wolves job instead. Billy McNeill expressed the belief that Kelly's reluctance to offer Stein full control was due to his religion. Eventually Kelly agreed to offer Stein full powers over team selection. Hibs tried to convince Stein to stay, even attempting to persuade his wife Jean, but becoming Celtic manager had been his long-held ambition. While Stein was still Hibs manager, he arranged for Celtic to sign Bertie Auld from Birmingham City. Stein had also allowed Hibs goalkeeper Ronnie Simpson to join Celtic. With hindsight, some people claimed this was a deliberate ploy to move Simpson to Celtic before Stein himself moved, but in fact it was due to a wage dispute.
It was announced on 31 January that Stein would leave Hibs for Celtic at the end of the 1964–65 season. Stein left Hibs in early March, after he had arranged for Dundee manager Bob Shankly to take the Hibs job. When Stein left, Hibs were near the top of the league and in the semi-finals of the 1964–65 Scottish Cup. Hibs had defeated Rangers in the quarter-final, in his last game as Hibs manager. They failed to win either competition, however, and Stein later admitted that "leaving Hibs at that time was probably my most embarrassing experience in football". Stein was statistically the best ever manager of Hibs, with a win rate of 62%.
He returned to Celtic in March 1965, becoming the club's first Protestant manager and the fourth manager in club history. Celtic were struggling in the league and continued to have mixed results, winning his first game 6–0 at Airdrie, but then losing 4–2 to Hibs and 6–2 to Falkirk. In the period between the announcement of Stein's move to Celtic and his arrival, Celtic had progressed to the semi-finals of the 1964–65 Scottish Cup. Celtic were drawn against Motherwell, who had dangerous forwards such as Joe McBride and Willie Hunter. Stein prepared the Celtic players with tactical advice, which they had never received before. Celtic came from behind twice against Motherwell to force a replay, which they won 3–0. This set up a final against Dunfermline, who had beaten Hibs in the other semi-final. Celtic again came from behind twice before Billy McNeill scored the winning goal, giving Celtic their first Scottish Cup since 1954.
Stein was appointed manager of Scotland on a part-time basis in the spring of 1965, taking charge of their attempt to qualify for the 1966 World Cup. Scotland achieved good results in their first two qualifiers, a draw against Poland and a win against Finland. Stein was criticised by the Scottish press after the team conceded two late goals and lost 2–1 at home to Poland, but they managed to beat Italy 1–0 at Hampden Park to raise some hope of qualification. Scotland suffered from several players withdrawing from the return match against Italy due to injury. Stein, by instinct an attacking coach, set his team up defensively. A 3–0 defeat meant that they failed to qualify from UEFA Group 8.
For the 1965–66 season, Stein made one major signing, Joe McBride from Motherwell. McBride rewarded Stein with 43 goals that season. Celtic lost the first Old Firm derby that season, but gained revenge by winning the League Cup final against Rangers. Celtic reached the semi-finals of the UEFA Cup Winners' Cup, but were beaten 2–1 on aggregate by Liverpool. Five minutes before the end of the second leg at Anfield, Bobby Lennox appeared to score a goal that would have put Celtic through on the away goals rule, but it was controversially disallowed for offside. Celtic were involved in a tight Scottish league championship race with Rangers, who they also played in the 1966 Scottish Cup Final. The final was lost after a replay, to a goal by Kai Johansen. Stein blamed John Hughes for failing to mark Johansen. Celtic won the league championship, however, for the first time in 12 years.
In the following season, Stein managed Celtic to a domestic treble for the first time in the club's history. His greatest triumph, however, was in guiding Celtic to victory in the 1967 European Cup Final against previous champions, Italian giants Inter Milan. Despite initially falling behind to an Italian penalty, his team triumphed 2–1, winning much admiration for the positive attacking quality of their football.
In winning club football's most prestigious trophy, Stein became the first man not only to guide a Scottish club to champions of Europe, but also the first to achieve this honour with a British club. He also became the first manager in history to win all competitions entered. The feat was done with a team all born within 30 miles of Glasgow. In a conversation with Bill Shankly shortly afterwards, Shankly famously told him "John, you're immortal now".
The following season, Celtic won the League and League Cup for the third season in a row. In 1969 they won another domestic treble, their second in three years. In 1970, Stein led Celtic to a League and League Cup double; they also finished runners-up in the Scottish Cup. He also guided them to their second European Cup Final, but they lost to Dutch side Feijenoord in Milan.
He was appointed Commander of the Order of the British Empire (CBE) in 1970. Stein would have been knighted instead if not for an infamous Intercontinental Cup final match against Racing Club where four Celtic players were sent off.
The 1970s brought continued success on the domestic front. During this time Stein's Celtic completed a record of nine consecutive Scottish league championships. This sustained success became routine to the extent that attendance figures fell during the later part of the run, with the decline at Celtic being above the league average. This prompted the Scottish Football League to consider league reconstruction, which was enacted in 1975.
Stein was badly injured in a car crash in 1975; he nearly died but eventually recovered. For most of season 1975–76, Sean Fallon assumed control as manager. Stein returned to his position at the start of the 1976–77 season, in which Celtic won a league and Scottish Cup double.
Celtic struggled in the 1977–78 season and Stein was persuaded to stand down. He was allowed to nominate his successor, Billy McNeill, and Stein thought an agreement was in place for him to join the Celtic board of directors. Celtic instead offered a management position in their pools company, which Stein rejected as he believed he still had something to offer football. A testimonial match for Stein was played against Liverpool at Celtic Park on 14 August 1978. After the game, the Liverpool manager Bob Paisley encouraged Stein, who was three years younger than Paisley, to stay in football. There was also the example of Bill Shankly, who had experienced an unhappy retirement since leaving Liverpool in 1974.
In August 1978, Stein was appointed manager of Leeds United. The players at Leeds received the news well, but were concerned that Stein had never shown any previous interest in managing in England. Early results were mixed, although the Leeds chairman Manny Cussins detected some improvement from the previous few seasons, when Leeds had slipped from their dominant position in English football. Attendances at Elland Road were low and Stein apparently missed the pressure of big games against foreign opposition.
Ally MacLeod had just resigned as Scotland manager, having clung to office for only one match after their failure at the 1978 World Cup. Stein advised commentator Archie Macpherson to make it publicly known that he would be interested in taking the job. Cussins, who had sacked Brian Clough after just 44 days in charge of Leeds in 1974, refused permission for the Scottish Football Association to speak to Stein. Cussins could not convince Stein to stay, however, and he resigned to accept the position of Scotland manager. Stein had been manager of Leeds for just 44 days, like Clough, although his tenure and departure had no bitterness or rancour.
Stein was appointed Scotland manager on his 56th birthday. 65,872 attended his first game in charge, a 3–2 win against Norway at Hampden, despite the bus services in Glasgow being on strike. Stein had picked a team with only players based in England, but he felt that he could bring through more home-based players. He also believed that Scotland had tended to play with too much emotion and naivety, which he wanted to replace with an emphasis on retaining possession of the football. Two defeats to Belgium meant that Scotland failed to qualify for the 1980 European Championship. This was followed by losses to Northern Ireland and England in the 1980 British Home Championship, which led to some criticism in the media.
He led Scotland to the 1982 FIFA World Cup, where they were eliminated in the group stage on goal difference by the Soviet Union. Scotland had beaten New Zealand, lost to Brazil and then drew 2–2 with the Soviet Union in a must-win match.
On 10 September 1985, Scotland drew 1–1 with Wales at Ninian Park in Cardiff, securing a play-off against Australia which would lead to qualification for the 1986 FIFA World Cup. Stein suffered a heart attack at the end of the game and died shortly afterwards in the stadium's medical room. He was 62 years old. Stein was cremated at Linn Crematorium in Glasgow, at a private ceremony at which many past and present football figures were in attendance.
His death had a profound effect on Stein's assistant, and Aberdeen manager, Alex Ferguson. Ferguson regarded Stein as a mentor and was horrified by his sudden death. Ferguson led the Scotland team to the 1986 World Cup.
Since his death, Stein has been inducted into the Scottish Sports Hall of Fame and the Scottish Football Hall of Fame. He has been voted the greatest ever Scottish manager, and in 2002 he was voted the greatest ever Celtic manager by the club's fans. When Celtic Park was rebuilt in the 1990s, the traditional Celtic fans' end of the stadium was named the Jock Stein Stand. Stein was voted the greatest Scottish football manager in a 2003 poll by the Sunday Herald newspaper. A bust of Stein was presented to Celtic by a supporters' group and now sits in the foyer of the stadium.
On 5 March 2011 a over lifesize bronze statue of Stein by the sculptor, John McKenna, was unveiled outside Celtic Park. The statue depicts Jock Stein holding the 1967 European cup the first British football manager to do so. Celtic chairman John Reid said;
|“||Jock will undoubtedly be remembered as one of world football's greatest ever managers – a man of immense stature and someone who gave so much to Celtic, Scotland and the game of football in general.||”|
He married Jeanie McAuley in 1946 and they were together until his death 39 years later. They had a son George and daughter Ray. Ray died of cancer on 9 September 2006 aged 59, and was outlived by her mother, who died on 2 August 2007 at the age of 80. George is now living in Switzerland, where he was already living by the time of his father's death.
|Dunfermline||Scotland||March 1960||March 1964||191||92||37||62||48.17|
|Hibernian||Scotland||March 1964||March 1965||50||31||8||11||62.00|
|Scotland||Scotland||May 1965||December 1965||7||3||1||3||42.86|
|Celtic||Scotland||March 1965||August 1978||687||482||111||94||70.16|
|Leeds||England||August 1978||October 1978||9||4||3||2||44.44|
|Scotland||Scotland||October 1978||September 1985||61||26||12||23||42.62|
- Summer Cup (1): 1964
- European Cup (1) 1967
- Scottish League Championships (10) 1966, 1967, 1968, 1969, 1970, 1971, 1972, 1973, 1974, 1977
- Scottish Cup (8) 1965, 1967, 1969, 1971, 1972, 1974, 1975, 1977
- Scottish League Cup (6) 1966, 1967, 1968, 1969, 1970, 1975
- MacPherson 2007, p. 326
- "Jock Stein". Londonhearts.com (London Hearts Supporters' Club). Retrieved 17 December 2011.
- MacPherson 2007, p. 23
- MacPherson 2007, p. 34
- MacPherson 2007, p. 35
- MacPherson 2007, p. 37
- Gracie, Steve (2008). A Passion for Survival. Dundee: Arabest Publishing. p. 158. ISBN 978-0-9558341-0-3.
- Brown, John (10 July 2006). "BRADY’S FOUR BOUTS WITH LYNCH". Evening Telegraph (DC Thomson). Retrieved 31 May 2012. "My source told me that Jock Stein turned out for Dundee United on Saturday, April 17, 1943 in a 4–3 win over Raith Rovers at Tannadice. The Sporting Post from that date confirms this information. Indeed, a paragraph from the SP that day, which covered the game, stated, ‘Johnny Stein, of Albion Rovers, who assisted Dundee United in their cup-tie, had a busy day watching Joe Payne’."
- MacPherson 2007, pp. 40–41
- MacPherson 2007, p. 43
- MacPherson 2007, p. 44
- MacPherson 2007, p. 46
- MacPherson 2007, p. 47
- MacPherson 2007, p. 48
- MacPherson 2007, p. 49
- MacPherson 2007, p. 61
- "Remembering Jock Stein". BBC Sport (BBC). 6 September 2005. Retrieved 4 June 2012.
- MacPherson 2007, p. 69
- MacPherson 2007, p. 70
- Crampsey 1990, p. 253
- MacPherson 2007, p. 71
- MacPherson 2007, p. 76
- MacPherson 2007, p. 77
- MacPherson 2007, p. 78
- MacPherson 2007, p. 79
- MacPherson 2007, p. 81
- MacPherson 2007, p. 82
- MacPherson 2007, p. 83
- MacPherson 2007, pp. 89–90
- MacPherson 2007, p. 91
- MacPherson 2007, p. 92
- MacPherson 2007, pp. 94–96
- MacPherson 2007, p. 97
- MacPherson 2007, p. 98
- MacPherson 2007, p. 99
- MacPherson 2007, p. 100
- MacPherson 2007, p. 101
- MacPherson 2007, p. 103
- MacPherson 2007, p. 106
- MacPherson 2007, p. 107
- MacPherson 2007, p. 108
- MacPherson 2007, p. 109
- MacPherson 2007, p. 110
- MacPherson 2007, pp. 104–105
- MacPherson 2007, p. 111
- "Hibernian Manager Jock Stein Details". Ihibs.co.uk. Retrieved 16 December 2011.
- MacPherson 2007, p. 115
- MacPherson 2007, p. 117
- MacPherson 2007, p. 119
- MacPherson 2007, p. 137
- MacPherson 2007, p. 138
- MacPherson 2007, p. 139
- MacPherson 2007, p. 140
- MacPherson 2007, p. 126
- MacPherson 2007, p. 132
- MacPherson 2007, p. 148
- MacPherson 2007, p. 149
- MacPherson 2007, p. 152
- McAulay, Robert (1 July 2007). "Jock Stein denied knighthood over Celtic dismissals". The Guardian. Retrieved 1 July 2007.
- Scottish Office file, ED33/23 (29 July 2007). "FOI release of Jock Stein file". National Archives of Scotland. Retrieved 3 August 2007.
- Crampsey 1990, p. 177
- Crampsey 1990, p. 178
- Crampsey 1990, p. 193
- MacPherson 2007, pp. 285–287
- "Jock Stein dies 1985". A Sporting Nation. BBC. November 2005. Retrieved 28 May 2012.
- MacPherson 2007, p. 289
- English, Tom (28 March 2009). "Stein's damned united". The Scotsman (Johnston Press). Retrieved 5 June 2012.
- MacPherson 2007, p. 292
- MacPherson 2007, p. 293
- MacPherson 2007, p. 297
- MacPherson 2007, p. 299
- McCallum, Andrew; Reynolds, Jim (11 September 1985). "Manager Stein dies at match". The Herald (Herald & Times Group). Retrieved 21 April 2012.
- "Jock Stein (1922–1985) – Find A Grave Memorial". Findagrave.com. Retrieved 16 December 2011.
- Holt pp. 221–225
- Grant, Michael (24 August 2003). "Scotland's Greatest Manager – Sunday Herald". Find Articles. Retrieved 9 April 2007.
- "Statue unveiled for Celtic great Jock Stein | Glasgow and West | STV News". News.stv.tv. 5 March 2011. Retrieved 16 December 2011.
- Jock Stein 1922–1985 | Nominees | The Greatest Scot from STV. Scotland.stv.tv (23 August 2009). Retrieved on 30 April 2013.
- Jock Stein. Statues.co.uk (5 March 2011). Retrieved on 30 April 2013.
- "Tragedy Of Jock's Girl". Daily Record (Trinity Mirror). 12 September 2006. Retrieved 21 April 2012.
- "Celtic supporters mourn Jock Stein's widow". The Scotsman (Johnston Press). 4 August 2007. Retrieved 21 April 2012.
- Scotland – List of Cup Finals, RSSSF
- Scotland – List of Champions, RSSSF
- Scotland – List of League Cup Finals, RSSSF
- Crampsey, Bob (1990). The First 100 Years. Scottish Football League. ISBN 0-9516433-0-4.
- Holt, Oliver. If You're Second You Are Nothing: Ferguson and Shankly. Pan Books, 2007
- MacPherson, Archie (2007). Jock Stein: The Definitive Biography. Highdown. ISBN 978-1-905156-37-5.
- Full Managerial Stats for Leeds United from WAFLL
- Jock Stein, Post War English & Scottish Football League A – Z Player's Database
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|Awards and achievements|
|European Cup winning manager
|European Treble winning manager
|Celtic F.C. captain